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Ramus, Peter


1. Dates: Born: Vermandois, 1515; Died: Paris, 26 August 1572; Datecode: Lifespan: 57 
2. Father: Laborer; Ramus was born into a family that had lost its wealth but not its title of nobility with the sack of Liège in 1468. His father was a laborer. I take this clearly to say that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A. After a primary education at home, he entered the College of Navarre and received his M.A. in 1536. He paid his way by working as a manservant. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; In 1561, he embraced Calvinism with enthusiasm. In 1562 he published a plan of reform for the University of Paris, in which he proposed the study of the Old Testament in Hebrew and the New Testament in Greek in the theological faculty. Late in 1562, when Calvinists were ordered out of Paris, he fled to Fontainebleau. He returned to Paris under the Peace of Amboise in 1563, and again fled Paris in 1567, taking refuge with the Prince de Condé. He returned to Paris to ask leave of the King to travel in Germany. From 1568 to 1570 he toured the protestant centers of Switzerland and Germany. Lured back to Paris in 1570 by the promises of tolerance, he received titles and salaries, but was banned from teaching. While in the midst of a vast publication project he was caught by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and despite explicit royal protection he was cruelly murdered. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; After being attracted to the rhetorical logic and pedagogical ideas of Rudolf Agricola, Ramus undertook a program of critical re-education. In 1543, his program culminated in a broadscale attack on Aristotelian logic and plans for a new arts curriculum. A counterattack by Antoine de Govea led to a royal edict forbidding Ramus to teach or write in philosophical topics. Ramus turned to mathematics and rhetoric. Ramus tried to reconcile and combine his traditional education in the Aristotelian corpus with the humanist teaching of Agricola which focused on Ciceronian rhetoric. He sought a return to the seven liberal arts. He wanted to retrieve the quadrivium from the neglect into which they had fallen. Ramus felt that the way the quadrivium were taught, they suffered from an intellectual detachment making them less important than they were. His solution was to publish a series of commentaries (scholae) on where the method of teaching had gone wrong. Secondly, he reorganized the subjects according to his own method. He published extensively and these works enjoyed widespread popularity both during his lifetime and in the century following his death. His most important works include Dialecticae partitiones sive institutiones (Paris, 1543), Aristotelicae animadversiones, (Paris, 1543), Oratio de studies (Paris, 1547) Arithmeticae libri duo (Paris, 1555), Scholae grammaticae (Paris, 1559) and Proemium reformandae Parisiensis Academiae (Paris, 1562). Ramus and Ramism became associated with 'method.' His opposition to blind belief in authority and his support in the belief that the right thinking would be confirmed by the physical world makes Ramus a unique forerunner of both Bacon's empiricism and Descartes' rationalism. He turned to astronomy late in his career. He urged a return to the observational astronomy of the Babylonians and Egyptians in an attempt to determine the nonhypothetical, directly observable regularity of the heavens. Later, Kepler would claim to have met Ramus' demands. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Patronage; 1527-36, worked as a manservant to support his study. This I categorize as Miscellaneous. 1536-45, taught at the Collège du Mans, then at the Collège de l'Ave Maria. 1545-72, principal of the Collège de Presles, with some interruptions: 1562-3 & 1567-70, when he fled Paris. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; In 1543 dedicated Dialecticae partitiones to Charles de Bourbon and Aristotelicae animaadversiones to Cardianl Lorraine. In 1551, he was appointed royal lecturer. Henry II appointed him commissioner of reform for the universities in 1557. In 1562-3, he found refuge for a time with the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici. In 1567 he took refuge with the Prince de Condé. Through the intercession of Charles Cardinal de Lorraine Ramus was released from the 1544 teaching ban upon the accession of Henry II in 1547. 
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
Charles Desmazes, P. Ramus: Sa vie, ses ecrits, sa mort (1515-1572), (Paris, 1864). Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). R. Hooykaas, Humanisme, science et reforme. Pierre de la Ramée (1515-1572), (Leiden, 1958). L.A. Knafla, Science, Technology, and Culture in Historical Perspective, (Calgary, 1976). Ong, Walter J., Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue, (Cambridge, MA, 1958, 1983).


Rauwolf, Leonhard



1. Dates: Born: Augsburg, 21 June 1535; Died: Waitzen, Hungary, 15 September 1596 Datecode: Lifespan: 61; 
2. Father: Merchant; His father was most probably of the merchant class in industrial Augsburg. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: German; Germany; ME; German; Birth: Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany. Career: Augsburg, Germany and Middle East; Death: Waitzen (Vacz), Hungary-but in a German army.
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; University of Montpellier; Vlc, M.D. 1556, matriculated at the University of Wittenberg. From the rest I assume a B.A. or equivalent. 1560, entered the medical school at Montpellier, where his chief advisor was Antoine Saporta. He was taught botany by Rondelet (1507-66). 1562, he transferred to the University of Valence, where he received an M.D. (1562/63)
5. Religion: (Lutheran)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany. Subordinate Disciplines: Geography. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Merchant; By 1565, he had settled in Augsburg and set up a medical practice. In that year he married Regina Jung, daughter of the patrician, Doctor Ambrosius Jung, the Younger. He later practiced medicine in Aich and Kempten. 1570, he returned to Augsburg and secured the post of city physician at a salary of 100 gulden. 1573, he left Augsburg for the Near East as physician to the Near East factors of the Melchior Manlich merchant firm, which hoped to profit from the discovery of new drugs. Rauwolf travelled to Tripoli (Syria), Aleppo (where he stayed nine months), Bir, and Baghdad. After hearing that the Manlich firm was bankrupt, he returned to Tripoli via Mosul, Nisibin (Nusaybin), Urfa, and Aleppo. He returned to Augsburg in 1576. I categorize this as Merchant. In Augsburg, he resumed his medical practice and his post as city physician. He was associated with the plague hospital in 1577; his salary was increased from 190 to 250 gulden. Unfortunately, the leaders of Augsburg reverted to Catholicism in 1588, and Rauwolf, a leader of the Protestant opposition, left. He served as city physician in Linz for 8 years. Finally, he joined the imperial troops fighting the Turks in Hungary, where he died.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Unknown; Rauwolf's patron in his trip to the Near East was his brother-in-law, Melchior Manlich, a very important merchant. He sent Rauwolf to the Near East as physician to the factors of the Manlich firm there with the expressed hope that Rauwolf, in studying the plants and drugs of the region, would discover a profitable import for the Manlich firm. Manlich paid Rauwolf's travel and living expenses and a suitable salary in addition. Rauwolf's brother was a factor for the Manlich firm in Tripoli, though he died before Rauwolf reached Syria. Those municipal appointments cannot have happened without patronage, whatever the source.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; Rauwolf's knowledge of botany was certainly meant to be exploited by the Manlich firm in their search for new pharmaceutical products.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Rauwolf met Conrad Gesner in Zürich in 1563. In 1564 Rauwolf was visited by Carolus Clusius (Charles de l'Ecluse.)

SOURCES:
Karl H. Dannenfeldt, Leonhard Rauwolf: Sixteenth-CenturyPhysician, Botanist, and Traveler (Cambridge, Mass.: 1968). Friedrich Ratzel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 27, 462-5. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Franz Babinger, 'Leonhard Rauwolf, ein Augsburger Botaniker und Ostenreisender des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts,' Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 4 (1913), 148-61. 


Ray [Wray], John



1. Dates: Born: Black Notley, near Brainton, Essex, 29 November 1627; Died: Black Notley, 17 January 1705; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Artisan; Roger Ray was a blacksmith. No information on financial status beyond the implication of the trade.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. The Grammar School at Braintree; Cambridge, 1644-51; initially Catharine Hall; transferred to Trinity College in 1646; B.A.,1648; M.A.,1651.
5. Religion: Calvinist; I think there is no way to avoid calling him a Puritan. In 1662 he resigned his fellowship rather than accept the act of uniformity. Though frequently offered preferment in the church (when he was always in some financial need), he kept refusing. As late as the early 90s he refused an offer from Tillotson. However, he was not a belligerent Puritan. He fully accepted the Restoration, and Raven claims that he remained in lay communion with the Anglican Church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Zoology; Entomology; Subordinate Disciplines: Paleontology; Anatomy; Geology; At Cambridge Ray was part of a group that pursued comparative anatomy, and relevant ones of his publications (Synopsis animalium and Wisdome of God) draw upon and reveal his extensive knowledge of it. Ray was the greatest English natural historian of the century. His primary interest was botany. Fairly early he formed the plan with his student and patron, Francis Willughby, to do a joint general natural history, Ray to cover the plants. Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium, 1660. He contributed the 'Table of Plants' to Wilkins' Real Character, 1669, the first systematic work in botany published in England. Catalogus plantarum Angliae et insularum adjacentium, 1670; it contains a section on pharmacology, what Raven calls a huge collection of prescriptions. Methodus plantarum nova, 1682, his principles of classification. Historia plantarum, 3 vols., 1686-1704. And others. When Willughby died, Ray took over his parts of the general history. He published Ornithologiae libri tres, 1676, and Historia piscium, 1686, under Willughby's name, though Ray himself contributed most of the content. Synopsis animalium quadrupedium et serpentini, 1693, and Historia insectorum, posthumous 1710, appeared under Ray's name. Entomology was a subject of serious interest to him. Three Physcio-Theological Discourses, 1693, reveals his extensive knowledge of geology and of paleontology. He was deeply involved in the discussion of fossils, and this involved him also in purely geological questions. See the Preface to Synopsis methodica styrpium britannicarum, 1690, in which Ray identified his work as a naturalist with the new experimental philosophy. The Wisdom of God, 1691, his work in natural theology, was his most popular book. It would also be legitimate to list embriology as a subordinate science; he published in the Philosophical Transactions on spontaneous generation (which he opposed). I think that physiology would also be legitimate; he is said to have left behind a manuscript on respiration.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Pub; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1649-62. Greek Lecturer, 1651-3; Mathematics Lecturer, 1653-5; Humanity Reader, 1655-7; Pralector, 1657; Junior Dean, 1658; Steward, 1659 and 1660. (All of these are college offices.) Resigned rather than take oath of conformity, 1662. Tutor in the home of Sir Thomas Bacon, October 1662 to March 1663. Ray and Willughby then went on an extended tour of the continent (1663-6), clearly at Willughby's expense. Lived partly at Francis Willughby's estates in Warwickshire and Nottinghamshire, 1666-75. Willughby, his student and colleague, and a wealthy member of the gentry, was also Ray's patron. Willughby left him an annuity of ?60, 1672. Ray stayed on as tutor to the children until 1675, when Willughby's mother, also his patron, died; the widow immediately terminated the relation. Ray retired then to Black Notley, where the annuity was his principal income. Resided in Edward Bullock's estate near Black Notley, possibly as tutor, 1677-9. Ray inherited a small farm which contributed to the family's maintenance. He did earn money from his industrious publishing. Thus the terms for Historia plantarum are known-?30 plus twenty copies for each volume.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Scientist; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Ray is an interesting case-utterly dependent on patronage after he resigned from Trinity, but unwilling, despite real need, to compromise himself and accept patronage in the church that was offered to him. The relationship with Willughby (and his mother) was the foundation of his life as a naturalist. Add Thomas Bacon and Edward Bullock, and several others below. He did use dedications. Catalogus plantarum Angliae, 1670, to Willughby, whom he calls his 'patron (maecenas).' Synopsis quadrupedium to Peter Courthorpe and Timothy Burrell, also students and gentry. Also another book to Courthorpe. Observations Topographical, 1673, to Philip Skippon, another student and gentry. Methodus plantarum nova, 1682, and Historia plantarum to Charles Hatton, younger son of Baron Hatton. Note that neither Hatton nor anyone else would pay for plates, so the Historia appeared without illustrations. Sylloge europeanarum, 1684, to Edward Bullock, son of the earlier Edward Bullock, Ray's patron. Historia piscium, 1686, to Samuel Pepys (as President of the Royal Society) and to the Society, which financed the publication of the book; Pepys personally financed many of the plates (?50 worth). Synopsis stirpium britannicarum, 1690, to Thomas Willughby, son of Francis. Wisdom of God, 1691, to Willughby's sister, Lady Lettice Wendy. Miscellaneous Discourses, 1692, to Archbishop Tillotson.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; See above.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship and collaboration with Willughby, 1662-72. Friendship with Martin Lister, John Wilkins, T. Millington, Robert Hooke, John Cope, John Aubrey, Isaac Barrow. Correspondence with Dr. Tancred Robinson, Hans Sloane, J. Morton, W. Moyle, Edward Lhwyd and others. Ray appears to have been in touch with all of the naturalists in England. In his connections there is good evidence of a scientific community in existence. There are editions, inadequate, of his correspondence. Royal Society, 1667.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 16, 782-7.  Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 3494-9. C.E. Raven, John Ray, Naturalist: His life and Works, (Cambridge, 1942)). W. Derham, Memorials of John Ray, (London, 1946). S.H. Vines, 'Robert Morison, 1620-1683, and John Ray, 1627-1688,' in F.W. Oliver, ed. Makers of British Botany, (Cambridge, 1913), pp. 8-43. G.L. Keynes, John Ray, a Bibliography, (London, 1951).  Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 1, 189-281.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Agnes Arber, 'A Seventeenth-century Naturalist: John Ray,' Isis, 34 .


