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Maestlin, Michael


1. Dates: Born: Goepingen, Germany, 30 September 1550; Died: Tübingen, 20 October 1631 Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: a merchant; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; German; Birth: Goepingen, Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Tübingen, Germany
4. Education: University of Tübingen; M.A. Attended monastery schools at Koenigsbronn and Herrenalb. 1568, matriculated at Tübingen. Heard mathematics and astronomy lectures from Peter Apian. 1569, B.A., Tübingen. 1571, M.A., Tübingen, then entered theological course.
5. Religion: Lutheran. : Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Served as an assistant to Peter Apian, prof. of Mathematics at Tübingen. 1575, replaced Apian while he went away on leave. 1575-1580, appointed to the Lutheran pastorate in Backnang, near Stuttgart. 1580, appointed professor of mathematics, University of Heidelberg. 1584-1631, professor of mathematics, University of Tübingen, replacing Apian who had been dismissed for refusing to sign Lutheran oath of religious allegiance. Between 1588 and 1629, elected dean of Tübingen arts faculty eight times. 
8. Patronage: Court; While a student he had been supported by a stipend from the Duke of Wuerttemberg, in order that he might be prepared for service in the Lutheran church. Influence has to have been behind the professorial appointment, probably influence at court.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; He made most of his own astronomical instruments, but was not involved in any kind of instrument trade. I won't list this because it does not involve the development of a new instrument.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Connections: taught and corresponded with Kepler.

SOURCES
Volker Bialas, 'Maestlin,' Neue deutsche Biographie, 15 (Berlin, 1987), 644-5.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Viktor Kommerell, 'Michael Maestlin,' Schwaebische Lebensbilder, 4 (Stuttgart, 1948), 86-100. Karl Steiff, 'Der Tübingen Professor der Mathematik und Astronomie Michael Maestlin,' Literarische Beilage des Staats-Anzeiger fuer Wuerttemberg (30 April 1892), 49-64. J.G.F. von Bohnenberger, 'Michael Maestlin,' Wuerttembergische Vierteljahrsheft fuer Landesgeschichte, 12 (1903), 244-7. 


Magalotti, Lorenzo



1. Dates: Born: Rome, 13 December 1637; Died: Florence, 4 March 1712; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position; Orazio Magalotti came from an old and very distinguished Florentine family that stretched back all the way to the 12th century. Orazio was closely related to Card. Lorenzo Magalotti, who was the cousin of Urban VIII and one of Urban's most trusted advisers. Orazio's wife, and thus Lorenzo's mother, also came from a family of Florentine nobility. Orazio Magalotti, wealthy by inheritance, was a spenthrift. He went to Rome (where Lorenzo was born) with Urban to maintain his diminishing fortune, which he did. He was named to the Roman nobility and was employed, inter alia, as a papal ambassador. Despite the father's prodigality, one has to say that Lorenzo grew up in wealthy circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Collegio Romano; University of Pisa; After early education at home, Magalotti was sent to the Jesuit Collegio romano at age 13 (probably in 1651 then) and to the University of Pisa in 1656. In Pisa he studied with Viviani, one of the last pupils of Galileo, and attended the lectures of other scientists, notably Marcello Malpighi, Carlo Renaldini, and Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. I found no mention of a degree and assume that, given his rank, he did not bother with one. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Magalotti had an uncle who was a cardinal, a brother who was an abbot, and five sisters who were nuns. For a few months in 1691 he himself was a brother in the Oratory of S. Filippo Neri, until he decided that he had no vocation for the religious life.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Com; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; He was the secretary of the Accademia del Cimmento and reported its activity in the Saggi di naturali esperienze fatte nell'Accademia del Cimento (Florence, 1667), essays on natural experiments mainly carried out by Borelli, Redi, and Vincenzio Viviani. Magalotti did not carry on any significant scientific work of his own, but he was involved part of his life with the currents of scientific thought.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Government Position; It is difficult to figure, from the existing literature, how extensive the estate that Magalotti inherited was. His extravagant father was frequently more a burden than anything else. In 1679 Magalotti also inherited something (which he found to be too little) from a brother. However, Fermi (p. 59) is explicit in stating that Magalotti owned two estates from which he received rents. Cochrane says that he had (the time is around 1695) 47,000 scudi in land, from which he received net income of only 600 scudi; Cochrane mentions that he also held state bonds but does not give their worth. Note that in 91-3, after the faux pas with the Oratory, when he simply laid down his position at court and did not receive it back until two years later, Magalotti was indeed able to live on the proceeds of his estates. Fermo makes it clear that Magalotti was the consumate courtier, and that once introduced into the Medicean court, late in 1659, he immediately attracted attention, especially the attention of Leopold. Already in 1660 Magalotti became the secretary of the Accademia del Cimento. In 1661, when the family finances were in disarray (I assume because of the father's extravagance), Magalotti went to Rome to obtain an ecclesiastic benefice to increment his income. He failed, but not long thereafter he became a Gentleman of the Chamber, a position that carried a stipend of some sort. In 1668, after the Accademia had folded, Magalotti effectively entered the service of Cosimo, the prince who became Grand Duke in 1670. At some point Magalotti became a Counsellor of State. In 1672 he was, against his will, put in charge of the Grand Duke's museum. In 1675-8 he was ambassador to the imperial court in Vienna (with a handsome stipend of course, though Magalotti found it insufficient), and he received a pension when he returned to Florence. It is obvious that the categories of Patronage and Governmental position overlap almost completely in Magalotti's case, but I cannot see how to leave either one out.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He was in the service of the Medici virtually all of his life. Fermi (pp. 55-6 especially) makes it clear how much Magalotti detested his servile position which he nevertheless never succeeded in leaving permanently. His only serious idea of how to leave, and it may well have been the only realistic alternative, was to enter other service, for example that of Card. Chigi. In 1691 Magalotti simply abandoned the court, without a by-your-leave, and entered the Oratory of S. Filippo Neri. It lasted only a few months. He returned to Florence and, as soon as he could, to his position at court. Fermi prints a nice poem that Magalotti composed about his lot. In 1669 Magalotti composed for Pope Alexander VII an essay on the use of the instruments of the Accademia that were being presented to him. In recompense, the Pope gave Magalotti a so-called Spanish pension worth 50 scudi a year for six years.
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies: Accademia del Cimento; 1560-1667; Royal Society (London); He was the secretary of the Accademia del Cimento, but his role in it extended only to composing the Saggi. On a visit to London he was received into the Royal Society. He was also a member of the Accademia della Crusca and of the Arcadia. He carried on an extensive correspondence, at least some of which has been published (see Cochrane). Among his correspondents were Michelini, Viviani, and Redi, all of whom were Magalotti's close friends. Magalotti became the friend of Steno when he came to Florence. In England he formed a friendship with Boyle.

SOURCES
Stefano Fermi, Lorenzo Magalotti, scienziato e letterato: studio biografico-bibliografico-critico, (Piacenza, 1903). This is an outstanding biography. Eric Cochrane, Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527-1800, (Chicago, 1973), pp. 231-313. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895) and 27 (1901), 65. E. De Angeli, 'Lorenzo Magalotti,' in G. Arrighi et al., La scuola galileiana, (Firenze, 1979), pp. 89-109.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Pompillio Pozzetti, Lorenzo Magalotti, (Florence, 1787). Cesare Guasti, 'Lorenzo Magalotti, diplomatico,' Giornale storico degli archivi Toscani, (1860-1861).


Magati, Cesare



1. Dates: Born: Scandiano (near Reggio Emilia), 1579; Died: Bologna, 9 September 1647; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Unknown; Giorgio Magati. The sources say only that Magati's parents were of modest condition. Münster and Romagnoli call the parents middle class. Nevertheless I am forced to note that of Magati's three siblings one brother became (like Magati) a well known physician, and a sister was the grandmother of Vallisnieri. No explicit information on financial status beyond that ambiguous 'modest condition.' 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Bologna; M.D., Ph.D. He obtained doctorates in both philosophy and medicine at Bologna in 1597-a pattern I have found common in Italy. After completing his university education, Magati went to Rome for training in surgery; he was especially interested there in the new methods being developed for the treatment of wounds. 
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1619 Magati joined the Capuchin order. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Surgery; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; He is particularly remembered for De rara medicatione vulnerum (1616), which discusses the theory and method of healing wounds. He also wrote another work on this subject, replying to an attack by Sennert. Magati was a conservative physician who held to the tradition of Galen and Hippocrates. Within those limits he emphasized that the function of the physician was to assist nature, the ultimate source of cure, as much as possible by obstructing her as little as possible with excessive medication and treatment. For this he is remembered as a fundamental reformer of surgery. Magati also left behind a manuscript De re medica. An important consultation on syphilis survives, as well as a writing on the plague.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; He built up a successful medical practice at Scandiano and gained the patronage of the Marquis (called Duke by some sources) Enzio Bentivoglio, who took him to Ferrara where in 1612 he named Magati a lecturer in surgery over the objections of the local medical profession. Magati continued to practice in Ferrara. He remained in this academic position only until 1618. In 1619 he joined the Capuchin order at Ravenna as Brother Liberato of Scandiano-a lay brother, who was never ordained. His superiors granted him permission (some sources say they ordered him) to practice, and he treated well-known patients throughout the territory of the house of Este. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Marquis Enzio Bentivoglio recognized his ability and took him to Ferrara. I do not want to take the time to sort out the precise status of rulers. In one genealogy of the house of Este, Alfonso II d'Este ruled Ravenna from 1559-97, and another source said that the church annexed Ferrara into the Papal state, from the Este, in 1598. There was, however, an Este Duke of Modena in the 1620's. Bentivoglio is clearly treated as the ruler of Ferrara in the accounts of Magati. On the other hand, the Este utilized Magati's medical talents extensively, and had Magati not died they would have published his De re medica. Magati dedicated De rara medicatione to Alessandro Fiasco, whom he called a knight and who was a magistrate in Ferrara, and to two magistrates of Ferrara and moderators of the university, Galeato Gualengo and Aloisio Bevilacqua, both marquises. Given the status of Ferrara, I list them as governmental officials. Medical consultations performed for the Rev. Giacomo Bentivoglio and the Countess Ippolita Manfreda survive.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 70-2. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. V. Putti, 'Cesare Magati (1579-1647),' in Biografie di chirurghi dal XVI a XIX secolo, (Bologna, 1941), pp. 8-16. S. de Renzi, Storia della medicina in Italia, 5 vols. (Naples, 1845-8), 4, 484-95. R517. R424; Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 500-2. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. Carlo Castellani, L'attivita clinico-medica di Cesare Magati, (Milan, 1959). Ladislao Münster and Giovanni Romagnoli, Cesare Magati, (Ferrara, 1968). 


Maggi, Bartolomeo



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, August 1477 (Fantuzzi says 1476; Hirsch says 1516); Died: Bologna, 7 April 1552; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Aristocrat; I am accepting Mandosio's identification of the family as Bolognese patricians. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; Nothing whatever is said. Since he was both a prominent physician and a professor of surgery at the University of Bologna, it seems likely that he had a degree in medicine, but I will forbear to guess. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Surgery; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; He was among the first to teach a rational method of treating gunshot wounds. The De vulnerum bombardorum et sclopetorum curatione, his work on the treatment of wounds, was published posthumously at Bologna in 1552. He was known also for his method of amputation. In 1550 Maggi published a consultation of syphilis.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; He was professor of surgery at the University of Bologna and practiced surgery, and was private physician to Pope Julius III whom he had known as a cardinal. He did not like Rome and returned to Bologna. In 1550 he was called to treat the nephew of Paul III.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He was private physician to Pope Julius III. Henry II of France rewarded him with honors and gifts for his curative treatment of wounded French soldiers during the French invasion of Italy. Maggi composed his consultation of syphilis at the request of Galeotto Pio Signore della Mirandola.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
D.Giordano, 'Medicazioni strane e medicazioni semplici,' in Scritti e discorsi pertinenti alla storia della medicina e ad argomenti diversi, (Milan, 1930), pp. 25-45. S. de Renzi, Storia della medicina in Italia, 5 vols. (Naples, 1845-8), 3, 660-66. R517. R424; Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 501-2. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 4, 29-30. G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 5, 112-13. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 405-6. Prosper Mandosius, Theatrum in quo maximorum christiani orbis pontificum archiatros spectandos exhibit, a separately paginated inclusion at the end of vol. 2 of Marini, (Roma, 1784), pp. 29-31.


Magini, Giovanni Antonio



1. Dates: Born: Padua 13 June 1555; Died: Bologna, 11 February 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 62
2. Father: Unknown; Of his father, Pasquale Magini, it is known only that he was a citizen of Padua. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Italian; Birth: Padua, Italy; Career: Bologna, Italy; Death: Bologna, Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; Ph.D. 1579, graduated with degree (a doctorate) in philosophy, University of Bologna. I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. : Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; Astronomy; Geography. Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology; Mathematics; Optics; Magini is remembered chiefly as a geographer and cartographer. He embarked upon the ambitious project of an atlas of Italy that would provide maps of each region with exact nomenclature and historical notes. The final complete edition of the atlas was published in 1620, after Magini's death, by his son. He did not himself do the mapping in the field. He published an edition of Ptolemy's Geography with a commentary in 1596. It is impossible fully to separate his astronomy from his astrology, and one could easily argue that astrology was more primary in his career than astronomy. His several astrological works were admired in his time. His writings on astronomy remain only of historical interest, since he continued to adhere to Ptolemaic principles. Magini'a mathematical work was essentially practical. In 1592 he published Tabula tetragonica, and in 1606 he brought out extremely accurate trigonometric tables. His contributions to practical geometry also included his works on the geometry of the sphere and applications of trigonometry, for which he invented calculating devices. He worked on mirrors and published on the theory of concave spherical mirrors.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1588, appointed to a chair of mathematics at Bologna, with a salary of 1000 lire-increased to 2000 in 1597 and later to 2500. He also served the Gonzaga dukes of Mantua as judicial astrologer and as teacher of mathematics to the princes-and received about 400 ducats per year. Magini also gave private lessons.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Patronage of Government Official; He served the Gonzaga Duke of Mantua as judicial astrologer beginning in 1599. He paid annual visits to Mantua, during which he also instructed the princes in mathematics. He dedicated his books on astrology to the Duke of Mantua. The Duke of Mantua lent his authority to the project of the atlas of Italy, aiding Magini in getting maps of the various states of Italy. Magaini dedicated the atlas to him. Magini received financial aid from several governments for his maps-for example, the governments of Messina and of Genoa (in both cases through the intervention of powerful patricians). Magini dedicated his map of the duchy of Monferrato to Caterina Medici Gonzaga. Apparently he dedicated all of his maps, some more than once, to rulers, aristocrates, and ecclesiastics. Thus he dedicated the map of Bologna to Card. Sforza. I have not tried to list all of the individual dedications of maps. He presented large concave spherical mirrors to Prince Jacopo Boncompagni, Card. Farnese, and Rudolf II. The Duke of Mantua gave him 500 scudi and diamond rings worth hundreds of scudi for one of the mirrors. The gift of the mirror to Rudolf led to a memorable long struggle by Magini to get the payment that he thought had been promised. He dedicated his Tabulae secundorum mobilium to Gregory XIII, and one of his Ephemerides to Don Giacomo Boncompagni (of Gregory's family), Governor General (if I understood correctly) of the papal states. He dedicated his Supplementum ephemeridum, 1614, to the Bolognese patrician Marescotti.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Mathematics; Instruments; He spent much of his life compiling an atlas of Italy, providing detailed maps of each region with exact nomenclature and historical notes. His mathematical tables. His spherical mirror rates as an instrument, as do a burning glass made for the emperor and a clock for the Duke of Mantua. He also devised (and described in print) a new quadrant.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Magini had extensive corespondence with a number of scientists of the time-including Galileo, Tycho, Kepler, Fincke, Clavius, van Roomen, Scheiner, and Ortelius. Favaro has published the correspondence.

SOURCES:
Roberto Almagia, L''Italia' di Giovanni Antonio Magini e la cartografia dell'Italia nei secoli XVI e XVII (Naples, 1922)-an outstanding book. A. Favaro, Carteggio inedito di Ticone Brahe, Giovanni Keplero e di altri celebri astronomi e matematici dei secoli XVI e XVII con Giovanni Antonio Magini, (Bologna, 1886). The book begins with a biography of Magini, which is the best available.
A. Favaro in Aldo Mieli, Gli scienziati italiani, (Roma, 1923), pp. 101-11.
P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 64-71; 2, 94-5.

Not Consulted: G. Loria, Storia delle matematiche (Milan, 1950), 380, 400, 422-5. 


Magiotti, Raffaello



1. Dates: Born: Montevarchi, Tuscany, 1597; Died: Rome, 1656; Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Gentry; The father is described as small provincial nobility. This sounds like what is called gentry in England. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; He studied in Florence. Later, in Rome, he was one of the three favored followers of Galileo, but he was not Galileo's student at any time. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; He demonstrated experimentally Torricelli's hypothesis that the mean velocity of a liquid flowing out of the bottom outlet of a vessel is proportional to the square root of the head pressure. He determined the rate of flow through various sizes of openings. Only one work by him was printed during his lifetime, the Renitenza dell'acqua alla compressione (1648). This work embodies the first published announcement of the near incompressibility of water at a constant temperature and the expansion and contraction of water and air according to changes in temperature. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; After becoming a priest in the order of Santa Lucia della Chavica, he was invited to accompany Cardinal Sacchetti to Rome around 1630 as his houseguest. In 1636 he was appointed scrittore on the scholarly staff of the Vatican Library with a salary of 200 scudi a year. He lived the rest of his life in the court of the Cardinal he had followed to Rome.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; He was invited to accompany Cardinal Sacchetti to Rome around 1630 as his houseguest. Galileo and Castelli wished to nominate him (1638-1640) for the chair of mathematics at Pisa, but he refused to leave the congenial intellectual life of Rome. I do not list this as patronage because it did not come to pass. He dedicated the Renitenza to Lorenzo de' Medici. I admit that I do not know who Lorenzo was (in the mid 17th century), and wonder if it was a slip for Leopoldo. In either case I assume that he was part of the court.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Magiotti developed the 'Cartesian devil' or 'diver' to illustrate the incompressibility of water.
10. Scientific Societies: He was one of the three favored followers, along with Castelli and Torricelli, whom Galileo referred to as his Roman 'triumvirate.' He maintained a correspondence with Galileo. Torricelli greatly admired him, openly acknowledged his aid in the field of hydrodynamics, and sought his approval of his work on solid cycloids. He was present at an experiment to test why pumps raise water only about 30 feet that was devised and staged in Rome by Berti at sometime between 1638 and 1644.