Recorde, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales, c.1510; Died: London, 1558. His will was proved on 18 June 1558. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 48
2. Father: Unknown; The only information is the statement that Thomas Recorde came from a good family. This could mean gentry, but I don't care to guess. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: English (Welsh); Career: English, Irish; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Cambridge University; M.D. Oxford, 1525-31; B.A., 1531. Cambridge, M.D., 1545.
5. Religion: Catholic. Protestant. He must have begun adult life as a Catholic. There is some evidence that he adopted the Protestant cause. He seems too early to use the word Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Astronomy; Recorde was the founder of the English school of mathematics. The Ground of Artes, 1552-arithmetic. The Pathway to Knowledg, 1551-a translation and rearrangement of the first four books of Euclid. The Gate of Knowledge, apparently completed but never published-measurement and use of the quadrant. The Castle of Knowledge, 1556-construction and use of the sphere, elementary Ptolemaic astronomy (including one brief favorable mention of Copernicus). The Whetstone of Witte, 1557-elementary algebra. As a physician he also published The Urinal of Physick, 1547, a traditional medical work.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; Fellow of All Souls, 1531- ?. He is said to have taught mathematics privately both at Cambridge and at Oxford, 1545-7. Recorde was practicing medicine in Oxford as early as 1533, that is, before his medical degree. He then practiced in London with the degree, 1547-9. He is sometimes said to have been physician to Edward VI and Mary in London, 1547-9, but there is no evidence of this. Comptroller of the Bristol mint, 1549-51. Surveyor of the Mines and Monies in Ireland, 1551-3, 1556.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Merchant Patronage; He owed his governmental positions to the King (or the Court). He dedicated The Grounde of Artes to Edward VI. He dedicated Castle of Knowledge to Queen Mary, and its Latin version to Cardinal Pole. He dedicated Whetstone of Witte to the Muscovery Company, whose advisor he was.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Metallurgy; Cartography; Navigation; As Surveyor of Mines and Monies in Ireland he was in charge of silver mines at Wexford. He entered vigorously, though apparently not effectively, into their operation. They ultimately proved abortive. Recorde died in prison; though the whole episode in shrouded in obscurity, it may well have stemmed from the management (or perhaps mismanagement) of the mines. Recorde was the source of the English tradition of practical mathematics. Although The Gate of Knowledge does not survive, it is evident from Recorde's descriptions of its contents that it dealt partly with surveying. Recorde also spoke of a new quadrant that he invented (I don't know whether for mensuration or for navigation), but I will not list it because no other word of it survives. Taylor states that Recorde was an advisor to the Muscovy Company and that he planned a textbook on navigation.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 16, 810-12. F.R. Johnson, Astronomical Thought in Renaissance England, (Baltimore, 1937). F.R. Johnson and S.V. Larkey, 'Robert Recorde's Mathematical Teaching and the Anti-Aristotelian Movement,' Huntington Library Bulletin, No. 7 (1935), 59-85. Francis Marguerite Clarke, 'New Light on Robert Recorde,' Isis, 8 (1926), 50-70. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical practioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), p. 167. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 72-5.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Edward Kaplan, Robert Recorde: Studies in the Life and Works of a Tudor Scientist, Ph.D Dissertation, New York University, 1960. D.E. Smith, 'New Information Respecting Robert Recorde,' American Mathematical Monthly, 28 (1921), 296-300.  William B. Ober and Robert M. Hurwitz, 'Robert Recorde, M.D. (1510?-1558): Tudor Physician, Mathematician, and Pedagogue,' New York State Journal of Medicine, 69 (1969), 2159-67. 


Redi, Francesco



1. Dates: Born: Arezzo, 18 February 1626; Died: Pisa, 1 March 1697 (DSB says 1697 or 98, but Capparoni and Belloni are quite definite in saying 1697, and Viviani gives the date: 1 March 1697.); Datecode: Lifespan: 71 
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father was a renowned physician who worked, beginning in 1642, at the Medici court. As always, I assume the family was at least affluent. I suspect they were in fact wealthy, but I won't guess.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Pisa; M.D., Ph.D. His early education was with the Jesuits in Arezzo. He graduated with a doctorate in philosophy and medicine, in a common Italian style, from the University of Pisa in 1647. I assume a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Zoology; Embryology; Entomology; Subordinate Disciplines: Microscopy; Anatomy; Pharmacology; His masterpiece is considered to be Esperienze introrno alla generazione degli insetti (1668), in which he disproved the doctrine of spontaneous generation in insects. His major parasitological treatise, Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi (1684), was an abundant compilation on endoparasitic helminths found in the organs of different classes of animals. He performed countless experiments on the effects of snakebite. Redi performed many dissections of all sorts of creatures, so that he could have put together virtually a comparative anatomy. In his dissections, and in other work, he made extensive use of the microscope. Physiological issues were never absent from his anatomical dissections. In addition to the disciplines above, Redi could easily be listed as well under medicine, pharmacology, and chemistry. Redi was also a leading literary figure, a poet, and from 1665 he occupied the chair of Tuscan language in the Florentine Academy. He was also quite a linguist.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; He served at the Medici court, of which he became a part at least by 1660. He was appointed archiatro in 1666, with a salary of 800 piastre, and superintendent of the ducal pharmacy and foundry. (The word is 'fonderia.' The dictionary gives only foundry, but one citation made me wonder if it could have meant something to do with pharmacy.) Redi was more than physician to two successive Grand Dukes (Ferdinando II and Cosimo III); he was also friend and counsellor. He was tutor to the crown prince Ferdinando, the son of Cosimo III. He was so close to the court that he became an avenue by which others tried to gain access to the court. Thus books were dedicated to him; both Bellini and Zambeccara, among others, dedicated books to him. He also practiced medicine in Florence, and he gained a considerable fortune from his various activities. He also had an estate at Arezzo from the family.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was personal physician to the Grand Duke and superintendent of the pharmacy at the Medici court. The Grand Duke Ferdinando and his brother Leopoldo gave Redi a number of books sumptuously bound. They furnished him with game from the hunt and wine from their cellar, and he in turn sent them wine from the family estate at Arezzo. When the Grand Duchess Vittoria, the wife of Ferdinando, died, she left a special legacy to Redi. Once when Redi was sick, the Grand Duke twice left a long (five hour) opera to come to visit him. Cosimo III had three medals struck in his honor, and Redi in turn had a medal struck in 1687 with his own effigy on the front and on the rear a ship on the high seas and in the sky Jupiter (the symbol of the Grand Duke) with the four satellites and the legend, Sono il mio segno, e 'l mio conforto solo. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Redi did extensive work in experimental pharmacology.
10. Scientific Societies: Accademia del Cimento, 1657-67, Medical College (Any One); He was also a member of the Accademia della Crusca (1665-Arciconsolo from 1678-90), of the Arcadia in Rome, and of the Gelati in Bologna. He became a member of the Florentine Collegio medico in 1648. He was a close friend of Magalotti and befriended Cestoni, who would not have accomplished what he did without Redi's support. He corresponded very widely, with Bellini, Magalotti, Magliabecchi, Viviani, Tomaso Ceva, Montanari, Borelli, Kircher, Bourdelot, Steno and others. His correspondence has been published.

SOURCES
Luigi, Belloni, 'Francesco Redi, biologo,' in Celebrazione dell'Accademia de Cimento nel tricentenario della fondazione, Dormus Galileiana, 19 Giugno 1957, (Pisa, 1958), pp. 53-70. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 79-81. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 136-7, and 27 (1901), 90; Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 790. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.. Ugo Viviani, Vita ed opere inedite di Francesco Redi, 3 vols., (Arezzo, 1924-1931).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Andrea Corsini, 'Sulla vita di Francesco Redi. Nuovo contributo di notizie,' Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 13 (1922), 86-93. M. Cardini, 'Francesco Redi' in Vite dei mediche e naturalisti celebri, ed. Andrea Corsini, (Firenze, 1914), 2


Reinhold, Erasmus



1. Dates: Born: Saalfeld, Germany, 22 October 1511; Died: Saalfeld, 19 February 1553 Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Scr; A long time secretary to an abbot. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; German; Birth: Saalfeld, Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Saalfeld, Germany
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; Information is sketchy. His name is inscribed in the Dean's book at the University of Wittenberg for 1530. It is probable he studied under Milichius. No mention of any degree is made. From what follows, I nevertheless assume one.
5. Religion: Lutheran. : Lutheran (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; 1536, appointed professor of mathematicum superiorum (astronomy) at University of Wittenberg. Elected dean of the college of arts in 1540-1, and dean of the college of philosophy in 1549. 1549-50, rector. 1552, fled the plague to his hometown of Saalfeld, where he died.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Philip Melanchton seems to have been of some help to Reinhold. He appointed Reinhold, and was helpful in getting support from the Duke of Prussia. Duke Albrecht of Prussia acted as Reinhold's patron, paying the printing costs of the Prutenic Tables (Prutenic stood both for Albrecht and Copernicus).
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Guenther, 'Reinhold,' Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 28, (Leipzig, 1889), 77-9. [ref. CT1053.A4 v.28]; Fortsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu C.G. Joechers allgemeinen Gelehrten-Lexikon, 6, (Bremen, 1819), cols. 1722-3. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Ernst Koch, 'Magister Erasmus Reinhold aus Saalfeld' in Saalfelden Weihnachtsbuchlein (Saalfeld, 1908), pp. 3-16. Evidently this is a rare pamphlet. A copy is known to exist in the Zinner collection, Malcolm Love Library, California State University, San Deigo. 


Rey, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Le Bugue, c. 1582; Died: c. 1645; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 63 
2. Father: Unknown. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montaubon; M.A. University of Montpellier; M.D. He took his M.A. at Montaubon. He matriculated in 1605 and studied medicine at the University of Montpellier, graduating M.B. in 1607 and M.D. in 1609. I assume the equivalent of a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry. His fame rests solely on his Essays de Jean Rey docteur en médecine, (Bazas, 1630), a reply to apothecary Pierre Brun's request for an explanation of why tin and lead increase in weight when heated. The essays, appealing to reason, observation and experiments, anticipated Lavoisier's recognition in 1722 that calcination involves combination with air. Hoefer writes that domestic difficulties forced him to put aside his studies in chemistry, but no further details are given. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Practiced medicine at Le Bugue. Few details are known of his life as a physician, except that he seems to have been highly regarded. The last record of him shows that he was still alive in 1645. 
8. Patronage: Aristocrat; Rey dedicated his Essays to the Duc de Bouillon. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Mechanical Devices; Rey claimed to have received royal privileges for an air compressor. He claimed to have invented an air-gun some years before Rivault published his work in 1608. 
10. Scientific Societies: His friends were Jean Brun, an apothecary, Deschamps, a physician, and Pierre Trichet. He corresponded with Mersenne and Descartes. 

SOURCES:
Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). Michaud, Biographie générale. Jean Rey, The Essays of Jean Rey, Introduction by D. McKie, (London, 1951). D.McKie, in Ambix, 6 (1957-1958), 136-9. J.R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 2, (London, 1961), 631-6. QD11.P27; 


Reyna [Reina], Francisco de la



1. Dates: The date of his book is known, 1547. Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan -
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish (assumed); Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish (assumed)
4. Education: None Known; He was a veterinary surgeon; surely no higher education
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; A passage in his Libro de albeyteria, 1547, has been hailed as expounding the circulation of the blood nearly a century before Harvey. In fact it does not. The book was apparently very useful; it went through eleven more editions between 1552 and 1647.
7. Means of Support: Miscellaneous; A veterinary surgeon; list as miscellaneous.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy; He cared for the horses of the nobility, including the Duke of Alva.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; Veterinary practice. Although the histories of Spanish medicine are a major source about him, and articles about him appear in journals of medical history, agriculture seems a better category than medicine.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Anastasio Chincilla, Anales historicos de la medicina en general y biografico-bibliograficos de la Española en particular, 4 vols. (Valencia: Lopez et al, 1841-6), 1, 156-60. Antonio Hernandez Morejon, Historia bibliografica de la medicina española, (Madrid, 1943), pp. 9-11. J.J.Keevil and L.M.Page, 'Francisco de la Reyna and the Circulation of the Blood,' Lancet, 260 (1951), 851-3. Ronald S. Wilkinson, 'The First Edition of Francisco de la Reyna's Libro de albeyteria,' Journal of the History of Medicine, 23 (1968), 197-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Sanz Egaña, Historia de la veterinaria española, (Madrid, 1941), pp. 112-19. 


Reyneau, Charles René



1. Dates: Born: Brissac (diocese of Angers), 11 June 1656; Died: Paris, 24 February 1728; Datecode: Lifespan: 72 
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father was a surgeon. As always, I assume affluence at least.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Religious Orders; Before 1676 nothing is known of Reyneau's life. He studied at the Oratorian college in Angers. In 1676 he entered the Maison d'Institution (Instruction?) in Paris, and was sent to the Collège de Toulon in 1679 by his superiors. Partly in view of this and partly in view of his subsequent career, I assume the equivalent of a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Maison d'Institution in Paris in 1676, and was ordained a priest at the Collège de Toulon in 1681. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; He is important historically as the author of a textbook, Analyse demontrée (Paris, 1708), which was designed to provide instruction in the new mathematics developed at the beginning of the 18th century. The book was written upon the request of Malebranche. Reyneau began working on the book in 1698 with two other Oratorians, Louis Byzance and Claude Jaquemet. Reyneau was very interested in the debates on the differential and infinitesimal calculus provoked by Rolle's work, but Reyneau had difficulty assimilating the new material. Reyneau's lesser known works are La science du calcul, 2 vols., (1714-35) and a treatise on the art of navigating, Traité de la marine ou l'art de naviguer. In 1705, he came into possession of Byzance's papers and aside from those lost by Montmort he was able to preserve the manuscripts of the group surrounding Malebranche. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Government Position; In 1679, he was sent to Toulon to teach philosophy. Immediately following the completion of his duties at Toulon, Reyneau's superiors sent him to Pezenas to teach. From 1682-1705, he replaced Prestet as professor of mathematics at the University of Angers. In 1705, he resigned his chair at Angers and left for Paris. He spent the rest of his life in Paris, at the Oratorian house on rue Saint-Honore. He was named to the Académie in 1716.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; Besides his very close friend, Malebranche, Reyneau counted the Chancellor among his close friends. I have to believe that this was a relation of patronage. Something has to explain the appointment of a rather mediocre mathematician to the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1716-28. He was named associé libre of the Académie in 1716. He taught with such success at the Angers that the newly formed academy of this town asked Reyneau to join (1694). There is no mention as to whether Reyneau officially joined this group. 

SOURCES:
Fontenelle, 'Eloge du Pere Reyneau,' in Histoire de l'académie royale des sciences pour l'année 1728, pp. 112-16. Q46.A16 1728 pt.1 Pierre Costabel, 'Deux inédits de la correspondence indirette Leibniz-Reyneau,' Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications, 2 (1949), 311-32. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). Michaud, Biographie générale


Rheita, Anton Maria Schyrlaeus



1. Dates: Born: Bohemia, 1597; Died: Ravenna, 1660 Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Czechoslovak; Czechoslovak; German; Italian; Birth: Bohemia; Career: Bohemia, Germany part of the time, and possibly Italy (but given the silence I do not list it); Death: Ravenna, Italy
4. Education: None Known; Unknown.
5. Religion: Catholic. Catholic, a Capuchin (Franciscan). He was a priest and a member of the community of Capuchins at Rheita, Bohemia, until the Thirty Years War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Until around 1618, he was a Capuchin monk. He was only 21 at that time, but it seems quite unlikely that he suddenly deserted the order. By the 1640s he was a philosophy professor at Trier. It is unknown when or why he went to Ravenna.
8. Patronage: None Known.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments. Rheita describes his own invention, an eyepiece for a Keplerian telescope, which left the image reverted, in Oculus Enoch et Eliae (1645).
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
According to the D.S.B. there are no secondary sources. 


Rheticus, George Joachim



1. Dates: Born: Feldkirch, Austria, 16 February 1514; Died: Kassa, Hungary, 4 December 1574 Datecode: Lifespan: 60
2. Father: Physician; Government Position; Town physician, executed for sorcery when Rheticus was still a teenager. I assume prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: Feldkirch, Austria; Career: Germany, Poland, Hungary; Death: Kassa, Hungary [now Czechoslovakia]
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.A. University of Zurich; University of Prague; M.D. He was first taught by his father, a physician, who was beheaded for sorcery in 1528. He was then taught at the Feldkirch Latin school. 1528-31, he studied at the Frauenmuensterschule in Zuerich under Myconius. 1533, matriculated at the University of Wittenberg. No record of a B.A., but I assume one. 1536, received his M.A. from Wittenberg. 1547-8, studied medicine in Zuerich with Conrad Gesner. 1551-2, resumed study of medicine at the University of Prague. Burmeister assumes he got an M.D. He may have studied medicine for a short time in Breslau under Crato.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Cartography. Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Astrology; Alchemy; Apparently also minimal activity in geography (which I subsume under cartography) and pharmacology. Although he practiced medicine, I see no evidence that he contributed to it as a science. It is dubious that he contributed to pharmacology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Cal, Astrology; Pharmacology; 1536, appointed to teach mathematicum inferiorum (arithmetic and geometry) at University of Wittenberg at a salary of 100 gulden. 1538, went on leave to visit leading astronomers, among them Peter Apian, Johannes Schoener, Philip Imser, and Copernicus. He arrived in Frauenberg in May 1539. He travelled to Danzig in September to publish the narratio prima. 1541, returned to Wittenberg and was elected dean of the arts faculty. 1542, was appointed professor of higher mathematics at the university of Leipzig. His original salary was 100 gulden, but he demanded and received a raise to 140 gulden. The faculty also presented him with a 'Silberpokal' worth 15 gulden for his moving expenses. 1545, took another leave of absence, this time to Italy, where he visited scholars. His whereabouts are unclear for about a year and a half. 1546-7, he suffered a severe mental disorder in Lindau, but recovered enough to teach mathematics at Constance in latter half of the year. 1548, returned to Leipzig, having been elected dean of the faculty of arts. He was also the representative of the Bavarian nation, summer semester 1549. After his return to Leipzig he demanded to be and was made a member of the theological faculty. Incidentally, Rheticus may have supplemented his income by making calendars. He planned to use the income from his calendar of 1550 to finance his ephemeris and calendar of 1551. After a homosexual encounter with one of his students he was forced to flee Leipzig. He holed up first in Chemnitz, then went on to Prague. He was tried in absentia and sentenced to 101 years of exile. They also impounded his possessions. 1554, settled down in Cracow and practiced medicine for about 20 years. He supplemented this income by a little speculating, astrological readings, and pharmacology. He was also involved in a lengthy squabble over his sister's inheritance. By 1574, he was in Kassa.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Achilles Gasser, the town physician in Feldkirch after his father, was close to Rheticus. He provided him with a letter of introduction to Melanchton when Rheticus went to Wittenberg. In 1538, Rheticus presented Gasser with an edition of Sacrobosco. Melanchton was a major patron. He probably hand-picked Rheticus for the position at Wittenberg; he got Rheticus his leave in 1538, facilitated the transfer to Leipzig, and furnished him with letters of introduction. He dropped Rheticus altogether after his flight from Leipzig. Along with Melanchton and not always separable from his efforts were the efforts of Joachim Camerarius, who was head of the university at Tübingen, and was responsible for the offer from Leipzig. In Poland, Tiedemann Giese, the bishop of Kulm was his major patron. Copernicus and Rheticus took a vacation with him. Giese urged Rheticus to get Copernicus to publish. Rheticus's other major patron in Poland was Johannes von Werden, the mayor of Danzig, whom he visited while publishing the narratio. In the Ermland church, two possible patrons are the canon of Ermland, Georg Donner, to whom Rheticus had dedicated a copy of Coprnicus, and the bishop of Ermland, Johannes Dantiscus. 1541, he presented 'Tabula chorographica auff Preussen und etliche umbliegende lender' to Duke Albrect of Prussia. His theoretical treatise on mapmaking Chorographia tewsch [in Vorarlberg dialect] is likewise dedicated to the Duke. Rhetcius constructed a small instrument for the Duke which showed the length of the day throughout the year. For these favors, Rheticus received a gold coin worth 10 ducats. What Rheticus may have been more interested in is Albrecht's connections with the Kurfuerst of Saxony, and this paid off: when he presented the instrument, he asked Albrecht to recommend both to the elector of Saxony and the University of Wittenberg that he be allowed to publish De revolutionibus..., and The Duke complied, requesting further that Rheticus be retained in his professorship. It is possible that the Duke's patronage was due to Hieronymus Schuerstab, a secretary through whom Rheticus's correspondence was undertaken. At Leipzig, Georg Kummerstad (1498-1560), Doktor der Rechte and counsellor to the Kurfuerst, a great patron to the university, acted as Rheticus's patron. He was the one who told Melanchton to make Rheticus a member of the theological college (see above). Thereafter Rheticus dedicated his ephemeris of 1550 to him. A dedicatory epistle to his ephemeris of 1551 may have been an attempt to use Kummerstad as a shield to defend and protect the Copernican system. He dedicated his 1549 edition of Euclid to Christoph von Carlowitz (1507-1574), a Saxon statesman and a friend of Melanchton and Camerarius. 1553, he received a call to teach mathematics at Vienna. He spent some short time there. He may have been offered a chair in mathematics, possibly at a salary of 200 gulden, but he never occupied it. It is unknown who might have been behind this.  The Emperor Maximilian II supported Rheticus's work on trigonometric tables, providing the substantial portion of the money with which Rheticus supported his assistants (see Technological Connections). In addition he received support from the Kurfuerst of Saxony, who paid an unknown amount for the printing of the Opus Palatinum; Kurfuerst Friedrich IV of the Pfalz; and Pfalzgraf Joachim Kasimir. During the dispute over his sister's inheritance Rheticus dedicated his edition of Werner to Kaiser Ferdinand, perhaps in an attempt to influence the Kaiser, who was involved in the dispute. He was offered travel expenses and a salary of 400 taler (800 gulden) to go to Romania ('die Walachei'), but turned it down. Also, in 1564 he received and unofficial invitation from Peter Ramus to teach at the University of Paris. 1574, he moved to Kassa at the request of the local magnate, Johannes Ruben. L. Valentine Otho, Rheticus's disciple, got support to have Rheticus's work published from the Holy Roman Emperor. After the Emperor's death, Otho received support from the Kurfuerst of Saxony. Finally, it was a habit of Rheticus to dedicate books, individual copies of books, and manuscripts to other scientists. I have not recorded these. Some representative examples are: Johannes Schoener, Achilles Gasser, Georg Hartmann, and Paul Fabricius. Generally, I have only recorded such dedications where Rheticus got or expected to get favors.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Navigation; Medicine; Pharmacology; He designed instruments: the one he gave to Duke Albrecht, (see above), and one described in the Chorographia, date from the first stage of his career. After moving to Cracow he was still involved in instrument making; in 1564 he was consulted about a Jacob's staff to be presented to the Polish King Sigismund II, for which he was paid 20 gulden. In the Chorographia he deals with the theory and practice of navigational instruments, he made a sea compass, and he interviewed Danzig pilots to find out their navigational problems. He also made a map of Prussia and included a section on the theory of mapping in the Chronologia.
10. Scientific Societies: During his years in Cracow he operated what can be described as a research institute with six assistants. They had a large obelisk outside of town which they used for astronomical observations and an alchemical laboratory. He supported his assistants, 1556-68. He is known to have paid them at least 2200 gulden and probably paid 4400 gulden overall. He corresponded with (among others): Joachim Camerarius (elder and younger), Kaspar Peucer, Viet Winsheim, Taddeus Hayck, Conrad Gesner, Pierre Ramus, and Crato.

SOURCES
Karl Heinz Burmeister, Georg Joachim Rheticus 1514-1574, eine Bio-Bibliographie, vol. I (Wiesbaden, 1967). Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 28, (Leipzig, 1889), 388-90. 