SOURCES:
G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Notizie degli aggrandimenti delle scienze fisiche accaduti in Toscana nel corso di anni LX del secolo XVII, 2, (Florence, 1780), 182-91. Microprint. C. De Waard, L'experience barometrique, new ed. (Thouars, 1936), pp.101-17, 132-7, 178-82. W.E.K. Middleton, History of the Barometer, pp. 10-18. _____, The Invention of Meteorological Instruments, pp. 3-18. Maurizio Torrini, 'Due galileiani a Roma: Raffaello Magiotti e Antonio Nardi,' in G. Arrighi et al., La scuola galileiana, (Firenze, 1979), pp. 53-88.

Not Available and Not Consulted: P. Berlingozzi, 'Raffaello Magiotti e la sua opera scientifica nel sec. XVII (Rivendicazioni valdarnesi ignorate)' in Memorie valdarnesi, 2, 9, (Montevarchi, 1902). Luigi Belloni, article on the Galilean 'triumvirate' in Rome, in F. de Gandt, ed., L'oeuvre de Torricelli: science galiléenne et nouvelle géométrie, (Paris, 1989). There does not seem to be a great deal of information about Magiotti. 


Magnenus [Magnen, Magnien], Johann Chrysostom



1. Dates: Born: Luxeuil, Burgundy, c. 1590; Died: c. 1679; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 89; These are the DSB dates: Güsgens places Magnenus' likely birth about ten years later and his likely death about ten years earlier, which would reduce his Lifespan by twenty years.
2. Father: Unknown; Partington calls him a patrician which seems to indicate that the father was a member of that class, though this was the only mention of it. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Luxeuil-les-Bains, France. Career: Pavia, Italy. Death: unknown. Italy or France, presumably.
4. Education: Dol, M.D. He received an M.D. from the University of Dôle. As usual, I will assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology. Magnenus' importance in the history of science derives from his attempt to reinstate the Democritean theory of atomism as a respectable part of seventeenth century natural philosophy. His Democritus reviviscens (1646) was typically regarded as instrumental in establishing a comprehensive alternative to Aristotelianism. His other writings include De tabaco (1648), which treats of the medical usage and effects of tobacco, and De manna liber singularis (1648). He used what is called tobacco syrup as his standard medicine prescribed to patients. Magnen's works reveal a great predilection for astrology, which he called the queen of the sciences. He thought that few who followed it really understood its usefulness.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; After receiving his M.D., he travelled first in Italy, becoming well-known as a doctor. Professor of Medicine, University of Pavia, 1646, with a salary of 600 lire. He later became Professor of Philosophy in addition. Apparently he remained at the university for the rest of his life. 1660, he was chosen personal physician to the Count of Fuensaldagne, the ambassador to the French court, whom he accompanied to Paris. This appears to have been a temporary appointment.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; Magistrate; He was personal physician to the Count of Fruensaldagne. Among his patients were Octavianus Picenardus, President of the Senate from Milan, Cesari Monti, Archbishop of Milan, and Gaspare Alifero, another official. He dedicated Democritus reviviscens to the Senate of Milan (Pavia was under Milanese control).
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He practiced medicine before becoming a professor and after leaving Pavia. It is not known whether he practiced medicine while a professor.
10. Scientific Societies: None known

SOURCES:
Partington, 2, 455-8. J. Güsgens, Die Naturphilosophie des Johannes Chryostomos Magnenus, (Bonn, 1910). This turns out to be an extract of Güsgens' dissertation, and among the parts left out is the section on Magnenus' life. _____, Joannes Chrysostomus, ein Naturphilosoph des 17. Jahrhunderts, (Bonn: Hanstein, 1910). The rather brief biographical sketch is in this version. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). Michaud, Biographie universelle, (Paris, 1828). 


Magni, Valeriano



1. Dates: Born: Milan, 15 October 1586 (Argellati says 1587); Died: Salzburg, 29 July 1661; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Aristocrat. His father, Konstantin Magni came from an old family, the Counts of Magni. The family, which was of German origin, moved to Prague when Magni was two, and the father died not long thereafter. Abgottspan says that the family was apparently wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Germany; Czechoslovak; Polish; Death: German 
4. Education: Religious Orders. Magni was educated within the schools of the Capucin order. In view of his career and his learning, I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Capuchin order in 1602. In 1616 he helped to establish the Franciscan order in Poland. Later he worked in Poland to consolidate the position of the Catholic church. In 1655 the combative Magni's long-standing feud with the Jesuits, against whom he harbored the deepest suspicions (he had incited Urban VIII, a close friend, against them) led to his being accused of heresy. He was arrested in Vienna at the end of 1655. The emperor's intervention secured his release the following February, whereupon he was sent to Salzburg, where he lived the rest of his life under virtual arrest in a monastery. The opposition of the Jesuits prevented Magni's elevation to the cardinalate.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Natural Philosophy; He was one of the pioneers with the Torricellian experiment and published an account of it, the Demonstratio ocularis (Warsaw, 1647). Magni also worked on a general philosophy opposed to Aristotle. Magni was first, foremost, and overwhelmingly a Catholic activist in the struggles of the counter-reformation. Although his scientific activities really existed, they were always decidedly subordinate to his religious activities.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; He entered the Capuchin order in 1602, and was a preacher and instructor at Prague, Linz, and Vienna. In 1613 he was appointed to a chair of philosophy in the Austrian capital. He was sent to Poland in 1616 to establish the Capucins there. During 1620's he was novice-master at Linz, and professor of philosophy at Prague. 1622-1623, Hapsburg envoy to Paris. 1624, Franciscian provincial of Bohemia. 1625, emissary of the Boheniman Capucins to Italy. 1630, representative of the Emperor at the peace talks in Italy. During this time, from roughly 1622 to 1634, Magni functioned as the advisor to Archbishop Harrach of Prague. After 1634 he worked in Poland to consolidate the position of Catholic church. He was much in the favor of the king, who undertook to elevate him to the Cardinalate. He was in Italy (1642-1643, 1645), then in Poland (1646-1648), and subsequently in Vienna and Cologne. According to de Waard, in a slightly different version, Magni was named, in 1625, Prefect and Apostolic Vicar of the church's mission to Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Germany. He was sent to Salzburg about 1655 as a result of his long standing quarrel with the Jesuits, and remained there under virtual arrest in a monastery for the rest of his life.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Magni was very close to Archbishop Harrach of Prague (later Cardinal Harrach) and functioned virtually as his deputy for an extended period. Harrach sent him on at least one mission to Rome. Obviously this relationship balances on the edge of the distinction between patronage and something else that is either employment or cooperation toward a shared goal. The sources on Magni are wholly silent about any benefits he might have received from Harrach, but knowing the practices of the period I find it impossible to believe that there were no benefits (or benefices). Sigismund III (Argellati says Vladislaus), the King of Poland. Magni helped to establish the Franciscan order in Poland at the request of the King, and the King later tried to obtain a cardinal's hat for him. Following the death of the King, he played a decisive part in the selection of a successor. When he was accused of heresy and arrested in 1655, the Emperor's intervention secured his release. He had earlier served the Emperor as an emisssary on more than one occasion. Urban VIII was a close friend of Magni, and was incited by him against the Jesuits in 1631. However, I have not seen any indication of favors to Magni from Urban. Magni was employed extensively by both Gregory XV and Urban. Magni dedicated De atheismo aristotelis, 1647. to Mersenne, but I do not see how to consider this under patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies: The publication of his barometer experiment aroused great controversy in 1640's. 

SOURCES:
C. De Waard, L'expérience barométrique, ses antécédents et ses explications, (Thouars, 1936). W.E.K. Middleton, The History of the Barometer, (Baltimore, 1964), Ch.3. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1. German Abgottspon, P. Valerianus Magni, Kapuziner (1586-1661), (Olten, 1939). Filippo Argellati, Bibliotheca scriptorum mediolanensium, 2 vols. (Milan, 1745), 2, 833-8, 2003.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Dionisio da Genova, Bibliotheca scriptorum ordinis minorum capuccinorum, (1680), p. 460 (or p. 306). Nicolao Lucensi and Ludovico de Salice, 'Valerianus Magni mediolanensis ordinis fratrum minorum capuccinorum provinciae Boemo-Austriacae provincialis et missionarii apostolica vita et gesta,' in Annales capuccinorum provinciae Bohemo-Moraviae, 4, 330-426. 


Magnol, Pierre



1. Dates: Born: Montpellier, 8 June 1638; Died: 21 May 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 77 
2. Father: Pharmacology; His father was an apothecary. His grandfather, father, and brother were apothecaries. His mother came from a family of physicians. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. He matriculated in the University of Medicine at Montpellier 19 May 1655. He received his Bachelor's degree 28 August 1657. On 1 August 1658 he recieved his licentiate. 11 January 1659 he obtained his M.D. After receiving his degree he made a serious study of plants. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. In 1664 he was proposed for the position of demonstrator of plants. The appointment was refused because of his religion. Again in 1667 Magnol was a leading candidate for a professorial position at Montpellier and was denied the postion because of the King's policy to keep Protestants out of public office. He renounced his religion in October 1685.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; In his Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum (1689), he was one of the first to classify plants in tables that made possible rapid identifications. He was the first to use the term 'family' in the sense of a natural group. In another work, Botanicum Monspeliense (Lyons, 1676), Magnol described 1354 species growing around the area. He almost always gave localities and frequently added notes on the medicinal or other uses. This work was the basis for the Linnaean dissertation on the Montpellier region in 1756. His other works include Hortus regius Monspeliensis (Montpellier, 1697), a catalog of his garden, and the posthumous published Novus caracter plantarum (1720). 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Academic; After 1659 he began to botanize in the area around Montpellier, in Provence, and in the mountainous regions of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Although nothing is said, one must assume that Magnol was practicing medicine; he did stay alive, and his family was not wealthy. At some point in his life he did practice medicine. On 12 December 1663 Antoine Vallot, the doctor of the king and former doctor of Montpellier, obtained for Magnol a brevet de medecin royal, an honorary title with no royal function. In 1687 he became demonstrator of plants at the botanical garden of Montpellier. Since this was not an academic position, I treat it as governmental. He was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Montpellier in 1694. On 13 September 1694, Guy-Crescent Fagon, the doctor of the king, obtained for Magnol a brevet de professeur royal. Magnol occupied one of the four chairs established in 1498. In 1696 he was named director of the botanical garden. According to A. Leenhardt (Montpelliéraine médecines des rois, n.d., a work cited by others in the bibliography here), Magnol received lettres de noblesse at the same time as his directorship. He was one of the founding members of the Société Royale des Sciences de Montpellier (1706) and held one of the three chairs in botany. He was called to Paris in 1709 by the Académie royale des sciences (Paris); . 
8. Patronage: Medical Practioner; Through Antoine Vallot, an influential court physician, he obtained a brevet de medecin royal in 1663. In 1667 the King opposed his nomination as professor of medicine at the University of Montpellier. Through Guy-Crescent Fagon, another, later, court physician, he obtained a brevet de professeur royal in 1694. Magnol dedicated his Prodromus to Fagon. According to A. Leenhardt, Magnol received lettres de noblesse in 1696. I do not know if Fagon was behind the appointment to the Académie, but I have not found anyone else mentioned. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Part of Magnol's botanical studies was the medicinal properties of the plants he collected. 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); He was one of the founding members of the Société Royale des Sciences de Montpellier (1706) and held one of the three chairs in botany. He was called to Paris in 1709 to replace Tournefort at the Académie Royale des Sciences and was particularly warmly received there by Fontenelle. He established contacts with many French and Foreign botanists: John Ray, W. Sherard, and James Petiver in London; Hermann and Hotton in Leiden; Commelin in Amsterdam; the Rivinuses in Leipzig; Breyn in Danzig; J.H. Lavater in Zurich; Lelio and G.B. Triumpheti in Rome; G. Ciassi in Venice; Boccone in Palermo; Nappus in Strasbourg; J. Salvador in Barcelona; Jacob Spon in Lyons; and G.C. Fagon in Paris.

SOURCES:
Antoine Magnol's biography in J.E.Planchon, ed., La botanique à Montpellier. Notes et documents, (Montpellier, 1884). (the principal source.); L. Dullieu, 'Les Magnol,' Revue d'histoire des sciences et leurs applications, 12 (1959), 209-24.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Robert Zander, 'Pierre Magnol,' Das Gartenamt (Nov. 1959), pp. 245-6. 


Magnitsky, Leonty Filippovich



1. Dates: Born: 9 June 1669; Died: 30 October 1739; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Family: Peasant - Small Farmer; Magnitsky was the son of a poor peasant, Filipp Magnitsky of Tver province (today the Kalininskaya region). From his earliest days he was obliged to work. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Russian; Career: Russian; Death: Russian.
4. Education: None Known; He learned to read and write in his childhood. In 1684 he was sent to the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery. When he turned out to be literate, he was allowed to stay in the monastery to read sacred books. Later he was sent to the Simonov Monastery in Moscow to become a priest. From 1685 to 1694 he was at the Slavonic, Greek and Latin Academy in Moscow. (Although I do not know much about Russian religious orders, I strongly doubt that this education was similar to that in the West, and I am not listing it in the way that I would list education within the Jesuit or Dominican orders.) 
5. Religion: Russian Orthodox 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Navigation; His Arithmetic (1703) was the first guide to the new mathematics published in Russia. Combining the tradition of Russia mathematical literature of the 17th century with that of the western European mathematical schools, the work served as the basic texbook of mathematics in Russia for half a century. He also participated in the preparation of a Russia edition (1703) of the logarithmic table of Vlacq(1618). He co-edited Tables for Navigation (1722).
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; From 1694 to 1701 he tutored the children of Moscow nobles. Peter I provided special monetary support for his work on Arithmetic; from 2 February 1701 to 1 January 1702, Magnitsky received forty-nine rubles. In 1704 Peter had a house built in Moscow for Magnitsky's family. Teacher at the Navigation School in Moscow, 1702-1715. Director of the Navigation school, 1715-1739, with a salary of 260 rubles a year. From 1733 he directed the office of the Moscow Academy. Magnitsky was one of many non-nobles to rise to prominence under Peter.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; In 1701 Peter the Great founded the Navigation School in Moscow, and in 1702 Peter brought Magnitsky there to teach. Add all of the rest above.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Military Engineer; In addition to the work on navigation, in 1707, on the occasion of the Swedish invasion, Peter set Magnitsky to work on the fortifications of the city of Tver.
10. Scientific Societies: The Moscow Academy, in which Magnitsky appears to have been prominent, was not connected with the famous imperial academy in St. Petersburg. It was based rather on an earlier Kiev Academy. I am not listing it. 

SOURCES
D.D. Galanin, Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky i yego 'Arifmetika', 3 vol., (Moscow, 1914). Enciklopediceskij slovak.

Not Consulted: A.P. Denisov, Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky, (Moscow, 1967). 


Maier, Michael



1. Dates: Born: Rensburg, Holstein, ca. 1568; Died: Magdeburg, 1622 (Note: This is misprinted as 1662 in the D.S.B.); Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Government Official; The D.S.B. says that he was probably the son of Johann Maier, an offical of the Duchy of Holstein. The Neue deutsche Biographie, on the other hand, says his father was Petrus Meier (d. < 1590), a gold embroiderer in the service of Heinrich Rantzaus, Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein. A relation of his mother's, Severin Goebel, a well-known physician of Gdansk and Koenigsberg, financed his studies. No solid information on parents' financial status, although the information about his education seems to suggest that they were less than affluent.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Rensburg, Holstein, Germany. Career: Germany; Death: Magdeburg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Rostock; University of Padua; University of Frankfurt (an Oder); M.A. University of Bologna; University of Basel; M.D. PhD; He studied first either in Rensburg or Kiel. 1587, University of Rostock. 1589, he was in Nuremberg. 1589-1591, he was in Padua with Goebel's son. (The Neue deutsche Biographie has him in Padua in 1595). 1592, University of Frankfurt a. d. Oder. He received an M.A. 1596, University of Bologna. 1596, University of Basel, where he received an M.D. It is not known where he got his Ph.D.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alc
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; I presume his trip to Padua with Goebel's son (1589-1591) was in the capacity of tutor/companion. 1590, he started practicing surgery without an academic degree (which doesn't seem surprising to me). Sometime between 1592-1596, he worked at Koenigsberg under the supervision of Severin Goebel. It seems that before 1600 he was a courtier of Rudolf II and a writer in the German chancellery. 1601, he entered his name on the roles of the University of Koenigsberg as Dr Phil. and Dr. Med., probably hoping for professional status, but he did not get it. 1601, he started a medical practice in the White Lion Inn, Gdansk, where he dispensed his own cures. Around 1608, he returned to Prague as a doctor. in 1609, he entered the service of the emperor. According to the D.S.B.: 1611 and 1612-1614 were periods of extensive travel, first around Saxony, then to England and Amsterdam. According to the Neue deutsche Biographie in 1611-1614, he 'entered himself' into the court of James I, where he remained for nearly five years. Around 1614, he became non-resident physician and chemist for the Kassel court to Landgrave Maurice of Hesse, but he retained his private practice. 1618, he travelled to Stockhausen, where he attended a wealthy nobleman named von Eriedesel, but he left his household in Frankfurt. 1618-1622, he became physician to Duke Christian Wilhelm of Magdeburg.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Early in his life there was the physician Severin Goebel (see above). Though he was a relative, the relationship sounds like patronage. Sometime before 1600 he was probably a courtier to Emperor Rudolf II. Around 1612, he became physician-in-ordinary to Rudolf, though this appears to have been honorary because his name does not appear in court accounts. His family coat of arms was augmented by Rudolf and he was named Hofpfalzgraf (count Palantine) in 1609. A count Palantine was an imperial official who exercised a sort of supervision over the universities and had the right to grant doctorates and the title of poet laureate. Landgrave Maurice of Hesse was a patron to a certain extent. Maier met him in 1611 while fishing for a job. He dedicated a book to Maurice, whereupon he was appointed 'Medicus und Chymicus von Haus aus,' but even when he was appointed, he did not belong to Maurice's inner circle of alchemical practioners. The nobleman von Eriedesel presumably counts as a patron. He was physician to Duke Christian Wilhelm, Archbishop of Magdeburg and primate of Germany. Toward the end of his life, he attempted to cultivate the Danish Prince Friedrich III as a patron, but was not sucessful. He dedicated works to him. Some evidence exists that supports the idea that he was connected with the English court while in England. There are copies of Arcana Arcanissima (ca. 1614) with manuscript dedications to both Sir William Paddy, physician to James I, and Sir Thomas Smith, first governor of the East India Company and treasurer of the Virgina Company.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Ulrich Neumann, Neue deutsche Biographie, 15, 703a-4a. J.B. Craven, Count Michael Maier (Kirwall, Scotland, 1911; repr. London: Dawsons, 1969). [QD24.M3 C89]; Bruce T. Moran, 'Privilege, Communication, and Chemiatry: The Hermetic-Alchemical Circle of Moritz of Hessen-Kassel,' Ambix, 32 (1985), 110-26. Note: Craven is quite outdated, and Hubicki (in DSB) claims his entry there is the most up-to-date source. Hubicki varies somewhat from the Neue deutsche Biographie. I have indicated some of the points where they disagree. Moran seems to me to be something that deserves to be on a general patronage bibliography. 


Maignan, Emanuel



1. Dates: Born: Toulouse, 17 July 1601; Died: Toulouse, 29 October 1676; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Official; Maignan came from a prominent Armagnac family. His father was an advisor to the king and a senior member of the Chancelry. While it is nearly impossible to imagine that the family was not wealthy, I find no explicit reference to their financial status and prefer to list it as unknown.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Italian; Death: French 
4. Education: Religious Orders; He was educated at the Maison des Pensionnaires by the Jesuits. He entered the order of Minims in 1619. He first studied philosophy under the renowned peripatetic, P. Ruffat. Later his interests turned to mathematics in which he was self taught. From his career it appears he must have had the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the order of Minims in 1619, and devoted much of his energy to the administrative and religious work of his order as well as to the education of the youths of Toulouse.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Instruments; He participated in Rome in the important experiments which helped to establish the possibility of artificially creating a void space in nature and which influenced the work of Torricelli and others. His Cursus philosophicus (1653) provides one of the fullest accounts of these researches. His work in optics, instrument making and design, and various branches of physics is in need of reevaluation. His Perspective horaria (1648) is an extremely detailed and almost exhaustive discussion of sundials.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He taught philosophy and theology at the Minim convent of Monte Pincio in Rome from 1636 to 1650. He was elected Corrector of Santa Trinita shortly after his arrival. His time in Italy was devoted mostly to teaching and experiments rather than to administrative duties. He was appointed by his superiors to a chair of mathematics in Rome. In 1650 he returned to Toulouse, where he spent most of the remainder of his time, devoting much of his energy to the administrative and religious work of his order. After his return to Toulouse, his superiors elected him provincial of Aquitaine. 
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; In 1648, Maignan dedicated his Perspective horaria to Spada, the 'protecteur' of his order. Berthier, de Feubert, and Donneville, all three presidents of the Parlement of Toulouse were 'protecteurs' of Maignan. Later in his life, Maignan was visited by King Louis XIV. The king was so impressed with the work Maignan carried out in his cell, which was a cross between a workshop and a lab, that the following day he sent Mazarin with an offer of a court post. Maignan was content with his simple life in Toulouse and wanted to avoid 'crainte d'etre attaché'. Perhaps Maignan was afraid his work would be compromised if he set up residence at court. Maignan did get to Paris, but not for a court appointment, rather to visit the salon of Montmor. 
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Maignan and Berti constructed an apparatus to demonstrate that a bell ringing in a Torricellian tube becomes inaudible when the air is removed. Maignan's Perspective gives a clear and full account of how to make the instruments for constructing dials and buffing instruments and the necessary steps in polishing lenses. Sun dials.
10. Scientific Societies: Maignan met Mersenne and was visited by him in Toulouse. Later in life Maignan visited the salon (or académie, as it is ofter call) of Montmor. 

SOURCES:
Henri Louyat, 'Emmanuel Maignan,' Comptes rendus du Congres National des Sociétés Savantes, Section des Sciences, 1 (1971), 15-29. Michaud, Biographie Toulousiane, (Paris, 1823), 2, 4-7. (entry under Raymond Maignan) DC 801 .T726 L2; 'La filosofia de Emmanuel Maignan,' Revista de filosofia, (Madrid), 13 (1954), 15-68. 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J.Saguens, De vita ... Emanuel Maignani, (Toulouse, 1703).
F.Sander, Die Auffassung des Raumes bei Emanuel Maignan und Johannes Baptiste Morin, (Paderborn, 1934). 'La vida, obras e influencia de Em. Maignan,' Revista de Estudios Politicos, 46 (1952) 111-149. 


Maillet, Benoit de



1. Dates: Born: Saint-Mihiel, Lorraine, 12 April 1656; Died: Marseille, 13 January 1738; Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Gentry; Le Mascrier calls Maillet a gentleman of Lorraine born to a distinguished and noble family. Maillet always realized, however, that he was not an aristocrat. This is the status I call gentry. Maillet clearly had some money; sometimes it seemed as though he had wealth. At the least the family must have been affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; ME; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He received an excellent classical education. There is no mention of a university.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; His system was materialistic, and it denied that the Biblical chronology could be correct.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; His major work, Telliamed ou entretiens d'un philosophe indien avec un missionaire francois sur la diminution de la mer, la formation de la terre, l'origine de l'homme, etc. (Amsterdam, 1748), in essence an ultraneptunian theory of the earth, was based largely on his geological field observations made during extensive travels throughout Egypt and other Mediterranean countries. He argued that the Biblical chronology could not be correct. His theory and ideas influenced many leading naturalists for almost a century.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position; There is no mention in any account of what he did until he was thirty-five and was travelling in the Middle East. He must have been living on his personal means. 1692-1708, general consul of the king of France at Cairo. 1712-1717 (or perhaps 1702-08), consul in Leghorn. 1717-1720, inspector of French establishments in the Levant and the Barbary states. 1720 retired to Marseille on a handsome pension.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; After being appointed through the influence of his protector, Chancellor Pontchartrain, general consul of the king of France at Cairo in 1692, Maillet held different diplomatic positions for about thirty years. He once (1702) was chosen as the king's envoy to Ethiopia, but Maillet declined the position. Telliamed was dedicated to Cyrano de Bergerac-but it is established that the dedication was written by the Abbé Le Mascrier.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: He was associated with Le Mascrier.

SOURCES:
Fritz Neubert, Einleitung in eine kritische Ausgabe von B. de Maillets Telliamed. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der franzosischen Aufklarungsliteratur, Romanische Studien, no.19, (Berlin, 1920). PC13.R76 no.19. Nouvelle biographie générale, 32, 885. Marie Louise and Jean Dufrenoy, 'Benoit de Maillet as Precursor to the Theory of Evolution,' Archives internationale d'histoire des science, 7 (1954), 161-7. Harriet D. Rothschild, 'Benoit de Maillet's Leghorn Letters,' 'Benoit de Maillet's Marseilles Letters,' 'Benoit de Maillet's Letters to the Marquis de Caumont,' 'Benoit de Maillet's Cairo Letters,' Studies on Voltaire and the 18th Century, 30 (1964), 351-75, 37 (1965), 109-45, 60 (1968), 311-38, and 169 (1977), 115-85. Abbé Le Mascrier, 'Vie de Monsieur de Maillelt,' in Telliamed, (La Haye, 1755), pp. 1-23. 


Mairan, Jean Jacques d'Ortous de



1. Dates: Born: Béziers, 26 November 1678; Died: Paris, 20 February 1771; Datecode: Lifespan: 93
2. Father: Gentry; His family came from the minor nobility (which I am calling Gentry). His father, François d'Ortous died when Jean was four. His mother died in 1694, when he was not yet sixteen, leaving him to his own devices. Jean Jacques (and I assume his father) had the title of Lord (Sieur) of Mairan. Mairan's own career seems clearly to indicate that he had inherited means. Though orphaned, he had no visible income other than inherited means until he became a member of the Académie in 1719, when he was over forty. Hence I conclude that he grew up in circumstances at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; 1694-97, he studied in Toulouse. 1698-1702, he studied physics and mathematics in Paris, where Malebranche was one of his teachers. There is no mention of university or degree. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mechanics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Org; He was concerned with a wide variety of subjects, including heat, light, sound, motion, the shape of the earth, and the aurora. His works include Dissertation sur les variations du barometre (Bordeaux, 1715), Dissertation sur la glace (Bordeaux, 1716), Dissertation sur la cause de la lumière des phosphores et des noctiluques (Bordeaux, 1717), and Dissertation sur l'estimation et la mesure des forces motrices des corps (1728). He also published a number of mathematical works. Mairan replaced Fontenelle as perpetual secretary of the Académie. He was its assistant director in 1721, '27, '36, '44, '59, and director in '22, '28, '45, '60. He was also editor of the Journal des scavants.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Official; Patronage; 1702, he returned home after his studies in Paris to Béziers, where he devoted himself to full-time study. He must have had some income from inherited property. His title was Lord (Sieur) of Mairan. He moved to Paris in 1718, but around 1723 he was back in Béziers for a few years. He became a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1719. Later he received official lodging in the Louvre. He remained a pensionnaire until 1743, and served as secretary from 1741 to 43. In 1746 he was reinstated as pensionnaire géomètre. It is reported that the Prince of Conti and other great lords heaped gifts upon him. He was also secretary to the Duke of Orleans.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; At Béziers he ate every day with the Bishop of Béziers. When he later organized a society in Béziers, it was founded under the protection of Cardinal de Fleury. The Cardinal, with M. de Maurepas, chose Mairan to replace Fontenelle. Chancellor d'Aguesseau named him to edit the Journal des Scavants. The King gave his society in Béziers a pension of 500 livres. See his relations (above) with the Prince of Conti and the Duke of Orleans.
9. Technological Connections: Civil Engineering; After the Maritime Council commissioned the Académie, the Académie charged Mairan and Varignon in 1721 to investigate the gauging of ships in order, by means of an exact method, to prevent the complaints of commerce and the fraud of merchants. Mairan visited the ports of the Mediterranean in this capacity. In the end, the scheme of the Académie was not adopted.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); Instit. Bologna; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); 1718, associé of the Académie; 1719, pensionnaire géomètre until his death (with an interlude from 1743-46). See above for his offices in the Académie. He also belonged to the Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and Uppsala, the Petersburg Academy, and the Institute of Bologna. With Jean Bouillet and Antoine Portalon, he founded his own scientific society in Béziers about 1723.

SOURCES
Grandjean de Fouchy's éloge in the Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences, 1771, (Paris, 1774), pp. 89-104. Nouvelle biographie générale, 32, 936-40. Index biografique (Académie des sciences), p. 335.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Abby R. Kleinbaum, Jean Jacques Dortous de Mairan (1678-1771), Columbia University Ph.D. diss., 1970. 


Malebranche, Nicolas



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 5 August 1638; Died: Paris, 13 October 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 77 
2. Father: Government Official; His family had modest wealth. His father was a royal counsellor, from the rural bourgeoisie. He was the treasurer of five large farms. His mother belonged to the minor nobility. His brother-in-law was governor of Canada. His maternal uncle was a canon at Notre Dame. I accept the information that they were wealthy. Note that Malebranche apparently lived on the family wealth.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A. He entered the Collège de la Marche of the University of Paris in 1654, and received an M.A. in 1656. Then he studied theology at the Sorbonne for three years. He attended the lectures of the renowned peripatetic, M. Rouillard. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in 1660. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in 1660. He completed his novitiate at fauborg St. Jacques. From April-October 1661 he was at the house of Saumur where the focus was on intense philosophical and theological studies. In October he returned to the mother house in Paris. He was ordained priest in 1664. His family assured the money to support Malebranche. Yet, when Malebranche died he bequeathed his library, furniture, and some money to pay the rest of his board due. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics; Optics; His work De la recherche de la verité (1668), six editions of which were published during his lifetime, was made possible by the materials made available to him by the group surrounding Clerselier. With the Traité de la nature et de la grace (Amsterdam, 1680), he emerged as the creator of a new system of the world. The book's immediate goal was to refute Jansenist ideas concerning grace and predestination. The Traité was placed on the Index in 1690 while Malebranche was preparing the third edition. Malebranche was the mainspring for the spread and development of Cartesian mathematics. He insisted on a need for reform and fostered the introduction of Leibnizian mathematics. Though he holds no place in the history of mathematics for any discovery, most of the mathematics done at the end of the seventeenth century was due to Malebranche. 
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Government Position; He was ordained priest in 1664. In 1674 he officially took on teaching duties in mathematics at the Congregation. He had students before this time. It is likely that his duties as a professor of mathematics lasted only a short time. In any case there is no further trace. By 1680, it had been several years since he had been assigned any specific duties. He devoted all his time to writing and to his role as mediator between theology and Cartesian natural philosophy. Every indication is that Malebranche lived on his inherited personal means. He became a member of the Académie in 1699.
8. Patronage: Unknown; By 1680, he had no official duties and was allowed to spend his time on his writing and research. In view of the fact that his family was supplying his support, I cannot see this as patronage. However, someone had to have stood behind the appointment to the Académie. There does not appear to have been any influential patron behind Malebranche. We are nearing the end of the age of patronage, and it appears that he operated without a patron for the most part.
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1715; In reaction to Mariotte's Traité (1673), Malebranche wrote Mémoire sur la lumière which won him membership to the Académie. Although he was surpassed in ability even by his student, Preset, Malebranche encouraged others of greater ability to continue new research: Leibniz, Louis Carré, Reyneau among many others. 

SOURCES:
A. Robinet, Malebranche, de l'Académie des Sciences, (Paris, 1970). G. Rodis-Lewis, Nicolas Malebranche, (Paris, 1963). Yves Marie André, La vie du R. P. Malebranche, (Paris, 1886; reprint 1970). 


Malpighi, Marcello



1. Dates: Born: Crevalcuore (Bologna), 10 March 1628. Died: Roma, 29 November 1694 (If it matters, Fantuzzi says 30 November, and Fabroni 3 October.); Datecode: Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Unknown; Of the father we are told only that Marc-Antonio Malpighi was in comfortable circumstances, which I take to mean affluent. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Bologna; M.D., Ph.D. He completed his grammatical studies in 1645 at Bologna. In 1646 he matriculated the University of Bologna, where his tutor was Francesco Natali. On Natali's advice he began to study medicine in 1649. He first attended the school conducted by Bartolomeo Massari, then that of Andrea Mariani. He graduated as doctor of medicine and philosophy (in a familiar Italian pattern) in 1653. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent is implied in that.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Embryology; Mcr; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Physiology; Entomology; He first systematically and fruitfully exploited the microscope in anatomical and embryological research. His first and fundamental work is the De pulmonibus, two short letters he sent to Borelli in Pisa and which were published in Bologna in 1661. In these letters he announced his fundamental discoveries about the lung. The results of his researches on the fundamental structures of the brain and of the tongue, carried out by using marine animals, were published in a series of treatises in 1665-6. He reiterated and developed his theory of glandular structure in the epistolary dissertation De structura glandularum congloratarum consimiliumque partium (London, 1688). His chief hematological treatise, De polypo cordis, appeared in 1666 as an appendix to the De viscerum structura (Bologna, 1666). With the De formatione and the subsequent appendenx to it (1675), he brought a fine structural content to embryology. His Anatome plantarum (1675 and 1679) earned him acclaim as the founder of the microscopic study of plant anatomy. Malpighi also did fundamental work on the silk worm. He could also be listed under Medicine (there was a posthumous De recentiorum medicorum studio, a defense of rational medicine against empirics) and Zoology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; After completing his M.D. in 1653, Malpighi began to practice. 1656, lecturer in logic at the University of Bologna. 1656-9, professor of theoretical medicine at the University of Pisa. 1659-60, extraordinary lecturer on theoretical medicine at the University of Bologna, at salary of 500 lire. 1660-2, 1666-91, ordinary lecturer in practical medicine at Bologna, at salary of 500 lire before 1666, and of 1200 lire from 1666 to 1991. 1662-6, professor of medicine at the University of Messina, with a salary of 1000 scudi plus 300 scudi for travel expenses. 1666-91, medical practice at Bologna. 1691-4, chief physician to Pope Innocent XII at Rome. He was also appointed as Protomedico in Rome. In 1691, elected to the Accademia degli Arcadi at Rome. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Sci; The Grand Duke, Ferdinand II, in 1656 offered him a chair in theoretical medicine at Pisa, and he accepted. How his reputation should have reached the Tuscan court is not known. The Assunti di Studio recommended in 1659 that his salary (at the University of Bologna) be increased by 300 lire in order to differentiate him from outsiders hired for primary chairs and customarily paid 400 lire. After his second return to Bologna, the Assunti di Studio again proposed an increase of 700 lire in his salary, the recommendation was adopted by the Senate on the same day, thus brought his salary to 1200 lire. I list this under Magistrates. He owed his position at Messina to Borelli, to whom he had dedicated his first book. It was Borelli's recommendation that was responsible for his election by the Messina Senate to the primary chair in medicine at Messina, which came sooner than might have been expected. Through Borelli's influence he received his reappointment in 1666. In Messina he lodged with Visconte Giacomo Ruffo Francavilla, and to the Visconte he dedicated a letter on the senses. Cardinal Pignatelli, who became Pope Innocent XII in 1685, wanted him to move to Rome, but he declined because of his poor health. Pope Innocent XII, who had as a Cardinal been the Papal legate to Bologna, called Malpighi to Rome as Protomedico in 1691 when he had just been elected to the papacy. With his appointment as cameriere segreto partecipante, he acquired clerical status as a monsignor and was thereafter addressed as Reverendissimo. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; Malpighi developed the techniques by which to apply the microscope to anatomical and embryological research.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); 1691-1694; In October 1667 Oldenburg composed a friendly letter to him and invited him to enter into scientific correspondence with the Royal Society of London. By this time he had already published some of his most important works. He replied in April 1668, and began his correspondence with the Royal Society, an association which lasted for the rest of his life. The Society subsequently supervised the printing of all his later works. He was elected FRS in 1669. He was elected to the College of Doctors of Medicine in Bologna in 1691. Malpighi's relationship with Borelli, which began in Pisa, was obviously important. He also maintained relations with Fracassati, Cornelio, and Steno. He was taken into the Arcadia in Rome. Adelmann has published Malpighi's correspondence in five volumes (Ithaca, 1975).