Riccati, Iacopo Francesco



1. Dates: Born: Venice, 28 May 1676; Died: Treviso, 15 April 1754; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Aristocrat; Riccati came from a noble family who held land near Venice. His father was Conte Montino Riccati; his mother was a Colonna. His father died in 1686, when Riccati was only ten, but in view of Riccati's own life, they must have been wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Padua; Ll.D. He received his early education at the Jesuit school for the nobility in Brescia, then entered the University of Padua in 1693 to study law, and earned the doctorate in 1696. Encouraged by Stefano degli Angeli to pursue mathematics, he studied recent methods of mathematical analysis. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics; Hydraulics; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Physics; Natural Philosophy; His extensive series of mathematical publications brought Riccati contemporary fame. His work dealt chiefly with analysis and, in particular, with differential equations. He achieved notable results in lowering the order of equations and in the separation of variables. He published a number of studies on central forces and on motion through resisting media. He participated in the vis viva controversy, as a Leibnizian. He also did research on hydraulics. Riccati pursued questions over the whole range of science in his day. He published quite a bit on optics, and on elasticity and the vibration of cords. He wrote extensively on the origin of fountains. Late in life he began what was to be a major treatise, Dei principi e dei metodi delle fisica, which he worked on through the 1710's but apparently never finished. He did complete another late treatise, Saggi intorno il systema dell'universo. It is difficult to decide exactly what disciplines to list. He could appear also under Instrumentation for a writing on the thermometric scale, and the origin of fountains sounds like geology. Natural philosopher seems to be his real designation. I gain the impression that he was far more able and important than his virtually complete neglect in the English speaking world suggests.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; He declined various academical offers, and devoted himself to his studies in his own family circle. 
8. Patronage: None Known; Peter the Great invited him to come to Russia as president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He was asked to Vienna as an imperial councillor and offered a professorship at the University of Padua. He declined all these offers.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Instruments; He was often consulted by the Senate of Venice on the construction of dikes along rivers and of canals. His work on the thermometric scale.
10. Scientific Societies: Instit. Bologna; He carried on an extensive correspondence with mathematicians all over Europe. He was especially close to Bernardino Zendrini, a mathematician in Venice who was in charge of hydraulics for the republic. He was named honorary Academician of the Institute of Bologna in 1723.

SOURCES
A. Agostini, 'Riccati,' in Enciclopedia italiana, 29 (1936), 241. L.Berzolari, G.Vivanti, and D.Gigli, eds., Enciclopedia delle mathematiche elementari, 1, pt. 2, (Milan, 1932), 527. (concerned solely with his solution to one class of differential equations). P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 359-63. C. Di Rovero, 'Vita,' in Riccati, Opere, 4 vols. (Lucca, 1761-5), 4, iii-lxviii. This does not tell too much about the issues that concern me most, but it is an extremely good detailed examination of Riccati's work as a scientist.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, 16, (Pisa, 1795), 376f. 


Ricci, Michelangelo



1. Dates: Born: Rome, 30 January 1619 Died: Rome, 12 May 1682; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Unknown; All that is said is that Prospero Ricci came originally from Como. It is said that the family lived in modest circumstances but made every sacrifice to educate the children. I take this at face value; the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known. I am puzzled. The information about the family, and the further information that Ricci studied theology and canon law because he had to have a career to support himself both imply university study and a degree. Nevertheless no university and no degree has been mentioned. It is said that he was a student of Castelli in mathematics. Hoffmann says that he was Torricelli's student.
5. Religion: Catholic. Although he was never ordained, he served the papacy and was made a çardinal by the pope in 1681.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. His only extant mathematical work is a 19-page printed booklet entitled Geometrica exercitatio (Rome, 1666). His other mathematical contributions, contained in his numerous letters, include his study of spirals (1644), and his investigation of curves (1674). Nevertheless, he was known across Europe as an excellent mathematician, held by some to be the best mathematician in Italy in his generation. [See Fabroni]
7. Means of Support: Church Living; It is stated that about 1650 Ricci received a prebend which gave him sufficient income. He served the papal court in various capacities and was made a Cardinal in 1681 by Pope Innocent XI.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Pope Innocent XI made him a Cardinal in 1681. He served at the papal court in various capacities under three successive Popes, Alexander VII, Clement IX, and Innocent XI. The pressure of his duties took him away from mathematics. Ricci dedicated his Exercitatio to Abbot St. Gradi, Prefect of the Vatican library. Ricci appears to treat the Abbot as a peer who was also interested in mathematics, so that I am not inclined to see this dedication was part of patronage. Ricci corresponded heavily with Leopolod de' Medici, who consulted him on everything concerned with the Accademia del Cimento, including its Saggi. Queen Christina of Sweden, in whose circle Ricci eventually moved, was apparently responsible for his elevation to the cardinalate.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: He was a member of the school of Galileo, although not a direct disciple. His teacher was Benedetto Castelli. Torricelli was a close friend of his and exerted a marked influence on his geometrical researches. His extensive correspondence with both Italian and foreign scholars brought him considerable contemporary fame. Through such correspondence ha participated in the activities of the Accademia del Cimento, particularly in the final editing of its Saggi (1667). He also served as an editor of the Giornale dei letterati, which was founded in Rome in 1668. He corresponded with Torricelli, and he knew Sluse when he studied in Rome. His correspondence is published in the Bulletino di bibliografia e storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 18 and in Caverni, 5, and in other places. Ricci belonged to the group that gathered around Queen Christina in Rome.

SOURCES:
Josef E.Hofmann, 'Uber die 'Exercitatio geometrica' des M.A. Ricci,' Centaurus, 9 (1964), 139-93. G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana, 9 vols., new ed. (Firenze, 1793), 8, 262-4. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 370; 2, 139. R. Caverni, Storia del metodo sperimentale in Italia, 6 vols. reprint ed. (New York, 1972), 5, 431-4, 457-61.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Amadeo Agostini, 'Massimi e minimi nella corrispondenza di E. Torricelli con M. Ricci,' in Atti del IV Congresso dell'Unione maematica italiana, 2, (Rome, 1953), 629-32. Marco Guarnacci, Vita et res gestae pontificum Romanorum, 1, (Rome, 1751). A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, 2 (Pisa, 1778), 200-21. G. Maugain, Étude sur l'évolution intellectuelle de l'Italie de 1657 à 1750 environ, (Paris, 1909). G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, 57 (Venice, 1852), 177. J.-B. Biot and Fr. Lefort, eds. Commercium epistocisum J. Collins et aliorum, (Paris, 1856), pp. 274-6. (search for this under Collins). L. Tenca, 'Michel Angelo Ricci,' Memorie Accademia Patavina, Class. Sci. Mat. Nat., 68 (1955-6), (called by Hoffmann Sonderabdruck), 18f. 


Ricci, Ostilio



1. Dates: Born: Fermo, 1540; Died: Florence (?), 15 January 1603; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Aristocrat; Orazio Ricci (and the family of his wife Elisabetta Gualteroni) were patricians of Fermo. No information of financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; No information. Fracasetti speculates that Ricci was sent to the court of Cosimo I as a page and was educated in the court.
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Engineer; Instruments; Ricci wrote on both mathematics and military engineering, but he did not publish. The manuscripts do survive. He left a manuscript on what he called the archimetro, a simple instrument for the measurement of inaccessible distances, heights, etc., via similar triangles. I gather that Ricci's writing on such operations was taken straight from Alberti; I did not see that the instrument was.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Engineer. Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Ricci began to teach military engineering to the pages of the Grand Duke Francesco in 1580. By 1586 he was mathematician to the Grand Duke. In 1583 he also gave instruction in Euclid and Archimedes to Galileo. Fracasetti says that Ricci went on from his position in the court to be professor of mathematics in the public universities both of Pisa and of Florence. First of all, Florence had no university, though perhaps this could refer to the Academy of Design. I am convinced it is not correct in case of Pisa. He gave lessons in perspective at the house of Bernardo Buontalenti in Florence; possibly Galileo attended some of these lessons. From 1599 he taught at the Academy of Design. In about 1590 Ricci was called to Ferrara to offer an opinion on the diversion of the Reno. Promis states that Ricci was still mathematician to the Grand Duke in 1605, though something would seem necessarily to be wrong with this date.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; See above.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Military Engineer; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; About 1590 Ricci did a report on the rivers around Bologna and Ferrara. In 1597 he constructed fortifications at Marseille, in the conflict between Tuscany and France, and in 1597-8 he worked as a military engineer in Ferrara in the controversy between the Pope and Cesare d'Este. He described an instrument (the archimetro) for surveying. Although I did not see any mention of surveying or cartography that Ricci himself did, I do not see how to explain the instrument without it.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
C. Promis, 'Ostilio Ricci,' one section of 'Gl'ingegneri militari della Marca d'Ancona che operarono e scrissero dall'anno MDL all'anno MDCL,' in Miscellanea di storia italiana, 6 (1865), 339-49. L. Olschki, Geschichte der neusprachlichen wissenschaftlichen Literatur, 3 vols. (Halle, 1927), 3, 141-53. T.B. Settle, 'Ostilio Ricci, a Bridge between Alberti and Galileo,' in Acts of the Twelfth International Congress of the History of Science, 3B (Paris, 1971), 121-6. Ricci does not appear in P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana. G. Fracassetti, 'Ostilio Ricci,' in Biografia e ritratti di uomini illustri Piceni, ed. A. Hercolani, (Forli, 1837), 1, 97-106.

Not Consulted: F. Vinci, Ostilio Ricci da Fermo, Maestro di Galileo Galilei, (Fermo, 1929).


Riccioli, Giambattista



1. Dates: Born: Ferrara, 17 April 1598; Died: Bologna, 25 June 1671; Datecode: Lifespan: 73; 
2. Father: Unknown. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. Riccioli appears to have been educated within Jesuit schools. Hoefer says that he studied at the University of Bologna, but until I find a better source for that I am rejecting it; I am convinced that he was at the Jesuit college in Bologna. As with other such Jesuits, I assume the equivalent of a B.A. and as a full Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. Riccioli entered the Jesuit order on 6 October 1614, when he was 16. He spent his entire life in the service of the Jesuits.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mechanics; Geography. Subordinate Disciplines: Cartography; Optics; Committed to the Catholic Church, Riccioli was of necessity in conflict with the Copernican system, which he tried to refute even while acknowedging it as the best mathematical hypothesis. As an observing astronomer, he traced the topography of the moon and introduced some of the nomenclature that is still used. He also investigated the libration of the moon. He described sunsports, compiled star catalogues, observed a double star, noted the colored bands parallel to Jupiter's equator, and made important observations of Saturn. As an astronomer, he also investigated atmospheric refraction, and refraction in general. He did experiments with falling bodies, intended to refute Galileo's arguments on the motion of the earth-i.e., Riccioli argued that they showed the earth had to be at rest. His experiments confirmed Galileo's concept of uniformly accelerated motion. Riccioli set out to compose a geographical treatise (his Geographia et hydrographia reformata) that would embrace all the geographic knowledge of his time. He did measurements to determine the radius of the earth and to establish the ratio of water to land.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Riccioli taught in the Society's schools in Parma and Bologna-literature, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. Koyré says that he was a professor of philosophy in the University of Bologna, but I am convinced this is mistaken.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; He dedicated one part of Almagestum novum, 1651, to Card. Gerolamo Grimaldi, and another part to Honoratio II, Prince of Monaco. He dedicated Geographiae et hydrographiae reformatae libri, 1661, to Card. Emmanuelo. He dedicated Astronomia reformata, 1665, to Ferdinand, Duke of Bavaria. He dedicated Vindicae kalendarii gregoriani, 1666, to Card. Gerolamo Boncompagni (I think this is the man who became Clement IX.); He dedicated Argomento fisico-matematico, 1668, to F.C. Caprara, Conte di Pantano, Confaloniere di Giustizia of Bologna. Leopoldo de' Medici presented Riccioli with a copy of the Accademia's Saggi.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; He developed a leveling device for use in surveying. He also published a work on the 'geographic cross,' another surveying instrument. He developed a way to measure the diameter of the sun. With Grimaldi he perfected the pendulum as an instrument to measure time. Riccioli published tables of latitude and longitude for a great number of localities, correcting previous data. He also published Geographiae et hydrographiae reformatae libri duodecim.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
A. Koyré, 'An Experiment in Measurement,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 97 (1953), 222-37. P. Galluzzi, 'Galileo contra Copernico: Il dibattito sulla prova 'galileiana' di G.B. Riccioli contro il moto della terra alla luce di nuovi documenti,' Annali dell'Istituto e museo di storia della scienza di Firenze, 2.2 (1977), 87-148. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 42, 147-9. G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana, 9 vols., new ed. (Firenze, 1793), 8, 226-7.  P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 370-4. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 132. Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 6, cols. 1796-1805. Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 234. A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, (Pisa, 1778), 2, 355-78. Luigi Ughi, Dizionario storico degli uomini illustri ferraresi, (Ferrara, 1804), 2, 129-30. Lorenzo Barrotti, Memorie istoriche di letterati ferraresi, (Ferrara, 1793), 2, 270-7. 


Richer, Jean



1. Dates: Born: in all probability in France, 1630 Died: Paris, 1696; Datecode: Lifespan: 66 
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Fr? Career: France; Death: France; 
4. Education: None Known; Nothing is known of the education of Richer. 
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Zoology; The Académie chose Richer to make astronomical observations far from Paris for the purpose of comparing corresponding and simultaneous observations. In 1670 he travelled to La Rochelle to measure the height of the tides in the harbor at the vernal and autumnal equinox. In the same year he made a voyage to French Canada to make observations for the Académie. During this trip Richer was in charge of testing the reliability of the new marine clocks made by Huygens. Both clocks stopped during a severe storm, and Richer reported their unsuitable performance to the Académie as well as to Huygens. Huygens responded that Richer was incompetent and the failure of the clocks was due to the carelessness of their caretaker rather than to the device itself. The Académie did not share Huygens' estimation of Richer's ability. While off the coast of French Canada he had determined the latitude of the fort on Penobscot Bay using a quadrant with a telescopic sight. This was the most precise observation made up until that time in the Western Hemisphere. The following year Richer was selected to travel to Cayenne to make observations useful for navigation. Two years later illness forced Richer to return to Paris. For unknown reasons he was transferred from active service with the Académie des Sciences to fortifications and military construction with the title of royal engineer. Richer's only written work is his 'Observations astronomiques et physiques faites en l'isle de Caienne' published in the Mémoires of the Académie. Richer's astronomical observations of a lunar eclipse and the satellites of Jupiter led to the determination of the longitude of Cayenne which was three minutes too big. His observations of Mars at perigee with corresponding observations made elsewhere led to the calculation of a fairly close approximation to the fundamental astronomical unit as well as the parallax of Mars and the Sun. In geodesy Richer's observation of the length of the seconds pendulum improved the understanding of the shape of the earth as a spheroid flattened at the poles. Although Richer did not seem to have taken a great interest in describing the natural environment, he did make a few comments on the animal life. He noted that unlike the turtle the porpoise is a warm blooded animal. The crocodile can rest without food for several months even when in the presence of nourishment. Richer tried to bring a small crocodile back to France but it died on the return voyage. He also described the eels in the rivers of Cayenne. Lastly, he investigated the claims that the small opening on the back of the Pecari from which escaped a nauseating foam was related to its respiration and found this claim to be false. 
7. Means of Support: Government Position; Richer spent the beginning of his career travelling for the Académie and making astronomical and physical observations. After his return from Cayenne, he received the title royal engineer, but there is no information about his duties or his training in fortifications and military construction. 
8. Patronage: Scientist; Patronage of Government Official; By order of Louis XIV Richer set off on his voyage to Cayenne; however the effective source of the appointment was the Académie. From the general shape of his career, from his original appointment to the Académie, and from the appointment as royal engineer I am assuming that some official was taking care of Richer. 
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Navigation; Military Engineer; His work in cartography and navigation is above. I am assuming that he carried out some duties as a military engineer. 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1696; Richer was admitted to the Académie in 1666 as an élève astronome. As early as 1670 he was referred to as a mathématicien. By 1679 he was a full-fledged member of the Académie. 

SOURCES:
Alfred Lacroix, Figures de savants, 3, (Paris, 1938), pp. 11-14. John W. Olmsted, 'The Scientific Expedition of John Richer to Cayenne (1672-73),' Isis, 34 (1942-43), 117-28. ________, 'The Voyage of Jean Richer to Acadia in 1670,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 104 (1960), 612-34. 


Ries [Risz, Riesz, Ris, or Riese], Adam



1. Dates: Born: Staffelstein, upper Franconia, Germany, 1492; Died: Annaberg-Buchholz, Germany, 30 March 1559 Datecode: - Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Merchant; He was the son of Contz and Eva Riese. It was a wealthy family. His father owned several houses, the walking mill at Staffelstein, and a vineyard.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Staffelstein, upper Franconia, Germany. Career: Annaberg, Germany. Death: Annaberg-Buchholz, Germany.
4. Education: None Known; Nothing definite is known about his education. He probably attended the Latin school in Staffelstein. 1509, he was in Zwickau, where his younger brother Conradus was attending the famous Latin school. 1515, he was living in Annaberg, a mining town. 1518-1522/23, he lived in Erfurt, where he benefitted greatly from contact with university humanists, especially Georg Sturtz.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. . Ries was a Lutheran, but he does not appear to have been the victim of persecution earlier in his career when Annaberg was ruled by the staunchly Catholic Duke Georg (Ries's name appeared on a list of Lutheran citizens that Georg had had made in 1530). In 1539, Duke Georg was succeeded by Duke Heinrich, who was friendly to Lutherans. In the same year Ries received his title (see below).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Schoolmaster; Supposedly he sold his skills as a calculator at the market as early as 1514 and attracted some attention with his ability. 1518-22/3, worked as a Rechenmeister (mathematician) in Erfurt. 1523, he moved to Annaberg. 1525, Ries married, purchased a house, and became a citizen of Annaberg, where he held important posts in the ducal mining administration: 1525-, Rezessschreiber (recorder of yields). 1532-, Gegenschreiber (recorder of ownership of mining shares). 1533-9, Zehnter auf dem Geyer (calculator of the ducal tithes). He also taught arithmetic and ran a highly regarded school. The Turkish tax register of 1530 shows Ries had holdings of 74 Schock (1 gulden = 2/3 schock). For comparison, 24 people in Annaberg had more than 1000 gulden, 19 had more than 300, 150 had more than 100, and 160 had more than 50. It was the last group to which Ries belonged. The house he bought in 1525 cost an average price of 150 gulden. He paid 50 gulden down and 30 per year. He later (1539) bought a farmstead at Wiesa from his sister-in-law for 1200 Rheinisch gulden. It included lodging, fields, meadows, woods and pools. He made a downpayment of 100 gulden and agreed to pay 30 gulden every six months. 
8. Patronage: Medicine; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; In Erfurt, the group of humanists with whom Ries was in contact met at the home of Georg Sturz, a rich physician from Annaberg. Sturze directed, in a sense, Ries's study of algebra, recommending certain authors and lending him books. Ries dedicated the manuscipt of his Coss (1525) to Sturz. It is said that Heinrich von Elterlein was responsible for bringing Ries to Annaberg. Ries taught von Elterlein's son, Hans, mathematics. Elector Maurice of Saxony advanced the printing costs for Rechenung nach der lenge, auff den Linihen vnd Feder (1550). He also sought printing costs from the elector for his 'Practica.' He even approached the emperor to obtain a privilege for the 'Practica' so that he would not endure damages from a unauthorized second printing. 1539, he received the title 'Churfürstlich Sächsicher Hofarithmeticus' (court mathematician) from Duke Heinrich.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Cartography; The city of Annaberg commissioned a book, Ein Gerechnet Büchlein auff den Schöffel, Eimer vnd Pfundgewicht... (1533), which contains tables of measures and prices from which one could immediately determine the cost of more than one item when a unit cost was given, and a Brotordnung (1536?), from which one could directly determine the correct weight for loaves of bread when grain prices varied and the cost of a loaf was held constant. He wrote a letter to the Münzmeister of Annaberg, Leupolt Holtzschucher, advocating changes in the Münzrechnung (some kind of currency reform). His sons report that he did surveying for the elector.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Cantor, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 28, 576-7. Fritz Deubner, Nach Adam Riese: Leben und Wirken des grossen Rechenmeisters (Leipzig-Jena, 1959). 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Kurt Vogel, 'Adam Riese, der deutschen Rechenmeister,' Deutsches Museum. Abhandlungen und Berichte, 27, no. 3 (1959), 1-37. Willy Roch, Adam Riese: Ein Lebensbild des grossen Rechenmeisters, (Frankfurt, 1959). [no O.C.L.C. reference]; 


Riolan, Jean, Jr.



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 15 February 1580; Died: Paris, 19 February 1657; Datecode: Lifespan: 77 
2. Father: Physician; His father was a leading member of the Paris Medical Faculty, serving as dean in 1585-6. His mother was of the Pietre family, which was very prominent in Parisian medicine during the 16th and 17th centuries. The family was wealthy
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Paris, M.D. After receiving his bachelor's, he was named archdeacon of schools which placed him in charge of the material for anatomy courses including the cadavers. He studied chiefly under his uncle Simon Pietre and took his M.D. in 1604. As always, I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was buried in the church at St. Germain-l'Auxerrois. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; He was a trained anatomist and dissector and emphasized the superiority of active anatomical observation over long reading and profound meditations. Like his father he was a stern defender of traditional medicine and declared himself an enemy to chemical healers. He established his reputation through a series of textbooks, the most important being the second edition of Anthropographia (1626). These works reveal a mastery of original observation and of the classical and modern literature. In his later Encheiridium (1648) he included a systematic presentation of both morbid and normal anatomy. Though in his later years he tried to accept new discoveries, he continually tried to uphold Galenic medicine and opposed the anatomical interpretations of Pecquet, Bartholin, and Harvey. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medicine; 1604-40, Professor of anatomy and botany at the University of Paris and professor of medicine at the Collège Royal. 1640-57, dean of the Collège Royal. Though he never officially held the Dean of Faculty position he was so esteemed by his colleagues that he was called 'doyen' in an honorific sense. In 1633, he became the principal physician of the Queen Mother. Although I do not have an explicit statement, I assume that he must have practiced medicine.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Medical Practioner; He became the principal physician of the Queen Mother, Maie de Madicis. He accompanied her on her foreign travels, and attended her final illness at Cologne in 1642. He was also physician to Henry IV and Louis XIII. André de Laurens, chief physician of Henry IV, obtained for Riolan the chair of anatomy, botany and pharmacy. (Thomas Bartholin dedicated his book on the discovery of the lymphatic vessels to Riolan.) 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
R. Tabuteau, Deux anatomistes français: Les Riolan, (Paris, 1929). T. Vetter, 'Jean Riolan, second du nom, qui ne fut pas doyen des écoles de Paris, ' Presse médicale, 73 (1965), 3269-74. N. Mani, 'Jean Riolan II (1580-1657) and Medical Research, ' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 42 (1968), 121-44. R131.A1J6 (on his works only). Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39). The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. 


Risner [Reisner, Risnerus], Friedrich



1. Dates: Born: Herzfeld, Hesse, date unknown; Died: Herzfeld, ca. 1580; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: - 
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; France; German; Germany; Birth: Herzfeld, Hesse, Germany. Career: France; Herzfeld, Germany. Death: Herzfeld, Germany.
4. Education: None Known.
5. Religion: Lutheran. On the one hand, he was Ramus' associate after Ramus converted. On the other hand, he was buried in the church in Herzfeld, Hesse, and must therefore have been Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics. Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Risner published the works of Alhazen and Witelo in an edition that exerted great influence. His manuscript Opticae libri quattuor (of which much was probably due to Ramus) was published in 1606, long after his death. He never published any work in mathematics, but Ramus called him his 'assistant in mathematical studies.'
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; He was Ramus's protégé and colleague throughout most of his scholarly life. 1576, Risner accepted the salary of the first chair in mathematics at the Collège Royale de France for a few months. He never lectured and soon retired to Germany.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Ramus was clearly Risner's major patron. In his will, Ramus established a chair in mathematics at the Collège Royale de France and specified that Risner be its first occupant. Risner dedicated his edition of Alhazen and Witelo to Catherine de Medici.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 3, 2112. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 7, 22. R. Hooykaas, Humanisme, science et réform: Pierre de la Ramée (1515-1572), (Leiden, 1958). [B785.R44H78]; J.J. Verdonk, Petrus Ramus en de wiskunde (Assen, 1966), pp. 66-73. Bernardino Baldi, 'Vite di matematici arabi tratti da un'opera inedita di Bernardino Baldi,' Bullettino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 5, (1872), 461-2. F. Risner, Risneri opticam cum annotationibus Willibrordi Snelli, ed. J.A. Vollgraff, (Ghent, 1918). 