SOURCES
Howard B.Adelmann, Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology, Ithaca, N.Y., 1966. QL953.A22; L. Belloni, 'Marcello Malpighi,' in G. Arrighi et al., La scuola galileiana, (Firenze, 1979), pp. 137-53. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 73-5. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1985), 100 and 27 (1901), 66. The editor's introduction to Malpighi, Opere scelte, Luigi Belloni, ed., (Torino, 1967). G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 5, 128-45. A. Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, (Pisa, 1778), 1, 128-93.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Gallassi, 'Studie e ricerche su Marcello Malpighi,' Rivista di storia delle scienze, 41 (1950), 7-63. M. Anzalone, Marcello Malpighi e i sui scritti sugli organi del respiro, (Bologan, 1966). E. Toffoletto, Discorso su Malpighi, (Bologna, 1965).
F. Morini, Marcello Malpighi e la botanica. F. Todara, Marcello Malpighi nella medicina e nella biologia. E. DeMichelis, Marcella Malpighi e la storia del pensiero. G. Weiss, Di Marcelloa Malpighi e delle sue opere, (Messina, 1884). T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 100-4. 


Manfredi, Eustachio



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 20 September 1674; Died: Bologna, 15 February 1739; Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Law; Alfonso Manfredi was a notary, i.e., a lawyer; It is clear that the father was in some sort of financial stringency, and partly for this reason he pressed Manfredi to study law. Later on greater financial stringencies of the father would bear upon Manfredi. However, all things are relative. I note that in addition to Eustachio, two other sons went to the university and became professors, while as fourth son became a Jesuit. There is no way in which they could have been poor. I put them down as affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Bologna, Italy; Career: Bologna, Italy; Death: Bologna, Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; L.D. B.A. assumed; He began his studies at the Jesuit college at Bologna, encouraged by his father to study philosophy. He studied mathematics and hydraulics with Domenico Guglielmini, and taught himself astronomy. 1692, took a double doctorate in canon and civil law, but never practiced.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Hydrology. Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Manfredi's publications were heavily in astronomy. However, he also wrote a number of opinions on hydraulic questions (which were published in the collections on that subject), and he editted Guglielmini's work on rivers.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Org; 1698 (99 in some sources), lecturer in mathematics, University of Bologna. Obliged by family financial difficulties he took two jobs: 1704-1711, pro-rector of the pontifical college (in Bologna), College Montalto, for the education of clerics. 1704-1739, superintendent of waters in the Bologna region. 1711, appointed astronomer at the recently founded Institute of Sciences. He resigned the position at College Montalto.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; When Manfredi was oppressed by the financial problems of his father, the Marquis Orsi came to his assistance and enabled him to continue his studies. Orsi apparently continued to be his patron. Count Marsili put a small telescope in his possession at the disposal of Manfredi. Perhaps it was the influence of Orsi and Marsili that stood behind the appointments in Bologna. Somehow I gained the impression of others, but they are not named. Marsili was responsible for the appointment as astronomer at the Institute. The republic of Lucca wanted to put Manfredi in charge of its rivers, and the Holy Roman Emperor wanted to appoint Manfredi as his mathematician, but neither of these appointments came to pass. Cardinal Alberoni called him to Ravenna to deal with the damage caused by rivers.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; c. 1690, he frabricated his own astronomical instruments, but there is no indication I found that he was responsible for any innovation here. For years he was the superintendent of waters for Bologna. In that position he appears to have been the principal agent behind the planned diversion of the Reno into the Po that upset everyone outside of Bologna. He went to Ravenna to repair damage caused by rivers and to advise on planned diversions. He was called to Rome to advise on draining the Pontine Marches, and to the Val di Chiana and to Lucca on questions of hydraulics.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); Instit. Bologna; 1690, he founded his own scientific academy, the Accademia degli Inquieti, a private institution that became the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna in 1714. Foreign member of the Académie (1726) and member of the Royal Society (1729). He became a member of the Bologna 'colony' of the Arcadia in 1699 and (as a literary figure) of the Accademia della Crusca in 1706. Manfredi corresponded extensively with many of the leading mathematicians of Europe. 

SOURCES
B. Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Manfredi,' Histoire de l`Académie royale des sciences pour l'année 1739 (Amsterdam, 1743), 80-96. [Q46.A16 1739]; Henri Bedaride, 'Eustachio Manfredi,' Etudes italiennes 1928-1929, (Paris, 1930), 75-124. [PQ4001.E8]; Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 33, 198. Michaud, Biographie générale, 26, 336-7. G.P. Zanotti, 'Vita dell'autore,' in Manfredi, Rime, (Bologna, 1818), pp. v - xv. G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 5, 183-93.

Not Available and Not Consulted: F.M. Zanotti, Elogio del dottor Eustachio Manfredi (Verona, 1739). G.P. Zanotti, Vita di Eustachio Manfredi (Bologna, 1745). 


Maraldi, Giacomo Filippo



1. Dates: Born: Perinaldo, Imperia, Italy, 21 August 1665; Died: Paris, 1 December 1729 Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Italy; France; French; Birth: Perinaldo, Imperia, Italy; Career: Paris, France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: None Known; Studied classics and mathematics, not known where, finishing around 1687. There is no mention of a university or of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. : Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; 
7. Means of Support: Governmental position; 1687-1718, worked at the Paris Observatory compiling a new catalogue of stars. From 1702, a member of the Académie
8. Patronage: Sci; He was called to Paris by his uncle, Cassini I. He became his devoted collaborator, his work was very much influenced by Cassini I's opinions. Later, he collaborated with Cassini II as well. 1701, went to Rome to work on calendar for Pope Clement XI, but as far as I can tell did not. He helped Bianchi with the determination of the meridian of the church of the Carthusians.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; 1700 & 1701, helped Cassini II, J.M. de Chazelles, and Piere Couplet on the project to extend the Paris meridian to the southern border. 1718, helped Cassini II and G. de la Hire extend the survey of the Paris Meridian to the north.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); First a student (1694), then an associate (1699), and finally a pensioner (1702) of the Académie.

SOURCES
B. Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Maraldi,' Histoire de l'Académie royale des sceinces pour l'année 1729 (Paris, 1731), 158-64. [Q46.A16 1729 pt. 1]; F. Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle biographie générale, 33 (Paris, 1860), cols. 348-349. [ref. CT143. H6]; J.B. Delambre, Histoire de l'astronomie au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1827), 239-44. [Manuscripta List 87, Reel 31]; 


Marchant, Jean



1. Dates: Born: 1650; Died: Paris, 11 November 1738; Datecode: Lifespan: 88
2. Father: Sci; His father was Nicolas Marchant, botanist in the Académie and director of horticulture of the Jardin royale. No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; He devoted almost all his life's work to the preparation of the Histoire des plantes. When the Académie decided to give up the project, he continued to prepare botanical descriptions. Although the greater part of this work remained unpublished, some fifteen of his notices did appear in the Academy's memoires. Among these, his 'Observations sur la nature des plantes' deals with the notion of partial transformism among plants, thus foreshadowing one of the tenets of evolution. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; He was elected member of the Académie in 1678 and succeeded his father as concierge et directeur de la culture des plantes du Jardin Royal. He held the position at the royal garden until 1694 when its funding was cut and it was dissolved. He received the royal pension that the government granted him for his work in the preparation of the Histoire des plantes until 1694. Indeed he received a royal pension of 1200 livres, and occasionally 1500, from 1666-77 and from 1680-90. 1699, pensionnaire of the Académie. (This I do not understand: I thought that all members were pensionnaires. Perhaps this refers to reappointment upon the reorganization of the Académie.)
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was appointed director of the royal garden, and was granted a royal pension for his research. Formally the king appointed him pensionnaire in 1699. I hardly know how to list this. Someone else was probably involved. Indeed his appointment would seem to go back to whoever had been the protector of his father.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1678-; 1678, académicien botaniste, replacing his father. 1699, pensionnaire botaniste, premier titulaire.

SOURCES
Yves Laissus, 'Les plantes du roi.' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 22 (1969), 193-236. Nouvelle biographie générale, 33, 482 (in the article about his father). Index biografique (Académie des sciences), p. 343. 


Marchant, Nicolas



1. Dates: Born: unknown; Died: Paris, June 1678; Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: 
2. Father: unknown; No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. Received his M.D.from the University of Padua. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; He devoted the last ten years of his life to the preparation of the Histoire des plantes, undertaken in 1667 by the Académie. He prepared a large number of descriptions for this project which was never published, being abandoned by the Academy in 1694. He collaborated in editing the Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire des plantes (1676). He was the first botanist to take up the study of lower plants. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Following his university training he became apothecary to Gaston, Duke of Orleans, the brother of Louis XIII. After the death of the Duke (1660), he entered the service of the King, although it is not known what his title or function in the royal household was. He was a member, and remained until 1673 the only botanist, of the Académie. 1674-78, Director of horticulture in the Jardin du Roi, a post created explicitly for him. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; He was apothecary to the Duke of Orleans, the brother of the Kking. Upon the death of the Duke he entered the service of the King. According to Nouvelle biographie générale, Marchant was the premier botanist to the Duke of Orleans. The Duke obtained the direction of the Jardin du Roi for him. However, it is also stated that Colbert created the position at the Jardin for him. I suppose these two statements are not necessarily contradictory.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-78. Marchant was one of the founding members of the Académie. Note also his position at the Jardin du Roi. The Laissus article below gives information on the group of men doing botanical research at the Jardin.

SOURCES:
Yves Laissus, 'Les Plantes du roi. Note sur un grand ouvrage de botanique prepare au XVIIe siecle par I'Académie royale des sciences,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 22 (1969), pp. 193-236. Q2.R45
Nouvelle biographie générale, 33, 482-3.
Index biografique (Académie des sciences), p. 342.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Nicolas-Francois-Joseph Eloy, Dictionaire histoirique de la médecine ancienne et moderne..., 3, (Mons, 1778), pp. 159-60. 


Marci of Kronland, Joh. M. [Marcus Marci]



1. Dates: Born: Landskroun, Bohemia, 13 June 1595; Died: Prague, 10 April 1667; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Estate Administration; His father was a secretary to an aristocrat. At one point I listed this as 'scribe.' He was the administrator of the estate, however, so that 'miscellaneous' seems better.
3. Nationality: Birth: Czechoslovak; Career: Czechoslovak; Death: Cz
4. Education: University of Prague; M.D. He received his early education at the Jesuit college in Jindrichuv Hradec, then studied philosophy and theology in Olomouc and, from 1618 on, medicine in the Prague Faculty of Medicine. He received his M.D. in 1625. Although Marci had started Jesuit training, he left after completing his novitiate and without going through the full intellectual formation (which included a doctorate in theology) of a Jesuit.
5. Religion: Catholic. He wished to become a priest and a Jesuit, and took a staunchly Catholic position during the forced civil re-Catholicization of Bohemia and Moravia (1625-1626). But he represented the anti-Jesuit party in the affairs of Prague University. To gain support at the Vatican for his party's purpose, which was to prevent the Jesuits from gaining control of the medical and legal faculties, he took a diplomatic trip to Italy in 1639. He retained his academical position even after the university merged with the Jesuit institution to become Charles-Ferdinand University. He became rector of the university in 1662. According to Jesuit sources he was admitted to the Society shortly before his death.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Mechanics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; His most important work was accomplished in medicine and physics. The De proportione motus (1639) contained his theory of the collision of bodies and gave an account of the experiments whereby he reached it. He also carried out research in optics, setting down most of his results in Thaumantias liber de arcu coelesti (1648). Also Disssertatio de natura iridis (1650). His medical works involved philosophical as well as theological problems. He was a follower of the school of Paracelsus. He renewed the idea that an organic body develops from a semen. The powers of a creative spirit are put into individuals by God in the process of creating the world. Every individual can renew himself. In all, a Platonic-Stoic conception of nature close to van Helmont and Leibniz. He devoted particular attention to questions of what would now be termed neurology, physiology and psychophysiology, in treatises that have not yet been fully evaluated. He also tried to adopt a purely medical approach to disease and to analyze critically both previous descriptions of epileptic fits and existing theories of their origin. 1636, Idearum operaticum idea. 1662, Philosophia vetus restituta. 1683, Othosophia seu philosophia impulsus universalis. 1650, De longitudine seu differentia inter duos meridianos.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; Professor of medicine at Prague University, 1620-1660. I am assuming that like virtually every other professor of medicine he also practiced. Rector of Charles-Ferdinand University, 1662-1667. 1658, personal physician to Emperor Ferdinand III and later to Leopold I.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was physician to the court. See above. He took the active part in defending the city against the Swedes, and was knighted for merit in 1654. He had friendships with well known figures such as Bohuslav Balbin (a prominent Czech intellectual) whom he cured of a dangerous disease, Caramuel y Lobkovitz, and the historian Stransky, but there is no indication of anything called patronage in these relations.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; I would like to know more about that treatise on longitude, which sounds like cartography.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Paul Guldin and Athansius Kircher. 

SOURCES
Dagmar Ledrerova, 'Bibliographie de Johannes Marcus Marci', Acta historiae rerum naturalium necnon technicarum, special issue 3 (1967), pp.39-50. Ottuv slovnik naucny, (Prague, 1900), 16, 826-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'Bibliografie Jana Marks Marci', Zpravy Cs. spolecnosti pro dejiny ved a techniky, nos.9-10 (1968), pp.107-19. 


Mariotte, Edme



1. Dates: Born: Chazeuil, c. 1620; Died: Paris, 21 May 1684; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64 
2. Father: Estate Administration; He was the son of Simon Mariotte and Catherine Denisot. His father was a seigneurial officer of the bailliage of Til-Chatel in the service of Charles d'Escars, Baron of Aix, conseiller, and captain of the army of the Ordonnances du Roi. Simon Mariotte served two successors to d'Escars. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France.
4. Education: None Known. There are no clues to his scientific education. A letter to Huygens concerning Mariotte's nomination to the Académie suggests that he was self-taught. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Indirect evidence places him as titular abbot and prior of St. Martin de Beaumont sur Vingeanne. Mariotte's precise ecclesiastical standing is uncertain. He did take the tonsure in 1634. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mechanics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Hydraulics; Mtr; Mariotte's work on plant physiology drew the attention of the Académie soon after its founding in 1666. He held the 'singular doctrine' that sap circulated through plants in a manner analogous to the circulation of blood in animals. Mariotte had a wide range of interests including mathematics, geometrical optics, hydrostatics, and the laws of impact. At the Académie he participated in several of the investigations both inside and outside his area of speciality. He participated in the installation of the the hydraulic system at Versailles and directed some important hydraulic experiments at the chateau de Condé in Chantilly and at the Observatory. He conducted experiments on the refraction of light, barometric changes, and falling bodies among many others. With Cassini and Picard he examined a work on navigation and the problem of longitude. The strength of his work was in his ability to recognize the importance of results, confirming them by new and careful experiments, and drawing out the implications of the results. In 1668 he wrote, Nouvelle découverte touchant la veue, on optics and his experiments to locate the blind spot in vision. Traité de la percussion ou choc des corps (1673), became a standard work on the subject of laws of inelastic and elastic impact. Mariotte's law (i.e., Boyle's Law) appeared in his De la nature de l'air (1679) in which he described the isothermal behavior of an enclosed mass of air. Mariotte's final work published posthumously (1686), Traité du mouvement des eaux et des autres corps fluides, treated the theory of the motion of bodies in a resisting medium using natural springs, artificial fountains, and the flow of water through pipes as his topic.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; He had to live somehow before he became part of the Académie. Mariotte spent the majority of his time conducting experiments and investigations for the Académie. It is possible that his position at the abby provided some income.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; As a member of the Académie he was involved in the investigations for waterworks at Versailles and various other royal interests from examining navigational works to projectile motion. I'd like to know more about that project at Versailles, but it is highly unlikely that any such task could have remained outside the system of patronage. Colbert instructed a group of the members to conduct research on the problems of ballistics. Again I would like to know more, but it sounds once more like patronage. In 1679 Carcavi proposed that a complete work on optics be made by Mariotte, Picard, and La Hire. This one doesn't sound like patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Navigation; Military Engineer; Instruments; In 1672 Mariotte published, Traité du nivellement, a work describing a new form of level using the surface of free-standing water as the horizontal reference and employing a reflection mark on the sight stick to gain greater accuracy in sighting. He gave full instructions for the instrument's use and discussed its accuracy with respect to other levels. See also above.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1684 Mariotte entered the Académie as a physicist but was soon sharing in the work of the mathematicians. His work was known to the Royal Soiety and cited in Newton's Principia. Mariotte recognized the important role that international cooperation could play in science. He sent for information and shared information with societies in London, Warsaw, Constantinople, and in Spain and Italy. 

SOURCES:
Pierre Costabel, Mariotte savant and philosophe, (Paris, 1986). B. Davies, 'Edme Mariotte,' Physics Education, 9 (1974), 275-8. 