Roberval, Gilles Personne de



1. Dates: Born: Nnear Senlis, 10 August 1602; Died: Paris, 27 October 1675; Datecode: Lifespan: 73 
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer. He came from a family of simple farmers. Although nothing explicit is said, the phrase 'simple farmers' says to me that they were poor. What he himself said about his education certainly says the same thing.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France; 
4. Education: None Known. Roberval writes that he was born and educated among the people (inter multos). He left his family at an unknown age. He embraced the study of mathematics at the age of fourteen. He travelled to various regions of the country earning a living from private lessons. He continued to educate himself by attending classes at the universities in the regions he visited. In Bordeaux where he met Fermat and took on François du Verdus as a pupil he may have attended the university.
5. Religion: Catholic. He is buried in the church of St. Severin. Auger writes that according to Lebeuf Roberval is buried in the choir, but Auger was unable to locate any signs. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mechanics; Physics. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy. Roberval was a leading proponent of the geometry of infinitesimals which he claimed originated with Archimedes. (He was unfamiliar with the work of Cavalieri.) He wrote on finding areas, a book titled Traité des indivisibles, which appeared in a collection of Académie works. In addition to his work on areas he wrote treatises on algebra and analytic geometry. His method of the 'composition of movements' makes him the founder of kinematic geometry of which the most famous application was the construction of tangents. Many of Roberval's writings were published in collections of other works by members of the Académie (1693). Since few of his works appeared in the period that followed, Roberval was eclipsed by Fermat, Pascal, and his adversary Descartes. Only two works were published separately, Traité de méchanique (1636) and Aristarchi Samii de mundi systemate (1644). From 1644-8 he played an important role in the relations with Italy involving the barometric experiments. At the same time (1647) he entered into another polemic with Descartes on the center of oscillation of the compound pendulum. He advocated the joining of experiment to reason and wrote a philosophical work that showed evidence of his positivism. 
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Government Official. At an unknown date he left home and travelled through various regions of the ocuntry earning a living by giving private lessons. In 1628 he arrived in Paris and made contact with the Mersenne circle: Claude Mydorge, Claude Hardy, and Etienne and Blaise Pascal. He was appointed professor of philosophy at the Collège de Maitre Gervais in 1632. Costabel writes that Roberval had the postion of 'boursier' de mathematiques au Collège de Maitre Gervais. This position, which he held until his death, involved private tutoring at the Collège for a salary and lodging. In 1634, he won the triennial competition for the Ramus chair at the Collège Royal. He kept this post for the rest of his life. Many attribute the secrecy of his findings to his desire to keep the Ramus chair, for reappointment to which he had continually to compete. By 1655 he added another academic post to his career, Gassendi's chair in mathematics at the Collège Royal. He was a founding member of the Académie and remained a member until his death.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Scientist; Unknown. I consider his tutoring of François du Verdus to be an aspect of patronage. Mersennne published some of Roberval's works in his own treatises. Someone had to have been behind the appointment to the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; In 1699, he presented to the Académie plans for a particular type of balance that bears his name. He suggested the application of telescopic sights to the quadrant and sextant. On the problem of the vacuum he wrote two Narrationes. In the second one he described a very ingenious apparatus that he had invented to support his theory. This device served as a prototype for the one in Pascal's experiment on 'the vacuum in the vacuum.' In the Académie he participated with Picard in the work on cartography. He composed a mémoire on the method of mapping France.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-75 Roberval was a charter member of the Académie. When he arrived in Paris in 1628 he immediately became acquainted with the members of the Mersenne circle. Mersenne especially held him in high esteem. 

SOURCES:
Condorcet, Eloges des académiciens de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, (Paris, 1773). Leon Auger, Un Savant Meconnu: G.P. de Roberval, (Paris, 1962). Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 14, 231. 'Roberval' in Pierre Costabel and Monette Martine, Quelques savants et amateurs de science au XVIIe siècle, (Paris, 1986), pp. 21-31. Guy Picolet, ed., Jean Picard et les débuts de l'astronome de precision au XVIIe siècle. Actes du colloque du tricentaire, (Paris, 1987), pp. 209, 249-52. 


Roemer, Ole Christensen



1. Dates: Born: Aarhus, Denmark, 25 September 1644; Died: Copenhagen, 19 September 1710 Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Merchant; Christen Pedersen Roemer was a small merchant. It is known that when he died (1663 at the latest) he left Ole a great many navigational instruments and books; it appears then that he must have been, at the least, fairly well off. I will say, on the basis of this, affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Aarhus, Denmark; Career: Copenhagen, Denmark and France; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; 1662, he was sent to the University of Copenhagen, where he studied with Thomas and Erasmus Bartholin. From what followed I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Official; Patronage. He lived and studied with Erasmus Batholin, who was impressed enough with his work to entrust to him the editing of Tycho Brahe's manuscripts. From 1664 to 1670 he edited Tycho's manuscripts. 1671, he accompanied Bartholin and Jean Picard to Hveen to observe the position of Tycho's observatory, then (1672) accompanied Picard back to Paris where he was assigned lodgings in the Royal Observatory and worked under the auspices of the Académie. It is generally assumed that he was a member of the Académie. Louis XIV appointed him to tutor the Dauphin in astronomy, and Roemer travelled around France making observations at the behest of the Académie. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon says that he was admitted to the Académie in 1671. 1677, the Professorship of Astronomy in Copenhagen was designated for him. 1681, Professor of Mathematics, University of Copenhagen. He was also appointed astronomer royal and director of the observatory. In addition, he served in a number of advisory roles to the King, as master of the mint, harbor surveyor, inspector of naval architecture, ballistics expert, and head of a highway commission. 1688, member of the privy council. 1693, judiciary magistrate of Copenhagen. 1694, chief tax assessor. 1705, mayor of Copenhagen. Later, prefect of police as well. 1705, named a senator. 1706, head of the state council of the realm. 
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage. The first part of his life he was supported by scientists, first Bartholin, then Picard, who remained his patron after he settled in Paris. I assume some connection through the Académie got him Louis XIV's appointment as tutor. In 1704, long after his return to Denmark, he built his observatory on land owned by Erasmus Bartholin. The major patron in his life was Christian V of Denmark who appointed him as astronomer royal and was responsible for the numerous appointments he held. After Christian V died, Frederick IV assumed his patronage, first giving Roemer an appointment in 1705.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Civil Engineer; Hydraulics; Cartography; In Paris, part of his duties involved making instruments. He built clocks and other devices, including a micrometer for differential measurement of position. In Copenhagen, as director of the observatory he continued his innovation in instrumentation. He was perhaps the first to attach a telescopic sight to a meridian transit. He also invented a new thermometer and was active in the science of thermometry, passing some ideas to Fahrenheit, whom he met in 1708. Roemer reordered Denmark's system of measuring and registration and introduced a new, rational system for numbers and weights. The number and weight reforms were especially important because the confusion that existed before hampered trade. Roemer combined weight and length, a system which only occured in other lands more than a century later (with the metric system). While Copenhagen was growing rapidly in these years, Roemer was in charge of laying out streets, lighting, water supply and drainage, fire standards, and lesser affairs. In 1699, he revised the calendar, so that Easter was scheduled according to the moon.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); [?], BA; He corresponded with Leibniz, Fahrenheit, and others. Hoefer indicates he became a member of the Académie sometime around 1672, but the verbal records of the Académie for this period are missing and this piece of information is not generally mentioned in secondary sources. Honorary member of the Berlin Academy.

SOURCES
Hoefer, 'Roemer,' Nouvelle biographie universelle, 42, (Paris, 1862), cols. 495-7. I.B. Cohen, Roemer and the First Determination of the Velocity of Light, (New York, 1944). Rene Taton, Roemer et la vitesse de la luminière, (Paris, 1978). Kirstine Meyer, 'Roemer' [in Danish], Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 20, (Copenhagen, 1941), 392-400. 


Rohault, Jacques



1. Dates: Born: Amiens, c. 1618; Died: Paris, 27 December 1672; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 54 
2. Father: Merchant; His father was a merchant. He also owned land. He was at one time the churchwarden of his parish. His maternal grandfather was an apothecary of Amiens. His uncle was a doctor of Amiens. His paternal great-grandfather was a squire and conseiller of the baillif of Waben. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A. He received his early education in Amiens, most likely a scholastic training at the Jesuit college there. He completed his studies in Paris, where he was interested in mechanics and taught himself mathematics. He received his M.A. in 1641. 
5. Religion: Catholic. His body is buried in St. Mederic church. In 1695, his heart was buried in St. Genevieve next to Descartes. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; As the leading advocate and teacher of Descartes's natural philosophy of the time, his contemporary fame rested on the very popular weekly lectures, 'les mercredis de Rohault', which he held at his house in Paris. His masterwork the Traité de physique (1671) became the era's leading textbook on natural philosophy. The Latin translation of 1674 was used as a university textbook. The Traité reflects Rohault's explicit view that the explanations of natural philosophy were only probable and were subject to falsification by one counterinstance. Among his most famous experiments were those on the weight of air, and magnetism. Rohault intended his natural philosophy to introduce Cartesian views as a more complete elaboration of the Aristotelian traditions. He sought to join the Cartesian principles to experimental practice. Despite his call for a more quantitative approach to natural philosophy, he made little use of mathematical arguments to establish his position. In his last years Rohault was troubled by the political reaction to Cartesianism in France. In his work, Entretiens sur la philosophie (1671), Rohault tried to establish the importance of Cartesian interpretations to theology. Yet, at the time of his death he was considered heretical by some. 
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Official; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; He established himself as a private tutor which he continued until his death. He tutored the children of several prominent families as well as the Dauphin. Some time in the mid-1650's he began to hold weekly lectures at his house in Paris. In 1649 he bought the office of 'controleur des bois' and married the widow of the former 'controleur' the following year. He had to have had some means by which to effect the purchase. A year after the death of his first wife he married the daughter of Claude Clerselier (1664). 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocrat; In 1670 he obtained a royal privilege for the publication of a collection of treatises on practical subjects, including elementary arithmetic, mechanics, perspective, and military architecture, in addition to a French translation of the first six books of Euclid's Elements. In 1682, Clerselier published this work as Oeuvres posthumes de M. Rohault. I'll leave this information here, but I don't consider this patronage. Rohault tutored several children from prominent families. Also, he was the tutor of mathematics and philosophy to the Dauphin. 
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; After some hesitation I list that treatise on military architecture.
10. Scientific Societies: During the 1660's he emerged as the arbiter of Cartesian scientific affairs in Paris. He became an active participant in the Montmor Academy and other circles of leading natural philosophers. In 1665 he recruited Pierre-Sylvain Regis to the Cartesian movement. After several months of instruction in Cartesian science and the arts of conferencier, Regis was sent by him to spread the doctrine in Toulouse. He also organized the ceremonies marking the return of Descartes's remains to Paris from Stockholm in 1667. 

SOURCES:
Paul Mouy, Le developpement de la physique cartesienne, (Paris, 1934), esp. 108-38. Pierre Clair, Jacques Rohault 1618-1672, Bio-bibliographie, (Paris, 1978). 'Rohault' in Pierre Costabel and Monette Martinet, Quelques savants et amateurs de science au XVIIe siècle, (Paris, 1986), pp. 89-132.


Rolfinck, Guerner [Werner]



1. Dates: Born: Hamburg, 15 November 1599; Died: Jena, 6 May 1673 Datecode: - Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Church Living; His father, also Guerner Rolfinck, was rector of the Johanneum in Hamburg. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Hamburg, Germany. Career: Jena, Germany. Death: Jena, Germany.
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; University of Leiden; University of Padua; Ph.D. and M.D. He studied philosophy (1616-18) and medicine (from 1618) under Daniel Sennert at Wittenberg. He then studied at Leiden for 2 years. He visted Oxford and Paris. He studied anatomy in Padua for a few years, and in 1625 he received both a Ph.D. and an M.D. from the University of Padua.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; Chemistry. Subordinate Disciplines: anatomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Med. 1625 - c.28, practiced medicine and taught anatomy in Venice. After graduating from Padua, he was in such demand as an anatomist that he received the license to teach simultaneously with his degree. In 1628 he received the call to become ordinary professor of medicine at Padua, but he had already returned to Germany. 1628-9, professor of anatomy, University of Wittenberg. 1629-73, professor of anatomy, surgery, and botany, University of Jena. 1639, he was appointed director exercitii chymia, which became a professorship of chemistry in 1641. He was rector of Jena six times. He also maintained a personal practice. 1631, he was named director of the botanical garden.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; . He was evidently called to the court at Weimar once a year to do a public dissection before princes and other interested members of the court. ('Ferder ist bekannt, dass Rolfinck dem Unterricht in der Anatomie so fesselnd zu gestalten wusste, dass er alljährlich an den Hof zu Weimar beschieden wurde, um in Gegenwart benachbarter Fürsten und anderer hoher Persönlichkeiten unter mehrtagigen Festlichkeiten eine Leiche zu seciren,' Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 29, 74.) Giese and von Hagen (p. 104) confirm this. They suggest also that Rolfinck's humoring the court brought him favors. The most obvious of these is the permission Rolfinck obtained, with a recommendation from the prince, to have for dissection all the bodies that the church refused to inter. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He established the first anatomical theater (1629), the botanical garden (1631), and chemical laboratory (1630) at Jena. He maintained a medical practice.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Pagel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 29, 74. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 4, 861-2. Partington, 2, 312-14. Max Steinmetz, ed., Geschichte der Universität Jena 1548/58-1958, (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1958), 96b-9b. Ernst Giese and Benno von Hagen, Geschichte der medizinischen Fakultät der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1958). 


Rolle, Michel



1. Dates: Born: Ambert (Basse-Auverne) 21 April 1652; Died: Paris, 8 November 1719; Datecode: Lifespan: 67 
2. Father: Merchant; His father was a shopkeeper. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He received only a very elementary education. Later he taught himself algebra and Diophantine analysis. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Although his reputation rested on his skill in Diophantine analysis, his favorite area was the algebra of equations. In his Traité d'algèbre, which has remained famous, he used the method of 'cascades' to separate the roots of an algebraic equation. He also displayed a certain vigor in the field of Cartesian geometry. He was a skillful algebraist who broke with the Cartesian techniques and opposed the infinitesimal analysis. His opposition was beneficial to the development of the study. In 1706 he finally reconciled himself to the value of the new techniques of the infinitesimal analysis. 
7. Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Patronage; Government Position; After his elementary education, he worked as a transcriber for a notary and then for various attorneys in his native region. I list this under Miscellaneous. In 1675 he moved to Paris, working as master scribe and reckoner. After 1682, Colbert obtained for him a reward and a pension. Later he became tutor of the fourth son of the minister Louvois. He received an administrative post in the ministry of war, from which he soon resigned. 1699-1719, pensionnaire géometre. 
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; In 1682 he gave an elegant solution to a difficult problem publicly posed by Ozanam. This event brought him public recognition. Colbert took an interest in him and obtained a reward and a pension for him. He also enjoyed the patronage of minister Louvois. He gave lessons in mathematics to the minister's forth son, abbé de Louvois. He even received an administrative post in the ministry of war. Though this position in the minsitry of war was more financially rewarding and could have taken him farther in the government, Rolle felt unable to devote enough time to his post and his position at the Académie. 
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1685-1719. He became élève astronome in 1685. When the Académie reorganized Rolle became a pensionnaire géometre (1699), which assured him a regular salary. 

SOURCES:
Fontenelle, 'Eloge de Rolle', in Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences, 1719.  Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). Niels Nielsen, Géometres francais du dix-huitieme siècle, (Copenhagen, 1935), pp. 382-90.  Gino Loria, Storia delle mathematiche, 2nd ed., (Milan, 1950), pp. 670-3.


Rondelet, Guillaume



1. Dates: Born: Montpellier, 27 September 1507; Died: Realmont (Tarn), 30 July 1566; Datecode: Lifespan: 59 
2. Father: Pharmacology; His father was a drug and spice merchant, who died while Rondelet was a child. He was brought up by an elder brother. Among his brothers we find spice merchants and apothecaries. His sister married into a family of surgeons. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Par; University of Montpellier; M.D. He had very little rigorous education in his youth due to illness. In 1525 he went to study humanities at Paris, and transferred to the Medical Faculty at Montpellier in 1529. In 1531, he received his bachelor's degree. He returned to Paris in the mid-1530's to study anatomy under J. Guinter. He graduated M.D. in 1537 at Montpellier. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; (converted c. 1561) In later years he seems to have attracted by ideas of religious reform, and by 1561 he was reckoned a member of the Protestant community. In 1552, Rondelet burned his theological books when his friend Pellicier, Bishop of Montpellier, was incarcerated for entertaining heretical notions. Later, Rondelet hid Caperon, an esteemed theologian who had escaped from a Dominican monastery. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Zoology; Medicine; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy; Natural History; Although he was active in several branches of biology, his reputation effectively depends on his massive compendium on aquatic life, which covered far more species than any earlier work in the field. The Libri de piscibus marinis in quibus verae piscium effigies expressae sunt (1554-5) laid the foundation for later ichthyological research and was the standard reference work for over a century. He published tracts De urinis and De morbo gallico and various other works on diagnosis. He produced several pharmacological works and contributed a large collection of medicinal plants to Montpellier. Rondelet was a progressive anatomist who believed in the importance of frequent dissections. At his solicitations the first anatomical amphitheatre was erected in France by Henri II at Montpellier in 1556. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Personal Means; He was procurator at Montpeller from 11 January 1530 to 2 May 1531. Sometime before the mid-1530's he was a physician and schoolteacher in Pertuis. Before returning to complete his studies at Montpellier, he spent time as tutor to Count de Turenne. From 1538-45 he was supported predominantly by his wife's elder sister. (I list this as personal estate.); In 1545, Schyron, chancellor at the university, appointed Rondelet regius professor of medicine at Montpellier a position that he held until his death in 1566. During the 1540's, he was the personal physician to Francois Cardinal Tournon. Again Schyron had suggested him for the position. Rondelet received 600 livres yearly for six-months attendance. In 1551, Tournon was so pleased with Rondelet's treatment that he gave him a pension of 200 livres for the rest of his life. In 1551, he returned to Montpellier and was elected chancellor five years later. He was very active in assuring that the royal privileges of the college were upheld by the government. 
8. Patronage: Academic; Aristocratic Patronage; Church Living; See the role of Schyron and of the Conte de Turenne above. He was personal physician to Cardinal Tournon during the 1540's. He accompanied the Cardinal on visits to Antwerp and other towns in France, and to Rome in 1549. He acknowledged Pellicier, Bishop of Montpellier, in his Libri de piscibus marinis
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He was instrumental in the building of the first anatomical amphitheatre in France. He produced several pharmacoligical works and contributed a large collection of medicinal plants to Montpellier. 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
C. Dulieu, 'Guillaume Rondelet,' Clio medica, 1 (1965), 89-111.  ppenheimer, 'Guillaume Rondelet,' Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, 4 (1936), 817-34. Antoine L.J. Bayle and _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Glasgow, 1906). Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 4. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Not Available and Not Consulted: L. Joubert, 'Vita Gulielmi Rondeletti,' in his Opera latina, 2 (Lyon, 1582), 186-93. 


Rooke, Lawerence



1. Dates: Born: Deptford, near London, 13 March 1622; Died: London, 27 June 1662; Datecode: Lifespan: 40
2. Father: Gentry; George Rooke, of Monkshorton, Kent, was a member of the gentry. Although there is no explicit word on his financial status, Lawrence Rooke was able to 'retire' to his estate for three years (1647-50) because of ill health and then to stay in Wadham College, Oxford, as a fellow commoner for two further years (1650-2). I do not see how to deny that the family was at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. At Eton. Cambridge, King's College, 1639-47; B.A.,1643; M.A.,1647.
5. Religion: Anglican by assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Navigation; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Rooke observed the comet of 1652. There were other astronomical activities, especially in connection with navigation-systematic observations of the satellites of Jupiter as a means to determine longitude, and arguments for similar telescopic observations of lunar eclipses for that purpose. For the Royal Society he drew up a list of systematic observations for seamen to make in order to improve navigation. With Wren he experimented on the impact of elastic bodies and with Goddard on the effect of radiant heat on a crude thermometer.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, 1643-7. Professor of astronomy at Gresham College, 1652-7. Professor of geometry at Gresham College, 1657-62. He inherited the paternal estate in Kent.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Unknown; Someone stood behind those appointments at Gresham College. Rooke was very close to Seth Ward, who could have been responsible. I hardly know how to describe their relationship. Ward took care to create a memorial to Rooke after Rooke's death; that sounds more like friendship pure and simple. Interestingly, Wallis dedicated De sectionibus conicis to Ward and Rooke. Note that Rooke really was a country squire himself. The Marquis of Dorchester is described as Rooke's patron. Rooke frequently visited his country seat at Highgate.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; In his discussion of the satellites of Jupiter and how to observe them, Rooke is explicit in saying that this method will not work at sea because of the difficulty of observing. However, for establishing the longitude of cities and harbors, i.e., for cartography, where different people can be observing at different places, the satellites of Jupiter would be ideal. Rooke added that a good lunar theory might provide an astronomical means to determine longitude at sea.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Connection with John Wilkins, Seth Ward and the Oxford group, beginning in 1650. He occasionally assisted Boyle in his experiments, 1650-2. Collaboration with Jonathan Goddard. It was in Rooke's chambers at Gresham College that the group of interested men would gather in the late 50s, and there the Royal Society (though it was not yet so named while he was alive) was organized in 1660.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 17, 209-10.  John Ward, Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, (London 1740), pp. 90-5. Colin A. Ronan, 'Lawerence Rooke (1622-1662),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 113-18. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 587-9. Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society, (London, 1667), pp.183-9. 


Roomen, Andriaan van



1. Dates: Born: Louvain, 29 September 1561; Died: Mainz, 4 May 1615. He died in travel, as he returned from Würzburg to Louvain. Datecode: Lifespan: 54.
2. Father: Merchant; Same name, a merchant. No indication of financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian; Career: Belgain, German, Polish; Death: German
4. Education: Lou; M.A., M.D. He studied at the Jesuit College in Cologne. One source says that he studied medicine at Louvain and then somewhere in Italy (no university mentioned), where he completed an M.A. and M.D. It appears obvious from his career that he had an M.D., and thus the story appears plausible. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: He had to have been Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Medicine; In Würzburg, where he was a professor of medicine and where he really created the medical faculty in a new university, he published a continuing series of medical theses defended by his students. They are all wholly traditional, and there is no indication at all that Roomen contributed to medical science. A prolific author, Roomen wrote also on astronomy and natural philosophy. As with medicine, his opinions in these fields were wholly traditional. After some thought, I list the three as subordinate disciplines. As a mathematician he was especially concerned with trigonometry. He calculateds the sides of the regular polygons, and from the polygon with 216 (?) sides calculated the value of pi to sixteen places. He also wrote a commentary on algebra.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; 1586-92, Professor of medicine and mathematics (sic) at Louvain. He was Rector in 1592. I am assuming that Roomen, like all professors of medicine, also practiced. 1593-1603, Professor of medicine at University of Würzburg. Three times he was Deacon of the medical faculty. 1596-1603, mathematician to the chapter in Würzburg; his duties included drawing up a calendar each year. 1598, in Prague where Rudolph apparently bestowed on him the titles of Count Palatine and Imperial Court Physician (a title that entailed no duties). He was called back to Prague several times. 1603-10, lived both in Würzburg and Louvain, in ill health. At the end of 1604 he was ordained a priest and installed as a canon in the chapter in Würzburg. It appears that he held the prebend until his death. 1610-12, taught mathematics to Jan Zamojski, son of the statesman and aristocrat, Thomas Zamojski.
8. Patronage: Unknown; Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Nothing is said about his first appointment in Louvain, but no university chair was gained without patronage. Roomen's wife was the niece of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg; Biographie nationale says that she was the niece of the physician to the prince-bishop, and seems to suggest that the marriage took place after he arrived in Würzburg. Whatever the connection, without the patronage of the Prince-Bishop his whole relation to Würzburg is unintelligible. Roomen dedicated some of his many works to the Archduke Albert. See details above for the other one.
9. Technological Connections: Math; Roomen's work in mathematics was heavily, almost exclusively, in the direction of practical calculation.
10. Scientific Societies: He corresponded with a considerable number of the mathematicians and scientists of his day; the correspondence is now mostly lost. Early in his career he established a connection with Ludolph van Ceulen. He was acquainted with the Polish mathematicians Jan Brozek, with whom he corresponded.

SOURCES
Nationaal biografisch woordenboek, 2, (Brussels, 1966), cols. 751-65. This is a Belgian publication.
Biographie nationale. This sketch has very full information about Roomen's publications. 


Rothmann, Christoph



1. Dates: first recorded in 1575. Died: between 1599 and 1608 Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; German; Birth: Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; 1575, admitted to University of Wittenberg, where he studied theology and mathematics (maybe under Praetorius). No degree is mentioned.
5. Religion: Lutheran. : Lutheran (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; ?-1577, presumed to have been employed by Joachim Ernst von Anhalt. 1577-90, worked as 'mathematicus' for Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse. 1590, after visiting Tycho Brahe in Hveen for one month, he returned to his home town where he occupied himself with theological controversies. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; He received a stipend from Joachim Ernst von Anhalt (1536-1586) to write the manuscript 'Christophori Rothmanni... astronomia,' and is presumed to have been in his service when he visited Kassel to inspect the Landgrave's instruments in 1577. Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse, was his major patron for most of his career.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; Rothmann seems not to have been adept at instrument making. Buergi was responsible for the fabrication of the Landgrave's instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Connections: corresponded with Tycho Brahe.

SOURCES
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 29, (Leipzig, 1889), 370-2. Rudolf Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, (Munich, 1877), 272-3. [Microprint]; Bruce Moran, 'Christoph Rothmann, the Copernican Theory, and Institutional and Technical Influences on the Criticism of Aristotelean Cosmology,' Sixteenth Century Journal, 13.3 (1982), 85-103. 