Markgraf [Marcgraf], Georg



1. Dates: Born: Liebstadt, Saxony, 20 September 1610; Died: Dutch settlement in Luanda, Africa, 1644 Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 34
2. Father: a schoolmaster; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Liebstadt, Saxony, Germany; Career: Dutch settlement in South America; Death: Dutch settlement in Luanda, Africa
4. Education: University of Leiden; Educated at home by his father, headmaster of Liebstadt school. 1627, he began to travel and study throughout Germany, visiting about ten different universities. 1636, matriculated at the University of Leiden. Worked there at astronomy for two years. No mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist; In fact his religion is unknown, but Calvinist is likely enough that I assume it.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Botany; Zoology. Subordinate Disciplines:Cartography; 
7. Means of Support: Patronage (from Maurice of Nassau); 1638, sailed with military and exploratory expedition to Dutch settlements in Brazil under Maurice. He had been recommended to Maurice by Jan de Laet, a director of the West Indies Company. 1644, left South America for Dutch settlements in East Africa, where he died of yellow fever.
8. Patronage: Merchant, Court; The expedition was under the leadership of Maurice of Nassau (of the Dutch ruling family), who appears to have assembled an intellectual court of sorts. Markgraf was recruited, initially by de Laet, as an astronomer to accompany the expedition. Maurice established an observatory for him at Recife, from which came the first serious study of the southern sky. He composed a manuscript treatise. He also mapped the region and carried out a study of its natural history. When Markgraf died, he had already given all his collections and notes over to Maurice, who had taken them back to the Netherlands. 
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; The expedition founded the town of Mauritzstad and built the castle of Vrijburg (in the tower of which Markgraf had an observatory) on Antonio Vaz island (Recife). Markgraf drew up the plan of the city and its fortifications, and mapped the region from Rio Sao Francisco to Ceara and Maranhao.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
R. von Ihering, 'George Marcgrave' [in Portuguese] Revista do Museu Paulista, 9 (1914), 307-15. J. Moreira, 'Marcgrave e Piso' [in Portuguese] Revista de Museu Paulista, 14 (1926), 649-73. 

Not Consulted: E.W. Gudger, an article on Markgraf in Popular Science Monthly, 9 (1912). P.J.P. Whitehead, 'Georg Markgraf and Brazilian Zoology,' in E. van den Boogaart, ed. Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, 1604-1679: A Humanist Prince in Europe and Brazil, (The Hague: Johan Maurits van Nassau Stichting, 1979), pp. 424-71. 


Marsili [Marsigli], Luigi Ferdinando



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 20 July 1658 (if it matters, Fantuzzi says 10 July); Died: Bologna, 1 November 1730; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Aristocrat; Marsili was from a noble family of Bologna. His mother was also from a noble family, the Ercolani. Marsili's elder brother was a Monsignor in the Church. In view of Marsili's own personal means later, the family had to have been at least affluent. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; Germany; French; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; He did not complete his formal schooling, but he accumulated a vast knowledge of history, politics, geography, and the natural sciences. However, he never acquired a good literary education and never wrote with elegance. He studied informally with Malpighi and mathematics with Montanari. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Geography; Org; Subordinate Disciplines: Geology; Mineralogy; He undertook the exploration of two basic subjects: the structure of mountains and the natural condition of the sea, lakes, and rivers. He left many local observations concerning the structure of mountains. In 1724 he published the first treatise on oceanography, Histoire physique de la mer. In it he examined every aspect of the subject, including the physical (or geological) formation of basins and the plants and fish that lived in the sea. Marsili also wrote an early work in limnology, on Lake Garda. He also wrote a basic work on one of the Europe's greatest river, Danubius (1726), in which he discussed the riverbed and waters, as well as the flora and fauna, and the mineralogy and geology of the adjacent land. He founded the Accademia delle scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna in 1712.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Mis; As a young man scarcely twenty, in Rome, he was employed by Queen Christina (of Sweden) and by Card. De Luca in a diplomatic mission-testimony to his social standing and in itself evidence that he had sufficient personal means. Later in life he had extended troubles with his brother about Marsili's acts in donating his estate to Bologna for the Institute. After he surrendered Breisach and was dismissed in dishonor in 1704, it is clear that he lived on his personal means. He served in the army of Emperor Leopold I, partly as an engineer, from 1682 to 1704, and attained high rank. He was used by the Emperor on diplomatic missions to the Pope and in peace negotiations with the Turks. Nothing illuminates the exact nature of Marsili's recompense here. Much of it depended on what I call patronage. As mentioned above, this employment ended in dishonor when Marsili was involved in the surrender of Breisach. If it matters, it does appear that a great injustice was done to him. In 1708, when imperial troops threatened the Papal States during the War of the Spanish Succession, Marsili headed the Papal army. And later, about 1715, he inspected the defenses of the Papal States against possible Turkish raids on the Adriatic coast. He spent considerable time during his retirement along the French coast near Marseilles. Much of his study of the sea stems from these stays.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; City Magistrate; Merchant Patronage; Early, when he was in Rome before he took service with the Emperor, Marsili won the favor of Queen Christina of Sweden, to whom he dedicated his first work. At that time he also gained the favor of several Cardinals who recommended him to the Emperor, opening the way to imperial favor for him. Cardinal De Luca even employed him as a diplomatic representative to Venice. Marsili's long service to the Emperor was of course his principal patronage. Especially in the late 80's, he won the favor of Count Stalmen, the Chancellor. Marsili dedicated his work on coffee, 1685, to Bonvisi, the Papal nunzio to the Emperor. When he returned to Bologna after his disgrace, the King of Spain, through his governor, restored Marsili's right to wear a sword. The Pope not only made use of Marsili's military capacity, but he furnished valuable financial assistance that made the establishment of the Institute of Bologna possible. Later, when family quarrels over Marsili's disposition of the family inheritance for the Institute left him in a difficult financial situation, the Pope gave him a large gift. When it appeared that Marsili, angered over lack of support for his Institute, would leave Bologna and take his collection with him, the Senate presented him with a silver bowl and encouraged him to stay. However, the city did not come up with the money necessary for this Institute, though it did encourage him to apply to the Pope. After some hesitation, I will list this item as patronage. The Dutch East India Company published Marsili's Physical History of the Sea in 1725. He dedicated the work to the Académie Royale, of which he became a member in 1715, replacing Viviani.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Hydraulics; Civil Engineering; As a young military man he advised on fortifications along the Turkish frontier along the Raab and mapped the area for the purpose. Work on fortifications continued to be a constant part of his military career. Occasionally the work involved diversion of water. He drew a plan of Buda after the imperial forces recaptured it in 1686. He drew up maps for the peace negotiations with the Turks that began in 1688-9. Marsili appears to have been a born cartographer. He mapped everything he dealt with. His work on the Danube contains twenty maps. At the Peace of Carlowitz (with the Turks) in 1699 Marsili was designated to determine the exact border. He left behind a collection of more than a thousand maps, many of them his own work. As a military man he also built bridges. The work on the Danube contains extensive hydrographic discussions. When the Reno flooded in 1715, the Senate of Bologna sought Marsili's opinion on the plans elaborated to correct the problem. This was the scheme to diver the Reno into the Po. Marsili went on to write a treatise on the issue in general rather than technical terms.
10. Scientific Societies: Instit. Bologna; Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); Marsili participated in the Accademia degli Inquieti in Bologna. In 1702 he built an observatory in his palace and installed Manfredi in it. He collected a museum. In 1712 he founded the Academia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna, which under his influence, immediately became an active center of scientific research, consisting mainly of natural history exploration of the area around Bologna. The Institute absorbed in Accademia degli Inquieti. In founding the Institute, Marsili gave it his collection and gave his house to the city for the Institute; it was this bequest that started the unpleasant struggle with his brother. In 1715, a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, replacing Viviani. He was a member also of the Académie Royale des Sciences of Montpellier. He went to London in 1722 to be made a member of the Royal Society (London); . Newton insisted on presenting him personally and praised him as both an already famous scientist and a founder of the new Academy of Bologna. 

SOURCES
G. Frantuzzi, Notizie degli scrittori bolognese, (Bologna, 1781), 5, 286-327. M. Longhena, Il conte L.F. Marsili, (Milan, 1930). G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Notizie della vita a delle opere di Pier'Antonio Micheli, botanico fiorentino, (Firenze, 1858), pp. 173-5. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 104, and 27 (1901), 67-8.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Fantuzzi, Memorie della vita del generale conte L.F. Marsili, (Bologna, 1770). A Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, 5, 6. Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, Relazioni dei confini della Croazia e della Transilvania a sua Maestà Cesarea (1699-1701), ed. Raffaella Gherardi, 2 vols. (Modena, 1986).


Martinez, Crisostomo



1. Dates: Born: Valenica, 1638; Died: Flanders, 1694; Datecode: Lifespan: 56
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish, French; Death: Belgian
4. Education: None Known; Clearly no university education. He was born into an artisan family and was apprenticed as a painter-engraver-furniture decorator.
5. Religion: Catholic by assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: anatomy, physiology, microscopy. Subordinate Disciplines: embryology; His microscopical anatomical work, especially of bone structure, puts him among the leading early microscopists.
7. Means of Support: Miscellaneous, patronage; Until about forty, Martinez was known as an engraver and painter; About 1680 he began to work on an anatomical atlas, for the completion of which he obtained (with the assistance of the authorities in Valenica and its university) royal support in 1686. He went to Paris, in 1687 where he resided in the Collège de Montaigue and was in touch with Parisian scientific circles. Because of the War of the League of Augsburg, he was accused of spying and had to leave Paris for Flanders in 1690. There is no firm knowledge of him after that except for an assertion by one who knew him that he died in 1694.
8. Patronage: City Magistrates, Court; See the group that got his subvention from the royal government.
9. Technological Connections: None known.
10. Scientific Societies: He was in informal touch with university circles in Valencia, and then with relevant people in the Académie in Paris. No formal society.

SOURCES
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Lopez Piñero, biographical introduction to El Atlas anatomico de C. Martinez, 2nd ed. (Valencia, 1982), pp. 19-68. This certainly looks like the definitive account.

Not Available and Not Consulted: P. Demaitre, 'Un anatomiste espagnol à Paris au XVIIe siecle. Martinez,' Médicine de France, no. 154 (1964), 10-15. J. Vives Ciscar, Bosquejor biografico del pintor y grabador valenciano C. Martines, (Valencia, 1890). 


Massa, Niccolo



1. Dates: Born: Venice, 1485; Died: Venice, 27 August 1569; Datecode: Lifespan: 84
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. He studied medicine and graduated with an M.D. from the University of Padua. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was buried in S. Domenico di Castello.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medical Practioner; He undertook a program of dissection and investigation of the human body at least from 1526 to 1533, producing a treatise entitled Liber introductorius anatomiae (Venice, 1536), which remained the best brief textbook on the subject for a generation. He also wrote on pestilential fevers, on syphilis, and on medicine in general.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine in Venice, where he was known chiefly as a clinician and syphilologist. 
8. Patronage: None Known.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine. 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He entered the Venetian College of Physicians in 1521. 

SOURCES
Luigi Nardo, 'Dell'anatomia in Venezia,' Ateneo Veneto, fasc. 2-3 (1897). S. de Renzi, Storia della medicina in Italia, 5 vols. (Naples, 1845-8), 3, 155-6. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnaire historique de la médecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 536-7. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana, 7, 621. Giacomo Alberici, Catologo breve de gl'illustri e famosi scrittori venetiani, (Bologna, 1605), p. 66. 


Mattioli [Mattiolo], Pietro Andrea Gregorio [Pierandrea]



1. Dates: Born: Siena, 12 March 1501 (if it matters, Cappelletti says 14 March)); Died: Trento, Jan/Feb 1577; Datecode: Lifespan: 76 
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Francesco Mattioli, was a physician. As always, I assume affluence. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; Czechoslovak; German; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. He was sent to Padua to study Greek and Latin, astronomy, geometry, philosophy, but especially law. However, he turned there to medicine. He received a degree in medicine at the University of Padua in 1523. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. Later he studied surgery under Gregorio Caravita at Perugia. About 1520 he moved to Rome to continue his medical study. Capparoni puts the stay in Perugia and the move to Rome after the M.D., which makes eminent sense; without being explicit about dates, Cappelletti seems to place Perugia and Rome after the M.D. in the same way. However, the DSB, on what grounds I do not know, sounds quite definite about the dates. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Gog; In 1544 he published Di Pedacio Dioscoride anazarbeo libri cinque, which through revisions and expansions, made him famous. It is a practical scientific treatise intended for daily use by physicians, herbalists, and others. Cappelletti insists that the commentary on Dioscorides is also the work of a dedicated student of botany. Before this he had published De morbi gallici curandi ratione, dialogus (Bologna, 1530), a traditional examination of the origins and treatment of syphilis (in which he was either the first or one of the first to recommend mercury as a cure), and later Epistola de bulbocastaneo (Prague, 1558), another work in botany. He published as well a series of writings on various medical subjects. In 1558 he translated Ptolemy's Geography into Italian.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; From 1520 (1523?) to 1527 he was in Rome, where he attended the Santo Spirito Hospital and the San Giacomo Xenodochium for incurables. From 1528 to 1539 he practiced medicine in Trentino, and was physician to Cardinal Bernardo Clesio, bishop of Trento. After Clesio's death in 1539, he moved to Gorizia to practice medicine. By now Mattioli had gained a considerable reputation as a physician. In 1554 he was called to Prague, where he served first at the court of Ferdinand I and then at that of Maximilian II. In 1570 he moved to Innsbruck in the Tirol where he lived on his estate in retirement. He died on a visit to Trento.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; During his stay in Trentino (1528-1539), he became an intimate friend, adviser, and physician to Cardinal Clesio, bishop of Trento, who developed a great esteem for him. Mattioli published an account, in poetry, of the Cardinal's palace, Il magno palazzo. He was royal physician first at the court of Ferdinand I and then at that of Maximilian II.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Chemistry; Mattioli wrote a short treatise on the method of distillation.
10. Scientific Societies: Mattioli was a friend of Ghini (with whom he exchanged plants) and of Gesner. Stannard speaks of an extensive correspondence with other naturalists. His letters to Aldrovandi were published by Fantuzzi and Raimondi. He also carried on acrimonious disputes with Anguillara and Lusitanus.

SOURCES
Giovanni Battista de Toni, 'Pierandrea Mattioli,' in Aldo Mieli, ed., Gli scienziati italiani dall'inizio del medio evo ai giorni nostri, 1, (Rome, 1923), 382-7. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 107, and 27 (1901), 71. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 45-7. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Jerry Stannard, 'Pietro Andrea Mattioli: Sixteenth Century Commentator on Dioscorides,' Bibliographical Contributions (University of Kansas Library), (Lawrence, 1969), pp. 59-81. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la médecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 541-3. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. Vincenzo Cappelletti, 'Nota sulla medicina umbra del Rinascimento: Pietro Andrea Mattioli,' in Atti del IV Convegno di studi umbri, (Perugia: Faculta di lettere e filosofia dell'universita degli studi, 1967), pp. 513-32.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Giuseppe Fabiani, ed., La vita di Pietro Andrea Mattioli, ed. Luciano Banchi, (Siena, 1872). (I think this appeared originally in Fabiani, Memorie istoriche per servire alla vita di piu uomini illustri della Toscana, (Livorno, 1757).); D. Barduzzi, 'Di Pier Andrea Mattioli Senese,' Revista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 13 (1922), 5-9. H. Leclerc, 'Un naturaliste irascible: P.A. Mattioli de Sienne,' Janus, 31 (1927), 336-45. 


Maurolico [Marul, Marol], Francesco



1. Dates: Born: Messina, Sicily, 16 September 1494; Died: near Messina, Sicily, 21/22 July 1575; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: Physician; Government Position. Antonio Maruli was a Greek physician who had fled the Turkish sack of Constantinople. In Sicily he became Master of the Messina mint-i.e., a governmental official. The family had a villa outside the city as well as a house in it. On Maurolico's tomb (in the cathedral) his father is called a patrician of Messina. The family had a chapel in the cathedral. Maurolico's nephew (son of his brother) was the Baron della Foresta. From his dependence on patrons I conclude that the family was not wealthy; they were certainnly affluent.
3. Nationality: Italian; Birth: Messina, Italy; Career: Messina, Italy; Death: near Messina, Italy
4. Education: None Known; Learned Greek, mathematics, and astronomy from his father. Maurolico immersed himself in the humanistic revival of Greek culture, for which he was so well prepared. There was no mention of a university.
5. Religion: Catholic. He received orders in 1521. When he became abbot of S. Maria del Parto in 1550, he probably took the Benedictine vows. This was the only benefice he ever held.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics; Music; Gog; Photismi de lumine et umbra was completed in manuscript form in 1521 but published only in 1622, with his Diaphana, which was also an early work. Maurolico made extensive plans and preparations for the publication of the major works of classical Greek geometry, correcting earlier editions which he found highly defective. With one exception he was not able to carry these plans all the way to publication, although a number of the works were published from his manuscripts after his death. He published a Cosmographia (Ptolemaic, in the same year as Copernicus' De revoutionibus) and observations of the new star of 1572. He also published an edition of Aristotle's Mechanical Problems, and a work on music. Toward the end of his life he compiled a summary of Ortelius's Theatrum orbis terrarum and a geographical work on the islands of the world. Maurolico also wrote a long letter on Sicilian fish, but he disclaimed extensive knowledge of this branch of philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Church Living; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; There is no information on his livelihood until about 1530, but there is strong evidence that he was living on means inherited (as the oldest surviving son) from his father who died about 1525. And throughout most of his life he appears to have lived primarily on his own means. 1550, received the abbey of Santa Maria del Parto. He held a number of civil service commissions in Messina. He was head of the mint for a time, in charge (with architect Ferramolino, again only for a time) of maintaining the fortifications of the city on behalf of Charles V, and was commissioned to write a history of Sicily, Sicanicarum rerum compendium (Messina, 1562). In 1553 he was given a salary by Messina of 100 gold pieces for two years to complete his mathematical work and his history of Sicily. He had the patronage of a number of men, especially the Ventimiglia family. From a dedication we know that he instructed one patron in geometry, and later he tutored two sons of the viceroy, Juan de Vega. He held public lectures at the university of Messina. In 1569, he was appointed professor. He apparently laid down this position after only a year because of ill health.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Maurolico dedicated his first published work to his student Bernardo Faraone. Earlier Francesco Faraone had been Maurolico's tutor. The Faraone family keeps showing up in his life, but I do not know who they were. He dedicated Grammatica rudimenta, 1528, to Ettore Pignatelli. Again I do not know who he was. Maurolico dedicated De lineis horariis to the governor of Messina, Francesco Santapacio. A number of governors of Messina show up as patrons. Note that they were appointed by the viceroy; I classify them as governmental officials. At the request of the governor, Giovanni Marullo (who was present) Maurolico lectured on the Sphere of Sacrobosco and the Elements of Euclid in 1528. In 1535 Maurolico helped to prepare the celebration of Messina for a visit by Charles V. Later on Maurolico was preparing to dedicate a work to Charles (the letter of dedication survives), but Charles abdicated before it could be done. That, plus a work dedicated to a viceroy that he asked to be sent on to Philip II is the extent of his connection with, and probably minimal patronage by, a court. He dedicated Cosmographia to Card. Pietro Bembo, who aided its publication. The letter in which Maurolico requested permission to make the dedication and Bembo's reply accepting it survive. Rose speaks of Maurolico's patron Girolamo Baressi of Messina. He was yet another governor and the lord of Pietra Perzia. In 1548 Card. Ranuccio Farnese urged Maurolico to accept a gift of 500 scudi and to settle in Rome under the protection of the Farnese. He was doing well with his patrons in Messina and declined. Giovanni Ventimiglia, and his son, Simeone, both Marquises of Geraci, Princes of Castelbuono, and Governors of Messina were major patrons. Maurolico lived at their estate for extended periods during 1547-50 and in 1559 at least. It was Simeone who in 1550 conferred upon Maurolico the abbey of Santa Maria del Parto, near Castelbuono after the Ventimiglia had set him up in the 40's with a small observatory. First Giovanni drowned and then Simeone died prematurely in 1559 as he was setting up a press at his estate to publish Maurolico's works. Maurolico never found other patrons ready to support the publication of all his work, so that the deaths of the Ventimiglia seriously hampered his plans of publication. Juan de Vega, Charles V's viceroy of Sicily, took over as Maurolico's principal patron. He entrusted Maurolico with the mathematical education of two of his sons. In 1553 the Senate of Messina (apparently at the instigation of de Vega) granted Maurolico a salary of 100 gold pieces per year for two years in order that he complete his mathematical works and his chronicle of Sicily. Maurolico initially dedicated his edition of Theodius' Spherical Elements to Charles V. When Charles died before publication was complete, he rededicated it to La Cerda, Vega's replacement as Viceroy, requesting that the work be forwarded to Philip II. He dedicated his Arithmetic and his edition of Aristotle's Mechanical Problems to Card. Marc-Antonio d'Amula. He also spoke of Pope Marcellus II as his patron, but the details are lacking.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Instruments; See about the defenses of Messina above,; 1541, at the request of Jacopo Gastaldo he made a map of Sicily (published 1575). He published on the construction of the astrolabe and on astronomical instruments in general.
10. Scientific Societies: None; He corresponded with Commandino and Clavius.

SOURCES
Edward Rosen, 'Maurolico was an Abbott,' Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences (1956), 349-350. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 159-84. Marshal Clagett, Archimedes in the Middle Ages, 3, Part III, (Philadelphia, 1978), Chap. 5, Section 1, pp. 749-70. _____, 'The Works of Francesco Mauolico,' Physis, 16 (1974), 149-98.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Giuseppe Rossi, Francesco Maurolico e il risorgimento filosofico e scientifico in Italia nel seculo XVI (Messina, 1888). Giacomo Macri, Francesco Maurolico nella vita e negli scritti, (R. Accademia Peloritana, Commemorazione del IV centenario di Francesco Maurolico, Messina, 1896). D. Scinà, Elogio di Francesco Maurolico, (Palermo, 1808). F. Napoli, 'Intorno alla vita ed ai lavoeri di Francesco Maurolico,' Bullettino di bibliografia a di storia delle scienze mathematiche e fisiche, 9 (1876), 1-121. 


Mayow [Mayouwe, Mayo], John



1. Dates: Born: Bray, near Looe, Cornwall, December 1641. Earlier sources gave various dates from 1640 to 43. McKie found the record of baptism, 21 December 1641. Died: London, September 1679; Datecode: Lifespan: 38
2. Father: Gentry; Phillip Mayowe was a member of a well established, substantial Cornish family. Clearly affluent. Note that Mayow went to Oxford initially as a commoner, although patronage soon moved him into a Fellowship at All Souls. 
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; L.D. Oxford University; initially Wadham, then All Souls in 1660; 1658-1670; B.C.L., 1665; D.C.L., 1670. The law degrees followed from his place (as a jurist) in All Souls. Mayow's interest was never law; he studied medicine, although he took no degree in medicine.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Chemistry; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Mayow is known for his studies of the interrelated problems of atmospheric composition, combustion, and respiration, all involving (for him) the nitro-aerial spirit. His reputation has undergone major ups and downs, but right now, after a period of denigration, he is taken quite seriously. Tractatus duo, 1668-on respiration and rickets. Tractatus quinque, 1674-the original two (altered) plus three more on nitro-aerial spirit, fetal respiration, and muscular motion. Mayow described the muscuar actions around the chest cavity that are involved in respiration. The treatise on the nirto-aerial spirit contained an analysis of the Bath waters. The treatises of 1674 expound a general natural philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; He remained a Fellow of All Souls until his death. Medical practice, 1670-9, primarily in Bath. According to gossip, Mayow searched for a wealthy woman to marry, was tricked by a false pretense of wealth, and, not long before his death, married a woman with nothing, much to his chagrin.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Owed his Fellowship in All Souls to Henry Coventry. He dedicated Tractatus quinque, 1674, to Coventry, who was then Secretary of State. (I'm not sure what his status was in 1660.)
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with Hooke. Pupil of Thomas Willis or Thomas Millington. Participation in the final stages of the informal Oxford circle of physiologists. Royal Society, 1678.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 175-7. J.R. Partington, 'The Life and Work of John Mayow', Isis, 47 (1956), 217-30, 405-17. Allen G. Debus, 'The Paracelsian Aerial Niter', Isis, 55 (1964), 43-61. T.S. Patterson, 'John Mayow in Contemporary setting', Isis, 15 (1931) 41-96, 504-46. John F. Fulton, A Bibliography of Two Oxford Physiologists, (Oxford, 1935). (See Oxford Bibliographical Society, Proceedings & Papers, 4 (1934-5), 1-62.) Francis Gotch, Two Oxford Physiologists: Richard Lower (1631-1691), John Mayow (1643-1679), (Oxford, 1908). Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 1199-1200. Robert G. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists: A Study of Scientific Ideas, (Berkeley, 1980).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Henry Guerlac, 'John Mayow and the Aerial Nitre, ' Actes du septième congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, (Jerusalem, 1953), 332-49. Walter Boehm, 'John Mayow and his Contemporaries,' Ambix, 11 (1963), 105-20. 


Mayr [Marius], Simon



1. Dates: Born: Gunzenhausen, Bavaria, 20 January 1573 (early sources say 1570, but Klug settles it definitively). Died: Ansbach, 26 December 1624; Datecode: Lifespan: 51; 
2. Father: Unknown; Early sources say that Reichart Mayr was the Burgermeister of Gunzenhausen. Simon went to the Margrave's school for talented poor boys, however, and Klug says that there is no evidence whatever to support the assertion that the father was Burgermeister. I take Simon's (and his brother's) presence in that school to indicate that the family was indeed poor. 
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German; 
4. Education: University of Padua; Mayr's elementary education was in Gunzenhausen. He had a beautiful voice that attracted attention, and in 1586 he was enrolled in the Margrave's school near Ansbach. Almost immediately he was commandeered for the Margrave's Capella, in which he sang for three years. In 1589 he returned to the school, which existed to train poor young men for the ministry, and he was there until 1601. In December 1601, after a brief stay in Prague at Tycho's establishment (until Tycho's death), he enrolled in Padua to study medicine. He was Proctor of the German Nation in 1604 and librarian (of the same) in 1605, when he left suddenly without a degree. In Padua he belonged to the circle around Galileo, who would later accuse him of plagiary. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Astrology.; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Mayr was already publishing on astronomy (on a comet) in 1596, and in 1604 he was among the first to observe the new star. He was the first to mention the Andromeda nebula in print, and in Mundus jovialis, he published tables of the mean periods of the satellites of Jupiter more accurate than Galileo's. He bestowed the names that are still used for the satellites. The satellites were the issue on which Galileo charged plagiary, and I find that the issue can still generate heat in the 20th century. While I am skeptical of Mayr, the issue is complicated and I do not pretend to have plumbed it. The facts that he was engaged in Capra's plagiary of Galileo's instructions for the geometric and military compass in 1607, that he claimed to have discovered the Tychonic system independently in about 1596, and that he proceeded to claim every one of Galileo's discoveries (and even presumed to name the satellites the sidera brandenburgica, after his own patron) seem to me to add up to an indictment by themselves without the technical details on the periods of the satellites. As a dedicated Protestant, committed to the literal truth of the Bible, Mayr never accepted Copernicus. This was the point behind his use of the Tychonic system. Beginning with Novae tabulae directionum, 1599, and then later with his annual Prognosticon astrologicum, Mayr was heavily into astrology. In 1610 he published a German translation of the first six books of Euclid. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Medicine; Schoolmaster; Mayr was appointed mathematician to the Margrave of Ansbach (Georg Friedrich of Bandenburg-Ansbach) in 1601. Even earlier, in 1596, at the recommendation of advisors who had seen Mayr's system of the world (the Tychonic system), the Margrave had begun to give him special support to continue astronomical studies. He was sent to Prague in 1601 by the Margrave to study with Tycho. Upon Tycho's death four months later, he returned to Ansbach, but soon set out for Padua, still supported by the Margrave. The death of Georg Friedrich interrupted Mayr's support in Padua. He supported himself by using his medical knowledge, by instruction (Baldasare Capra was his student), and by astrology (which I do not know how to categorize). Mayr returned to Germany in 1605 as the Mathematician and Physician to the new Margraves, Christian and Joachim Ernst, and he spent the rest of his life in that position. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Merchant Patronage; When he was a boy, Mayr's beautiful voice attracted the attention of the Margrave Georg Friedrich of Brandenburg-Ansbach. For three years he sang in the Margrave's Capella, following which he had a place in the school near Ansbach. There he showed mathematical talent. In 1596, at the recommendation of advisors who had seen Marius' system of the world, the Margrave gave him special support to continue astronomical studies. The Margrave sent him to Prague in 1601 and then to Padua. After the years in Padua, he returned to the service of Georg Friedrich's successors, Christian and Joachim Ernst as court mathematician and physician. (I do not know in what way there were two joint successors.) Mayr was in charge of the Ansbach calendar. An observatory was built for him. He in turn named the satellites of Jupiter the sidera brandenburgica after him patrons and dedicated the Mundus jovialis to them. Mayr dedicated his translation of Euclid to Freiherr Hans Philip Fuchs von Bimbach, who had helped him earlier with the telescope. (After hesitation I categorize the Freiherr as an aristocrat.); Mayer dedicated his first Prognosticon to Freifrau Maria von Eyb. The Nürnberg merchant Philipp Eckebrecht, who also helped Kepler with the Rudolphine Tables, published Mayr's final works when Mayr became too sick to work. 
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; I am accepting Mayr's own account that through Freiherr Hans Philip Fuchs he heard about a device shown at the Frankfurt fair in 1608 and learned to reproduce it as Galileo did. He also altered the telescope by removing the ocular in order to make observations on the scintillation of the stars. 
10. Scientific Societies: Galileo accused Mayr of plagiary in regard to the satellites of Jupiter.

SOURCES:
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 21, 141-6. Josef Klug, 'Simon Marius aus Gunzenhausen und Galileo Galilei,' Abhandlungen der Königlichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschafter, Mathematics-Phys. Kl., 22 (1906), 385-526. This is much the best source about Mayr's life. It is an all-out condemnation of him for plagiary. J.A.C. Oudemans and Johannes Bosscha, 'Galilée et Marius,' Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles, 2nd ser., 8 (1903), 115-89. This replies to Klug (whose article they had read in manuscript)-an all-out defense of Mayr, with more than a little Dutch animus toward Galileo for claiming credit for the Dutch telescope. Johannes Bosscha, 'Simon Marius. Réhabilitations d'un astronome calomnié,' Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles, 2nd ser., 12 (1907), 258-307, 490-528, plus at least one and probably two more sections in 13. A. Favaro, Galileo Galilei e lo studio di Padova, 2 vols. (Padua, 1883), 1, 137, 184, 192, 234, 340-7. G.S. Braddy, 'Simon Marius (1570-1624),' Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 81 (1970), 64-5. Pietro Pagnini, 'Galileo and Simon Mayer,' tr. W.P. Henderson, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 41 (1930-1), 415-22. J.H. Johnson, 'The Discovery of the First Four Satellites of Jupiter,' Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 41 (1930-1), 164-71.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Favaro, 'Galileo e Simon Mayr,' Bibliotheca mathematica, 3rd ser., 2 (1901), 220-3. _____, 'A proposito di Simone Mayr,' Atti e memorie dell'Accademia di scienze, lettere, ed arti (Padua), n.s. 34 (1917-18), 17-19. 


Medina, Pedro de



1. Dates: Born: Probably in or near Seville, c. 1493; Died: Seville, c. 1567; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 74
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: University of Seville; Most of the authorities think that his position as tutor in a household of the highest nobility implied a university education, possibly at Seville. He was self-taught in mathematics.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a cleric.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; Navigation; HPh
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Official; Patronage. Little is known about Medina's life. He grew up in the household of the Dukes of Medina-Sidonia. About 1520 he became tutor to the heir of the house. Later he composed a family chronicle (1561). In 1538, after amicably leaving the Medina-Sidonia household, he obtained a warrant to draw charts and prepare pilot books and other devices necessary for navigation to the Indies. In 1539, in connection with the above, he was admitted as an examiner of pilots at Seville. All of these activities were connected with an office called the Casa de Contratacion. In addition to charts and sailing directions which he prepared for sale, he had the right to make instruments though he does not appear to have done this. He did examine instruments made by others for sale. Although there was no salary connected with the Casa, the official connection gave him the right to earn all sorts of fees. He taught navigation and mathematics to pilots. 1549, named 'cosmografo de honor' to the kings. He was consulted by two juntas convened by the Council of the Indies (in 1554 and 56) to determine the position of the Philippines and other Pacific islands in relation to the dispute with Portugal.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Court; He dedicated his first book (not published) to Charles V; He dedicated his Arte de navegar to Prince Philip (later Philip II). He remained under the protection of the Medina-Sidonia. The widow of Don Juan Claros, his pupil, remained his protector. Medina dedicated the family chronicle to her.
9. Technological Connections: navigation, cartography
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). M. Fernandez de Navarrete, Disertacion sobre la historia de la nautica y de las mathematicas, (Madrid, 1846). Ursula Lamb, A Navigator's Universe: The Libro de Cosmografia of Medina, (Chicago, 1972). Angel Gonzalez Palencia, 'La primera guia de la España imperial,' in Medina's Obras, (Madrid, 1944). Juan Fernanez Jiminez, introduction to Medina's Suma de cosmofrafia, (Valencia, 1980). Note that there is an extensive biographical literature on Medina. 


Mello, Francisco de



1. Dates: Born: Lisbon, 1490; Died: Evora, 27 April 1536; Datecode: Lifespan: 46
2. Father: a noble; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: Portuguese; Death: Portuguese
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A., D.D. The son of as Portuguese noble, Mello was a protegé of King Manuel I who sent him to Paris, financing it, to study. He was a student of Lax. Studied in Paris from 1512 to 1521. B.A. along the way. He earned both an M.A. and a licentiate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Mello wrote extensively on mathematics, including Euclid's optics and Archimede's hydrostatics.
7. Means of Support: Patronage.
8. Patronage: Court. Upon his return to Portugal, Mello was the tutor to the King's children. He was also on the royal council, and he was prominent on the Junta of Budajoa that attempted to establish the line down the Atlantic dividing (after the Papal decision) the Portuguese and Spanish overseas possessions. There is one assertion that he was rector of the University of Lisbon for four years. Shortly before his death, he was appointed Bishop of Goa; he never went there of course.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Grande enciclopedia portuguese e brasileira. Innocencio Francisco da Silva, Diccionario bibliografico portugues, 3, (Lisbon, 1859), 8-10. M. Bataillon, 'Erasme et la cour de Portugal,' in Bataillon, Etudes sure le Portugal au temps de h'humanisme, (Coimbra, 1952), pp. 49-100. Though it had little about Mello, I did see a book in Portuguese, shelved almost next to Bataillon, on the cultural situation in Portugal at the time of Manuel I and Joao III.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Anonio Ribeiro dos Santos, 'Memoria da vida e escritos de Don Francisco de Mello,' Memorias de literatura portuguesa publicadas pela Academia Real das sciencias de Lisboa, 7 (Lisbon, 1806), 237-49.


Mengoli, Pietro



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 1625 (several sources says 1626); Died: Bologna, 1686; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 61; 
2. Father: Unknown; Fantuzzi says only that Simone Mengoli was an honest and respectable citizen of Bologna. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Bologna; Ph.D., Ll.D. Mengoli studied mathematics with Cavalieri at Bologna. After Cavalieri's death Giovanni Antonio Rocca of Reggio guided his study of mathematics. He took a degree (this means a doctorate-Mengoli identified himself on title pages as 'Doctor') in philosophy in 1650, and another (also a doctorate) in civil and canon law in 1653.
5. Religion: Catholic. Mengoli was ordained as a priest and served a parish in Bologna from 1660 to his death in 1686.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Music; Optics; Mengoli's mathematics was superficially conservative, and he was in fact quickly forgotten. Recently, however, he has been rediscovered and is increasingly recognized as a transition between Cavalieri's indivisibles and Leibniz's differentials. Novae quadraturae arithmeticae, 1650, significantly extended early work in infinite series. Geometriae speciosae elementa, 1659, contained a theory of limits. Circolo, 1672, found the value of pi/2 as an infinite product. There were also other mathematical works. Mengoli was also interested in astronomy. He wrote a book on atmospheric refraction, and he published one on musical theory.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Mengoli succeeded Cavalieri in the chair at the university of Bologna, where he was a professor of arithmetic in 1648-9, professor of mechanics from 1649 to 68, and professor of mathematics from 1668 until his death in 1686. It is of interest to me that, although Mengoli and Montanari were professors of mathematics together at Bologna for fourteen years, neither is mentioned in accounts of the other. He served as a parish priest in Bologna from 1660 until his death.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Government Official; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Fantuzzi says that after Cavalieri's death Mengoli requested the chair from the Senate and received it. In 1649, a year after his original appointment at Bologna, Mengoli contributed a section on musical harmony to a volume for Senator Fantuzzi [sic] and Sig. Sulpizia Grimaldi, and in 1650 he published a Latin Elogio in praise of Sen. Paolo Fantuzzi (I assume the same Sen. Fantuzzi) on the occasion of his investiture as Confaliere. Mengoli dedicated Via regia ad mathematicos ornata, 1655, to Queen Christina of Sweden. He dedicated Speculazioni di musica, 1670, to Card. Azzolini. He dedicated Circolo, 1672, to the Marquis Alessandro Fachinetti, Confaliere di Guistizia, and to the members of the government of Bologna. (I seem to recall from the case of Cavalieri, that reappointments in Bologna fell every four years. Mengoli's initial appointment as Professor of Mathematics was in 1668. In 1676 he dedicated Novae quadraturae arithmeticae to the Senators of Bologna. He dedicated Arithmetica, 1676, to Card. Leopoldo de' Medici. 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Letters to Lorenzo Grimaldi are preserved in the Instituto of Bologna.