Rudbeck, Olof



1. Dates: Born: Vasteras (Sweden), 1630; Died: Sweden, 17 Sep, 1702; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Academic; Church Living. Johannes Rudbeckius was professor of mathematics and theology at the University of Uppsala. He resigned the university chair in order to be appointed Bishop of Vasteras. He was also the founder of the first gymnasium in Sweden. This certainly sounds affluent to me. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Swede; Career: Swede; Death: Swede
4. Education: University of Uppsala; University of Leiden; M.D. He received his early schooling in Vasteras, then in 1648, entered the University of Uppsala to study medicine. He attended the lectures of Johannes Franckenius and Olaus Stenius on botany and anatomy. He received a grant from Queen Kristina to study abroad; he went to Leiden in 1653 where he completed his medical education and also a degree in botany before 1655. There is clearly a B.A. or its equivalent in there. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Physiology; Botany; He discovered the lymphatic system in 1650 and was the first to demonstrate the glands and to recognize their importance. His Nova exercitatio anatomica (1653) provided a clear and convincing description of his discoveries. In 1652 he demonstrated their function to the Queen, who gave him a grant of 800 rix-dollars to continue his studies abroad. In 1652 he disputed the liver's part in the production of blood. He published a book on the topic, De circulatione sanguinis. Rudbeck was a person of many talents who taught, beyond medicine, mathematics, astronomy, architecture, fortification, gunnery, and even more. He founded the tradition of natural history at Uppsala. He established the first botanical garden there in 1654. From 1655 the garden received 150 rix-dollars a years for its maintenance. In 1658 he published his first Catalogum plantarum, with 1052 different plants; the final edition in 1685 contained 1873 plants. In 1670 he undertook his most important botanic work, an illustrated book that would describe all known plants, entitled Campus Elysius. With the help of his children and students he made 3200 woodcuts, many of which were destroyed in the great fire of 1702. The book finally appeared in two volumes in 1701 and 1702, containing 1811 different plants.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Government Position; 1655-60, assistant professor in the Medical Faculty of Uppsala University. I am assuming that Rudbeck, like all professors of medicine, maintained a practice. 1660-72, professor of Medicine in Uppsala University. He later moved to the chair of Botany and Anatomy. In 1662 he was appointed head-master of the university and after a 'mandatory period' governor of the university. As governor he created a new chemistry laboratory. He had to resign in 1670 because of economical problems and disagreements between colleagues. In 1665 he was appointed 'commissary of the country's culture' with a commission to spread knowledge about Sweden's natural resources and production. He resigned his professorship in 1691. His last assignment was to reconstruct Uppsala after the great fire of 16 May 1702.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Beginning with the grant from the Queen to study abroad, there was continual favor from the court. Carl Oxenstierna and M.G. De la Gardie, both wealthy aristocrats, supported his Campus Elysii, which cost altogether about 40,000. 
9. Technological Connections: Civil Engineer; Military Engineer; Hydraulics; Rudbeck constructed an anatomy auditorium on top of the university building. He provided Uppsala with water pipes, constructed bridges and suspension bridges according to an invention of his own, and constructed wharves with doors that opened by themselves when a boat arrived. He also provided the streets of Uppsala with stone paving. He built several greenhouses for tropical plants in the botanical garden; they worked satisfactorally. He taught fortification. In light of all that activity in construction, I am listing military engineering.
10. Scientific Societies: Priority dispute with Thomas Bartholin, 1654-1657.

SOURCES:
Gunnar Eriksson, Botanikens historia i Sverige intill ar 1800, (Uppsala, 1969), pp. 71-6, 135-8, and the bibliography. Svensk Uppslagsbok.

Not Consulted: Nils von Hofsten, 'Upptacten av brostgangen och lymfkarlssystemet', Lychnos, (1939), pp. 262-88. Axel Garboe, Thomas Bartholin, 1, (Copenhagen, 1949), 120-73. Sten Lindroth, 'Harvey, Descartes, and Young Olof Rudbeck,' Journal of the History of Medicine, 12 (1957), 209-19. O. Larsell, 'Olof Rudbeck the Elder (1630-1702),' Annals of Medical History, 10 (1928), 301-13. Olof Rudbeck, Atlantica (original Swedish text), 4 vols. Axel Nelson, ed. (Uppsala, 1938-50). Try the introduction in volume 1. Olof Rudbeck, 'A Translation of Olof Rudbeck's Nova excertatio anatomica,' biographical note by Göran Liljestrand, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1 (1942), 304-39. Gunnar Eriksson, 'Om ingenting: Olof Rudbeck's föreläsningsprogram 1679,' Lychnos (1979-80), pp. 79-108. 


Rudolff [Rudolf], Christoff



1. Dates: fl. 1520-50. Rudolff was born at the end of the 15th century and died in the first half of the 16th century. The dates somtimes given, 1499-1545, are not supported by any documentary evidence. Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Jauer, Silesia [now Poland]. Career: Vienna, Austria. Death: Vienna, Austria.
4. Education: University of Vienna; He learned algebra from Grammateus at the University of Vienna, probably some time between 1517 and 1521. With information so sketchy, anything is possible, but no degree is mentioned.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; In Vienna, he supported himself by giving private lessons. Though not affiliated with the university, he was able to use its library.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He dedicated his Coss (1525) to the Bishop of Brixen (now Bressanone, Italy).
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; His Künstliche Rechnung mit der Ziffer und mit den Zahlpfennigen (1526) contains an 'Exempelbüchlein' which contains examples of the use of mathematics in commerce and manufacturing.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Cantor, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 29, 571-2.


Ruel, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Soissons, 1474; Died: Paris, 1537; Datecode: Lifespan: 63 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Unknown; M.D. He was self-taught in Greek and Latin. Although few details are known of his life, it is known that he studied medicine and received his M.D. in 1508. (Hazon cites 1502 as the date he received his M.D.). I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic. When his wife died he entered holy orders so he could devote himself entirely to his studies. Etienne Porcher, Bishop of Paris, obtained for Ruel a canonry at Notre-Dame. Upon his death Ruel was buried at Notre-Dame. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Pharmacology; Botany; Although Ruel's works were compilations of the works of earlier authors, they represented a first attempt at popularizing botany. In 1516 he published a translation of Dioscorides' De materia medica. De medicina veterina (1530) was a Latin compilation of everything written in Greek on veterinary medicine. His botanical work, De natura stirpium presented an alphabetical ordering of plants; provided information on odors and tastes of plants; and separated each topic (i.e. leaves, bark, etc.) into its own chapter. As an etymological source Ruel's work was unreliable because it relied on ancient authors. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Medicine. Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1508-9, regent at Paris. In 1509, he became the physician to Francis I. He became a canon at Notre-Dame which freed him from material concerns. The entry for medical practice is frankly speculation. It is not mentioned, but I have been unable to believe that he became physician to Francis without establishing a reputation as a physician.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; He was a physician to Francis I. Etienne Porcher, Bishop of Paris, obtained for Ruel a canonry at Notre-Dame. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Michaud, Biographie générale.  Antoine L.J. Bayle and _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Glasgow, 1906).  Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). J.A. Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus célèbres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778). 


Ruini, Carlo



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, c. 1530; Died: Bologna, 2 February 1598; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Aristocrat; We are told only that Ruini came from a noble family. Since he himself was a senator of Bologna, this is credible. No information about financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known. There is simply no information about his education. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; He is remembered chiefly for the two-volume Anatomia del cavallo, infermite et suoi remedii (Bologna, 1598), which went through several editions during the 17th century. The first volume deals mainly with anatomy, and the second specifically with equine diseases and their cures.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Lawyer. He was an aristocrat, senator, and high-ranking lawyer.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Four weeks before his death, Ruini composed the dedication of the Anatomia (which appeared that year after his death) to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, the nephew of Clement VIII. This is clearly dubious as patronage, but I have decided to list it.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; The work on veterinary medicine seems to fit best under this category. 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Dizionario enciclopedico italiano, 10, (Rome, 1959), 622. Pagel, 'Ruini,' Biographisches Lexicon der hervorragenden Arzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 2nd ed., (Berlin-Vienna, 1932), 4, 921. Z6658.B615AE35.D516; H.P. Bayon, 'The Authorship of Carlo Ruini's 'Anatomia del Cavallo',' Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics, 48 (1935), 138-49. G.B. Ercolani, Carlo Ruini-Curiosità storiche e bibliografiche intorno alle scoperte della circolazione del sangue, (Bologna, 1873). A passionate claim that Ruini discovered the circulation of the blood. There is precious little information about this man who is known only for his one book. 


Ruland, Martin



1. Dates: Born: Lauingen, Germany, 11 November 1569; Died: Prague, 3 April 1611 Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Physician; Schoolmaster; His father was Martin Ruland the elder (1532-1602; see Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 29, 634-5, Hirsch, 4, 922), who was professor of Arzneiwissenschaft (medicine or pharacology) at the Gymnasium at Lauingen, and in the last years of his life became personal physician to Rudolf II and the Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig. Clearly properous.
3. Nationality: Birth: Lauingen, Germany. Career: Regensburg, Germany and Prague, Bohemia. Death: Prague, Bohemia.
4. Education: University of Basel; M.D. Received an M.D. from the University of Basel, 1587. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic assumed
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Iatrochemstry.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Patronage; Nothing is known of Ruland until 1594, when he was city physician in Regensburg. 1607, he was appointed personal physician to Rudolf II in Prague.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; . Emperor Rudolf II appointed him personal physician.
9. Technological Connections: Med. Ruland applied the principles of Paracelsan medicine in his treatment of patients.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Pagel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 29, 634-5. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 4, 922. Partington, 2, 161-2. 


Ruysch, Frederik



1. Dates: Born: The Hague, 23 March 1638; Died: Amsterdam, 22 February 1731 Datecode: Lifespan: 93.
2. Father: Government Position; Hendrik Ruysch, from an old and notable family prominent in public positions until the war of liberation in the 16th century had brought about a serious decline in their fortunes. Hendrik was a secretary in the service of the state, but it is clear that his position was not high. Hendrik died while Frederik was still young. The economic status of the family is not made explicit. Frederik did attend the equivalent of grammar school, but he was apprenticed rather than being sent to university. It appears to me that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: Leiden, M.D. 1664; On his own, Ruysch enrolled in Leiden in 1661. He received the M.D. in 1664. As usual, I assume the equivalent of a B.A., but it appears especially clear here that one could pursue an M.D. without a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Early in his career Ruysch was an eager student of anatomy, who made his name by demonstrating the existence of valves in the lymphatic vessels. He was named Praelector of Anatomy for the surgeon's guild of Amsterdam in 1665 and held the position until his death. Ruysch was always basically an anatomist who was unsurpassed in preparing specimens. He even built and maintained a museum of corpses prepared according to the method he developed; he ultimately sold the collection to Peter the Great, and immediately began assembling another. As Professor of Botany at the Athenaeum Illustre (in Amsterdam) he gave regular lectures to the surgeons and apothecaries, and he published a description of the rare plants in the garden.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Scientific Organization; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Pharmacology; Academic; Schoolmaster; He was apprenticed as a boy to an apothecary; he opened his own shop in 1661 and was admitted to the guild that year. He maintained the shop through his university education. 1664, with the M.D. he set up practice in The Hague. 1665, appointed Praelector of Anatomy for the Surgeon's Guild of Amsterdam, where he moved in 1667. He held this position until his death. The duties included public dissections. 1668, city examiner of midwives in Amsterdam. 1672, city obstetrician in Amsterdam, a position he held until 1712. 1679, physician to the court of justice in Amsterdam, reporting on persons wounded in robberies or quarrels. 1685, Professor of Botany at the Atheneum Illustre (which I am treating as the equivalent of a university chair). He gave private lessons in anatomy to foreign students. He built up a great collection of anatomical preparations (in effect corpses embalmed according to his method), which he ultimately sold to Peter the Great for 30,000 guilders. He assembled another that was sold after Ruysch's death to the King of Poland for 20,000 guilders.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Magistrate; The States General of The Netherlands commissioned him to prepare the corpse of an English admiral killed in the second Dutch war; they rewarded him handsomely for the work. All of those appointments in Amsterdam could not have happened without patronage of some sort.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; I class as instrumentation Ruysch's method of preparing anatomical specimens; he kept the method secret during his life but passed it on at death.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Royal Society (London); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Leopoldina in 1705. Royal Society in 1720. Foreign member of the Académie (replacing Newton) in 1727. He was in addition a close friend of Boerhaave.

SOURCES
Fontenelle, 'Eloge,' Histoire de l'Académie, 1731. A.T. Hazen, 'Johnson's Life of Frederik Ruysch,' Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, 7 (1939), 324-34. A.M. Luydendijk-Elshout, introduction to the 1964 facsimile edition of Ruysch, Dilucidatio valvularum in vasis lymphaticis et lacteis. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek, 3. G.A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medical Biography.

Not Available and Not Consulted: V.F. Schreiber, introduction to Ruysch's Opera Omnia (1721). 





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

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