SOURCES
A. Agostini, 'Pietro Mengoli,' in Enciclopedia italiana, 22, 585. E. Bortolotti, La storia della matematica nella università di Bologna, (Bologna, 1947), pp. 98-101, 137-8. G. Eneström, 'Zur Geschichte der unendlichen Reihen in die Mitte des siebzehnten Jahrhunderte,' Bibliotheca mathematica, ser. 3, 12 (1911-12), 135-48. G. Vacca, 'Sulle scoperte di Pietro Mengoli,' Atti dell'Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. Rendiconti, ser. 5, 24.2 (Dec. 1915), 508-13. G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 6, 9-11. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 150-2.


Mercati, Michele



1. Dates: Born: San Miniato, Tuscany, 13 April 1541 (if it matters, all early sources say 8 April). Died: Rome, 25 June 1593; Datecode: Lifespan: 52
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Pietro Mercati, was a physician. The family is described as one of the most considerable in the region. The grandfather had been a close friend of Ficino. The father was the physician to Popes Pious V and Gregory XIII. It is surely significant to Mercati's career, that the father lived until 1585. I always assume affluence at least for physicians. Since nothing explicit is said, I will assume it also in this case, althogh I consider wealth much for likely. 3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Pisa; M.D., Ph.D. He received his early education from his father and later enrolled at the University of Pisa, where he studied under Cesalpino. In the common Italian style, he took doctorates both in medicine and in philosophy.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Mineralogy; Pal; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; He was a good mineralogist and one of the founders of paleontology. His great interest lay in collecting minerals and fossils, and this collection later formed the basis of the work that has made him famous: Metallotheca (Rome, 1717). He also wrote Istruzione sopra la peste, 1576. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; When he was scarcely twenty, he was called by Pope Pius V to direct the Vatican botanical garden, a post he retained under Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, and Clement VIII. Hoefer says that Cesalpino was probably responsible for the appointment. I find it difficult to believe that his father's position as physician to Pius V was not crucial. Marini and Mandosio both name Mercati also as physician to these popes.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Despite the comment immediately above, there are enough references to Cesalpino as Mercati's protector that I cannot leave him out. Mercati owed his position in the Vatican botanical garden to the patronage of successive popes: Pius V, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, and Clement VIII. In 1610, when he was twenty seven, the future Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany, wanting to acknowledge the celebrity of Mercati's learning, honored him by elevating his family into the rank of the Florentine aristocracy, while the same privilege was bestowed on him the following year by the Roman senate. Pope Gregory XIII named him a member of the 'pontifical family,' and Mercati showed his gratitude by caring for the Pope during his final illness. For the Pope he wrote Istituto sopra la peste (Rome, 1576). Pope Sixtus V held Mercati in great esteem and created him apostolic protonotary. The pope also sent him to Poland with Cardinal Aldobrandini (later Clement VIII) on a mission to King Sigismund III. Clement VIII made him chief physician and knight of the Order of Santo Spirito in Sassia, and superintendent of the hospital of Santo Spirito. Mercati was Clement's premier physician.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Although pharmacology does not appear to have been much of a concern with Mercati, I put it in because he was in charge of the papal botanical garden. 
10. Scientific Societies: Mercati was friedly with Cesalpino, Giuliandino, Mercuriale, Aldrovandi, and Wieland.

SOURCES
A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 4, 169-70. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 35, 11. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 109, and 27 (1901), 72. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 48-50. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. 'Vita Michaeli Mercati,' in Mercati, Metallotheca, (Rome, 1717), pp. xxi-xxvi. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 450-1, 459-60, and 468. Prosper Mandosius, Theatrum in quo maximorum christiani orbis pontificum archiatros spectandos exhibit, a separately paginated inclusion at the end of vol. 2 of Marini, (Roma, 1784), pp. 109-12.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Prodromo della corografia fisica della Toscana, p. 96. Misael Pieragnoli, Della vita e delle opere di Michele Mercati, (San Miniato, 1853).


Mercator, Gerardus [Gerhard Kremer]



1. Dates: Born: Rupelmonde, Flanders, 5 March 1512; Died: Duisberg, Germany, 2 December 1594 Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Artisan; Church Living; His father was a poor shoemaker. However, Mercator was reared by an uncle, who was an affluent ecclesiastic. The uncle's financial status was the one that determined Mercator's circumstances.
3. Nationality: Belgian Area; Germany; German; Birth: Rupelmonde, Flanders; Career: Germany; Death: Duisberg, Germany
4. Education: University of Louvan; M.A. His uncle, Gisbert Mercator, sent him to school at 'sHertogenbosch at the House of the Bretheren of the Common Life, probably as preparation to enter the priesthood. 1530, entered University of Louvain, principal studies were philosophy and theology. I assume B.A. 1532, M.A., Louvain. After graduation he studied mathematics and astronomy privately under Gemma Frisius, and acquired engraving skills.
5. Religion: Catholic. Protestant; I find it impossible to tell from what follows; Cleves was Protestant, but he had innumerable Catholic patrons. 1544, accused of heresy and imprisoned several months be- fore being released for lack of evidence. This occurred in Catholic territory. Note that he moved to Cleves shortly.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; Geography. 
7. Means of Support: Publishing; Scientific Instruments; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1530-1552 he made globes, maps, and scientific instruments in Louvain, first in the shop of the engraver and goldsmith Gaspar a Myrica (van der Heyden), then with his own group of craftsmen. In 1551, he obtained the privilege to print and publish books. 1552-1594, lived in Duisburg, worked as 'cosmographer' to the Duke of Cleve. 1559-1562, taught at grammar school there.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; His first map of Palestine (1537) is dedicated to Frans Craneveld, a councillor of Emperor Charles V. Mercator dedicated his 1540 map of Flanders to Charles V and later other items as well. His terrestial globe (1541) is dedicated to M. Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle, the most eminent member of the privy council of Charles V. Through his recommendations, Charles purchased a number of scientific instruments (and replacements for those instruments which were destoyed in the war of Saxony) from Mercator. His celestial globe (1551) is dedicated to the Prince-Bishop George of Austria, Bishop of Liège. 1552, became 'cosmographer' to William, Duke of Cleve. The Duke was also planning to found a university there and Mercator doubtless hoped for a position. The map of the World (1569) and Tabulae Geographicae Cl. Ptolemaei (1578) are dedicated to William. The map of Europe (1554) is dedicated (for which Mercator received an honorarium) to Cardinal Archbishop of Mechlin and Bishop of Arras, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, councillor of Charles V and Philip II, who was a known patron of Mercator. The Duke of Lorraine commissioned him to do a survey of his duchy. Galliae tabulae geographicae (1585) is dedicated Prince Johann Wilhelm (successor to William of Cleve?). Italiae, Sclavoniae, et Graecia tabulae geographicae (1590) is dedicated to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando de' Medici. A concordence of the gospel is dedicated to Heinrich von Weze, and Chronologia (1560) is dedicated to Henricus Oliverius, both were chancellors of Cleve.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Navigation; Cartography; He made maps, globes, and scientific instruments, and surveyed. 1569, he invented a type of map for seamen with perpendicular longitudes and latitudes, the Mercator projection. In addition, he made remarkably detailed and accurate maps of western and southern Europe, which he designed, engraved and published.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Breusing, 'Mercator,' Allegemeine deutsche Biographie, 21 (Leipzig, 1885), 385-97. A.S. Osley, Mercator: A Monograph on the Lettering of Maps... (London: Faber & Faber, 1969).  Walter Ghim, Vita Mercatoris, trans. in Osley. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 2 (Nr. 210), 3-17. J. Denucé, Oud-Nederlandsche kaartmakers in betrekking met Plantijn, 2 vols. (Antwerp, 1912-13), 2, 279-323.

Not Available and Not Consulted: E.F. Hall, 'Gerard Mercator, His Life and Works,' Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, (1878), 163-96. F. Van Ortroy, 'L'oeuvre geographique de Mercator,' Revue des questions scientifiques, October 1892 and April 1893. van Raemdonck, Gerard Mercator, sa vie et ses oeuvres, (St. Nicolas, 1869).


Mercator, Nicolaus [Niklaus Kauffman]



1. Dates: Born: Eutin (?), Schleswig-Holstein, ca. 1619; Died: Paris, 14 January 1687 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Schoolmaster; Martin Kauffman was probably a shoolmaster at Oldenburg, Holstein. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Eutin [?], Schleswig-Holstein, then Denmark; Career: England; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: University of Rostock; M.Phil. (list as M.A.), University of Leiden; 1632, matriculated at University of Rostock. 1641, received M.Phil. I assume a B.A. Studied for a short time at Leiden.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Navigation; Astrology. While at Copenhagen, Mercator produced several textbooks on elementary astronomy, geography, and spherical trigonometry. Later he did a Latin translation of Kinckhuysen's Dutch Algebra. His Logarithmotechnia, 1668, with a series for calculating logarithms, spurred Newton to set his methods down in De analysi. Mercator's Hypothesis astronomia nova, 1664, combined Kepler's ellipses with his vicarious hypothesis. His Institutiones astronomicae, 1676, gave a good exposition of contemporary astronomical theory. He exchanged letters with Newton on lunar theory, and he demolished Cassini's method of determining the line of apsides of a planetary orbit from three solar sightings. Mercator advertised himself as an expert in the theory of Gerard Mercator's map projection, and he published a paper on navigation in the Philosophical Transactions. He composed a manuscript Astrologica rationalis, which was never published. Described in detail in General Dictionary.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; Patronage; 1642, on the philosophy faculty at University of Rostock. 1648-1654, on the faculty at University of Copenhagen, was forced to leave when the university closed due to plague. By 1660, he was in England suffering monetary difficulties. He supported himself tutoring in mathematics, received some patronage, and tried to make some money from his marine chronometer. 1682, he accepted the commission from Colbert to plan the waterworks at Versailles, moved to France, and died after a few years.
8. Patronage: Academic; Scientist; City Magistrate; Patronage of Government Official. He was taken on at Rostock through the influence of the Hebraist, Hein. Cosmographia (1651), Trigonometria sphaericorum logarithmica (1651), and Astronomica sphaerica (1651) all are dedicated to the city council of Copenhagen. Cromwell noticed his tract on calendar improvement (1653), but it is not known whether he was invited to England because of it. Moray acted as his patron at the Royal Society. He was responsible for his nomination, and saw to it that Mercator received the assignment to make regular barometric measurements for the Society. He presented a large clock which showed the inequality of the sun's motion from its apparent motion to King Charles II, who is said to have understood and commended it but gave Mercator nothing for it. 1676, Hooke unsucessfully proposed him as mathematical master at Christ's Hospital. 1669, Collins, at Seth Ward's suggestion, commissioned him to write a Latin version of Kinckhuysens Dutch Algebra. Colbert commissioned him to plan the waterworks at Versailles, but they had a falling out sometime before Mercator died.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Navigation; Hydraulics; 1666, he designed a pendulum marine chronometer. 1669, he invented an efficient method for sailing into the wind and improved his clock.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); On the strength of his marine chronometer (and with Moray's help) he was elected into the Royal Society in 1666, though he did not participate until 1669.

SOURCES:
Not in the DNB. J.E. Hofmann, Nicolaus Mercator (Kauffman), sein Leben und Wirken, vorzugsweise als Mathematiker (in Academie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz [Abh. der Mathematics-Nat. Kl., no. 3, 1950]). John Aubrey, Letters... and Lives of Eminent Men, 2 (London, 1813), 450-1, 473. 'Mercator, Nicolas,' in Pierre Bayle, A General Dictionary Historical and Critical, tr. John P. Bernard, Thomas Birch, and John Lockman, 10 vols. (London, 1734-41), 7, 537-9. [See also Applebaum & Hatch, JHA].


Merrett [Merret], Christopher



1. Dates: Born: Winchcomb, Gloucestershire, 16 February 1614; Died: London, 19 August 1695; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: Unknown; We have only his name, like his son, Christopher Merrett. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; M.A., M.D. Oxford University, first Gloucester Hall, then Oriel College in 1633, 1631-43; B.A.,1635; then back to Gloucester Hall; M.A., 1636; M.D., 1643.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Medicine; Chemistry; Merrett's major work was Pinax rerum naturalium britannicarum, 1667, which was planned to replace How's Phytologia. However, Merret was not a field naturalist, but a compiler of the information in books and from a couple of field people. The book included the first attempt to construct a British fauna. It also contains a good deal on geology, fossils, and minerals. In regard to the last, Merrett also published an article in the Philosophical Transactions on the tin mines of Cornwall. Raven certainly dismisses Merrett as a botanist. However, he did contribute articles on vegetable physiology to the Philosophical Transactions. He published one medical work in 1682. The Art of Glass, 1662, contains a great deal about the preparation of chemical materials for glass.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Org; Medical practice, 1640-95, said to have been a considerable practice. Keeper of the library and museum of the Royal College of Physicians, 1655-66, when the library, along with the College, went up the the great fire. This position was definitely paid-?20 per annum. After the fire, the College refused to continue paying Merrett because there was no library to tend. He claimed the appointment was for life, and sued. He not only lost the suit but was expelled from the College in 1681.
8. Patronage: Medical Practioner; Nominated by William Harvey as the first Keeper of the library and museum of the Royal College of Physicians, which Harvey had endowed. Harvey allowed ?20/year for the library. Merrett dedicated Pinax to Baldwin Hamey, a wealthy physician. Merrett also dedicated his Art of Glass, 1662, to Robert Boyle. I have hesitated with this because of Boyle's wealth. Merrett and Boyle were friends, however, and I have decided not to treat this dedication as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Chemistry; Merrett presents a problem. Raven asserts that he was less interested in science for its own sake than in the practical ends it might serve. His translation of Neri's book into the Art of Glass, with Merrett's considerable additions to it, is said to have helped the glass industry in England and indeed (through translations) elsewhere in northern Europe. Even though Merrett was not engaged personally in glass making, he made himself familiar with the operations in London glass works. I am unable not to list it, and I list it under practical chemistry. He was also interested in metallurgy, and published an article on refining in the Philosophical Transactions. The preface to Pinax emphasizes the utility of the book for pharmacology.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Friendship with Harvey, 1640s-1657. Friendship with Boyle. Royal Society, 1660-one of the original group. Earlier he had been one of the group in London, the misnamed 'Invisible College,' generally taken as the precursor to the Royal Society. Royal College of Physicians, 1651-1681. Gulstonian lecturer, 1654; Censor seven times between 1657 and 1670.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13. 288-9. C.E. Raven, English Naturalists from Neckham to Ray, (Cambridge, 1947), pp. 298-338. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 258-64; Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 430-2. Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, 2 vols. (London, 1790), 1, 290-7. W.E.S. Turner, 'A Notable British Seventeenth Century Contribution to the Literature of Glass-Making,' Glass Technology, 6 (1962), 201-13.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Charles Dodds, 'Christopher Merrett, F.R.C.P. (1614-1695), First Harveian Librarian,' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 47 (1954), 1053-6. Alber J. Koinm, Christopher Merrett: A Portrait in Miniature of Seventeenth Century Natural Science, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, 1968.


Mersenne, Marin



1. Dates: Born: Oize (Maine), 8 September 1588; Died: Paris, 1 September 1648; Datecode: Lifespan: 60.
2. Father: Laborer; We are told only that Mersenne was born into a family of laborers. I assume that can only mean his circumstances were poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: University of Paris. Mersenne began his grammar studies at the College of Mans. He entered the new Jesuit college at La Fleche in 1604 and remained there until 1609. In the next two years he studied theology at the Sorbonne. There is no mention of a degree, but it seems quite impossible not to say that he had the equivalent of a B.A. There is no word about how the studies of the son of a laborer were financed. It appears that the Jesuits supported him at La Fleche. There is no word about the two years of study in Paris. I suspect that he entered the Minims as a means to further education and an intellectual life (as, for example, Coronelli later did), but that still leaves the two years unaccounted for. He didn't live on air.
5. Religion: Catholic. He joined the order of Minims in 1611. He spent his novitiate at Nigeon and Meaux. Following some courses in theology and Hebrew, he returned to Paris. In October 1612, Mersenne received his holy orders from the Bishop at the Place Royale. He celebrated his first mass on 28 October 1613.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Communication; Natural Philosophy; Music. Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Mersenne is most well-known for his network of correspondents. In addition to his many letters, Mersenne wrote several works on varying topics. His Quaestiones in Genesim (1623) defended orthodox theology against deists and atheists. La Verité des Sciences (1625) was Mersenne's defense of the possibility of true human knowledge against the rising skepticism represented by Montaigne. In response to the work of Galileo, Mersenne wrote his Traité des mouvements (1633) and Les mechaniques de Galilée (1634). His Traité d'harmonie universelle (1627) was a work on music, acoustics and instruments which he continued to improve throughout his life.
7. Means of Support: Church Living. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage. He entered the new Jesuit college at La Fleche in 1604 and remained there until 1609. After two years of theology at the Sorbonne, in 1611 he joined the Order of Minims. He taught philosophy and then theology at Nevers from 1614-1618. In 1619, he returned to Paris to the Minims de l'Annociade near Place Royale where he was elected Correcteur. There he remained, except for brief journeys, until his death in 1648. Later in his career one Jacques Hallé helped Mersenne with money and with the use of his library. The early years remain a problem in my eyes.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Scientist; Patronage of Government Official. He dedicated his Cogita physica (1644) to the general of the order of Minims, P. Laurent, whom he thanked for protecting the sciences in the Order. After some hesitation, I will list this. My hesitations vanished when I found that Mersenne earlier dedicated Synopsis mathematica (1626)to P. Simon Bachelier, who was then general of the order. I think some unnamed Jesuit fathers have to have been behind his years of study in La Fleche. His family had no money. Peiresc, Montmor, and Louis de Valois all helped Mersenne publish his works. He dedicated one section of the Harmonie universelle to Etienne Pascal. He dedicated Questiones in Genesim (1623) to the Bishop of Paris. He dedicated L'impiété des déistes (1624) to Richelieu (who seems here to stand as a Cardinal of the church). He dedicated works to Jacques Hallé, Henri de Refuge, and Habert de Montmor, all governmental officials. He dedicated La verité des sciences (1625) to Gaston d'Orleans and Harmonie universelle (1636) to the Comte d'Alais.
9. Technological Connections: None Known. He conducted an experiment with the seconds pendulum to measure time and confirmed the 'duplicate property' between length and period. (At one point I listed this under Instruments, but this listing no longer seems correct to me.) He insisted on careful specifications of experimental procedures, repetition of experiments, and publication of numerical results of actual measurements distinct from those from theory. I'll leave this information in, but I do not consider it a form of technology.
10. Scientific Societies: From 1623 Mersenne began to make the careful selection of savants who met at his convent in Paris or corresponded with him from all over Europe and as far afield as Tunisia, Syria, and Constantinople. His regular visitors or correspondents came to include Peiresc, Gassendi, Descartes, the Roman musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, Roberval, Beeckman, J.B. van Helmont, Fermat, Hobbes, and the Pascals. This correspondence is being published. It was in Mersenne's quarters that in 1647 the young Blaise Pascal met Descartes. His role as secretary of the public of scientific letters, with a strong point of view of his own, became institutionalized in the Academia Parisiensis, which he organized in 1635.

SOURCES:
R. Lenoble, Mersenne ou la naissance du mecanisme, (Paris, 1943.) Hilarion de Coste, La vie du R.P. Marin Mersenne, theologien, philosophe et mathematicien, de l'Ordre der Peres Minim, (Paris, 1649). Mersenne's Correspondence, C. de Waard, R. Pintard, and B. Rochot, eds., (Paris, 1932 - ), 1, xix-lv. Jean Mesnard, 'Le mécénat scientifique avant l'Académie des sciences,' in L'âge d'or du mécénat. Roland Mousnier and Jean Mesnard, eds. (Paris, 1985), pp. 107-17, esp. pp. 111-13.

Not Available Soon Enough to be Consulted: 'Mersenne,' in Pierre Costabel and Minette Martinet, Quelques savants et amateurs de science au XVIIe siècle, (Paris, 1986), pp. 3-19.


Mery, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Vatan, 6 January 1645; Died: Paris, 3 November 1722; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Mery's father was a surgeon. His maternal grandfather was a M. Carrere, the chief surgeon of Madame Henriette, the Queen of England. I assume affluence at least.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known; He took a dislike to his studies and at the age of eighteen ran away to Paris to follow in his father's profession. He began to study anatomy at the Hotel Dieu. In addition to his regular studies during the day, Mery undertook clandestine dissections whenever the opportunity arose.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Surgery; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Most of Mery's work was comparative-anatomical and pathological. His pathological research was mostly concerned with human developmental malformations. After 1684, he became associated with the comparative-anatomical work led by C. Perrault and Duverney. In 1693, Mery was embroiled in a controversy over the traditional interpretation of mammalian fetal circulation. He based his theory on preserved and dry specimens which yielded inconsistent findings. Nevertheless, Mery held his views until his death. Among his other anatomical works were his research on the ear following Lami; his description of the urethral glands before Cowper; and his description of the eustachian valve preceding that of Winslow. He entered into the discussion of the vacuum.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Patronage; After studying at the Hotel Dieu, Mery set up a private surgical practice becoming well known particularly in lithotomy. Much of his career centered around the Hotel Dieu, where he trained young surgeons. His love for the science and his zeal for its advancement were the driving force behind the building of the surgical amphitheatre and the establishment of courses in anatomy and surgery. He became a surgeon at the Hotel Dieu in 1681 and chief surgeon in 1700. He was appointed senior surgeon at Les Invalides in 1683.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; In 1681, he was appointed court surgeon to the queen. Two years later, Marquis de Louvois appointed him senior surgeon at Les Invalides. In 1684, Louvois sent him on a medical mission to Portugal. He arrived too late to save the Queen of Portugal. Mery remained in Portugal for some months practicing and studying. Upon his return M. Fagon chose Mery in the name of the King to be surgeon for the Duc de Bourgogne while the court travelled to Chambord. Mery found court life more foreign than life in Portugal and returned to Paris as soon as he was able. Louvois had Mery entered into the Académie. In 1692, Mery was sent on a second medical mission, this time to England. M. Harlay, the first president of the Hotel Dieu, appointed Mery chief surgeon in 1700.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1684-1722; Correspondence with Pascal. He had several disputes with Pascal on the existence of a vacuum. But later in his Gravitas he honored Pascal for his role in developing an experiment to produce a vacuum within a vacuum.

SOURCES:
Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s). Antoine L.J. Bayle and _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Glasgow, 1906). Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39). The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.  Fontenelle, Eloge de M. Mery. Michaud, Biographie générale.


Metius, Adriaan



1. Dates: Born: Alkmaar, Netherlands, 9 December 1571; Died: Franeker, 1635. Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Enginineer. His father was a cartographer and military engineer. Considering his career, he had to be prosperous.
3. Nationality: Dutch; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Alkmaar, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Franeker, Frisia
4. Education: University of Franeker; University of Leiden; Attended a Latin school in Alkmaar. 1589, entered the recently-founded University of Franeker, studying philsophy. 1594, continued his studies at Leiden, where he was taught by Snell and van Ceulen. Given the apparent five years at Franeker, I assume a B.A. 1625, received an honorary M.D. from University of Franeker, which I do not list.
5. Religion: Assume Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Alchemy; Scientific Instruments; Eng; De Waard says that he spent a lot of time pursuing the philosophers' stone. He published on the astrolabe and on surveying.
7. Means of Support: Academic. Secondary Means of Support: Engineer. Worked under Tycho at Hveen, but only briefly. Went from there to Rostock and Jena, where he gave lectures in 1595. He then returned home and assisted his father in military engineering. 1598, appointed professor extraordinarius at Franeker. 1600-1635, professor ordinarius of mathematics, navigation, surveying, military engineering, and astronomy. He was allowed to teach in the vernacular. Rector of the university in 1603 and 1632.
8. Patronage: Court; After the printing of his first book, he came to the attention of prince Mauritz and Willem Lodewijk who, on 30 May 1598, were instrumental in having him named as successor to Joh. Roggins as Professor extraordinarius. Through his publications he repeatedly won the esteem of the government.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Int. He assisted his father for a time as a military engineer. His teaching at Franeker was especially geared toward the training of Frisian surveyors. The D.S.B. lists him as an instrument maker, though little is said concerning that. I find in de Waard that he manufactured astronomical instruments. He developed a special form of Jacob's Staff which was useful in surveying.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
C. de Waard, 'Metius,' Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek, 1 (Leiden, 1911), cols. 1325-7. [ref. CT1143.M72 v.1]; Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 200.

Not Available and Not Consulted: W.B.S. Boeles, Frieslands Hoogeschool, 2 (Leeuwarden, 1879), 70-5.


Metius, Jacob



1. Dates: Born: Alkmaar, Netherlands, date unknown; Died: Alkmaar, 1628. Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan:
2. Father: Eng; His father was a cartographer and military engineer. Considering his career, he had to be prosperous.
3. Nationality: Dutch; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Alkmaar, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Alkmaar, Netherlands
4. Education: None Known; Apparently no higher education. He learned lens grinding.
5. Religion: assume Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Int
7. Means of Support: Instruments; An instrument-maker in Alkmaar, specializing in grinding lenses.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He is a co-discover of the telescope; one of the first to bring together a concave and a convex lens in a tube. He applied for a patent in 1608, but could not establish priority over H. Lippershey, who applied a few months previously. He made several different inventions, but was extremely secretive about them, and burned all of his instruments before he died.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Bruinvis, 'Metius' [in Dutch], Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek, 1 (Leiden, 1911), cols. 1328-1329. A. Van Helden, The Discovery of the Telescope.


Micheli, Pier' Antonio



1. Dates: Born: Florence, 11 December 1679; Died: Florence, 1 January 1737; Datecode: Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Artisan; His father, Pier Francesco di Paolo Micheli, was a dyer. Every circumstance of Micheli's life indicates that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known; He had only the most elementary schooling. Micheli was apprenticed to a book dealer at an early age. Micheli was aided in his studies by Padre Virgilio Falugi, Abbot of Valombroso, who was knowledgable in botany, and through Falugi by other monks there, especially Bruno and Tozzi. It is of interest that after his death, Micheli, who had little formal education and was hampered all of his life by his lack of a degree, was dressed in a doctoral gown for his funeral.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Natural History; Pal; Subordinate Disciplines: Mineralogy; Geology; Zoology; In his major work, Nova plantarum genera (Florence, 1729), Micheli considered some 1900 species, of which nearly 1400 were new. The work remained unfinished at the time of his death (in the sense that he continued to collect more material), and a considerable amount of the data that he had gathered was never incorporated into it. Micheli was an outstanding representative of a new phenonenon, the specialist in certain groups of plants-for Micheli the ombrellifers, gramineae, mosses, fungi, and marine algae. In addition to his botanical studies, he was also concerned with zoology (especially fish or, better, sea life), paleontology, and geology. He was the first to recognize Monte Amiata as an extinct volcano far from regions still active volcanically. He explored the minerals of Tuscany.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; Until 1706, Micheli was attached to a bookseller in Florence. He obtained the patronage of both the Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici and his successor Gian Gastone de' Medici. The support of these two men permitted him to devote himself completely to his studies. He was nevertheless hampered by the lack of an academical degree and only held a modest position in the botanical garden of Pisa-though later he would be the director of the garden in Florence.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Sci; Early in his life, as an adolescent, Micheli was encouraged and aided by the Marquis Cosimo da Castiglione, and also by Pandolfo Pandolfini, Filippo Buonarroti, and Lorenzo Magalotti. Micheli dedicated genera to a number of his aristocartic patrons. Through them he came to the attention of the Grand Duke. He continued to be in contact with aristocratic dilattantes of natural history, and it appears that he received assistance from them. It appears that the Societa Botanica, which Micheli founded, was filled mostly with aristocratic dilettantes, and after Micheli's death they produced an elogio of him. Micheli's executors included a Capponi and a Rucellai. However, it is worth noting that they did not cough up enough money to publish the works that Micheli left. Nevertheless, it was the generosity of his two patrons (that is, the two successive Grand Dukes) that permitted Micheli to devote himself completely to his studies. After he was first introduced to the Grand Duke, Micheli composed his essay on the fruits of Tuscany and a sketch for Toscana illustrata for the Grand Duke. In 1706 he received an annual pension of 80 scudi (which was later increased) in return for two works (in manuscript) dedicated to the Grand Duke. The stipend was paid to him as an assistant custodian of the Garden of Simples in Pisa. In 1717, when William Sherard praised Micheli as the leading botanist of the day to the Grand Duke, his stipend was further increased. At some point he became director of the botanical garden of Florence. Sherard is described as a rich English patron. He became acquainted with Micheli early, on a botanizing trip to Tuscany, and from that time he aided Micheli's career. Prince Eugen of Savoy ordered his personal physician to collect plants of Austria and to send them to Micheli. In 1720 Micheli presented the manuscript of his Nova plantarum genera to the Grand Duke, requesting assistance to publish it. Unfortunately another botanist, Tilli, higher than Micheli at the Pisan garden, also finished a manuscript at the same time, and he got the support. Ultimately Micheli got money from Gian Gastone to engrave the plates. He begged the rest here and there, and the work appeared finally only in 1729.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Metallurgy; Agriculture; In his early expeditions around Florence, apothecaries (whom Micheli had consulted about questions of plants) used him to gather medicinal plants for them. In 1708 the Grand Duke sent Micheli north of the Alps specifically to learn how the Germans made tinplate [sic], and also to collect for the garden in Pisa. Micheli wrote a description of how tinplate was made. Although he was nominally employed in a herbal garden, Micheli seems to have paid no attention to the medicinal properties of plants. I found no reference whatever to such. However, probably on orders from his patrons, Micheli did draw up catalogues of fruits produced in Tuscany and of vines everywhere and the conditions in which they flourished. In 1723 he published a work on a weed that was damaging vegetables in Tuscany, with advice on how to eliminate it.
10. Scientific Societies: He was influential in founding, with a group of friends, the Società botanica Fiorentina, the first botanical society in the world, in 1716. Many of the leading aristocrats of Florence were in this organization (see Targioni-Tozzetti, pp. 86-8). He conducted an extensive correspondence with both Italian and foreign botanists. (See especially Targioni-Tozzetti, pp. 85-134, 145-86, 208-19, 253-317.) He met William Sherard in 1699 and formed a friendship and established a continuing correspondence. He was able (through Magalotti) to communicate with Tournefort. He also corresponded with Jussieu, Scheuchzer, Petiver, Magnol, Vaillant, Boerhaave, Sloane, Zannichelli, Baillou, Folkes, Algarotti, Vallisnieri, Linnaeus, and many others. Targioni-Tozzetti is a mine of information on Micheli's correspondence and, in effect, on the community of natural historians of the early 18th century.

SOURCES:
G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Notizie della vita e delle opere di Pier'Antonio Micheli botanico fiorentino, (Florence, 1858). Microprint T12. S. Ragazzini, 'Per una catalogazione degli scritti inediti di Pier Antonio Micheli,' Annali di Istituto e Museo di storia delle scienze (Firenze), 8 (1983), 159-72. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 110, and 27 (1901), 73. G. Negri,'P.A. Micheli (1679-1737),' Nuovo giornale botanico italiano, n.s. 45 (1938), lxxx-cvii. An outstanding essay.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: G.C. Ainsworth, Introduction to the History of Mycology, (Cambridge, 1976), pp. 308-37. Antonio Cocchi, Discorsi tuscani, (Firenze, 1762), pp. 971-238 (?). Michaud, Biographie générale.


Michelini, Famiano



1. Dates: Born: Rome, 31 August 1604; Died: Florence, 20 January 1665; Datecode: Lifespan: 61;
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Religious Orders; Michelini was sent by his order, the Brothers of the Pious Schools, or Piarists, to Genoa for his education. He studied mathematics with Santini. There is no mention of a university or of a degree, but I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. At the age of 15 (Targioni-Tozzetti says 1621, which would have been the age of 17), Michelini entered the Piarists as a lay brother. The congregation was raised to the status of a religious order in 1621, with the purpose of providing free schooling, including mathematics, to the poor. Michelini was ordained in 1636.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Hydraulics; Although he did not have a medical degree, Michelini was interested in medicine, to which he applied the experimental method and helped to pave the way for Redi's experiments and Borelli's theories. Michelini urged the use of citrus juices and control of weight. In 1664 he published Della direzione de' fiumi, a subject to which he had given major attention all his life.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; In 1629 Michelini was sent to Florence where his order planned to open its first schools. He became acquainted with Galileo there. In addition to teaching in his order's schools, he gave private lessons in mathematics. In 1635 he was called to teach mathematics at the court, especially to the brothers of Ferdinando II, Gian Carlo and Leopoldo. Apparently he also instructed Ferdinando in astronomy. For the most part he lived at the court, following it around Tuscany. In 1648 he received the chair in mathematics at Pisa when it was vacated by the death of Renieri. He left the chair in 1655. There is strong evidence that he lost the favor of Ferdinando and was forced to leave. He was a pro-vicar to a bishop in Sicily. When the bishop died, Michelini returned to Florence without resources. He appears to have been supported by the patronage of Prince Leopoldo, who financed the publication of his book on hydraulics.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; See the bishop in Sicily above. Targioni-Tozzetti presents evidence that Michelini lost the favor of the Grand Duke and was forced to leave his chair in Pisa. I found no serious evidence to explain the loss of favor, but recall that Michelini was charged before the Inquisition with Galileo's heresy, and I wonder if something connected with that was not central. I have also noticed that Paolo del Buono also left Florence in 1655. He and Michelini were at once point in charge of works along the Arno; is it possible that something went wrong there? When Michelini came back to Florence from Sicily, he was destitute. T-T prints letters (I gather first published by Fabroni) to Leopoldo in the early 60's. They are unique among letters I have seen in showing the flip side of patronage. Michelini was clearly in a miserable state and could expect no improvement if he did not win back the favor of the Grand Duke. He begged Leopoldo for support. Apparently Leopoldo did gain the Grand Duke's permission for Michelini to dedicate his Direzione to him. Note however that Leopoldo did not incorporate Michelini into his Accademia del Cimento.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Hydraulics; At least during an epidemic Michelini ministered to the sick. Certainly he gave medical advice in general and composed Discourses on Health, which remained unpublished. Especially he advised the use of citrus juices as a medicine. Through most of his career in Florence Michelini was consulted on issues of hydraulics, such as the courses of the Chiana and Arno rivers and problems of drainage of the plain at Pisa. He advised boxes or bulkheads filled with stone to protect the banks of rivers. He also gave advice about the silting up of the lagoon at Venice.
10. Scientific Societies: As the tutor to Leopoldo, Michelini was the focus of the group around the prince that was the prototype of the later Accademia del Cimento. Later on he was in controversy with Torricelli on issues of hydraulics.

SOURCES:
G. Targioni-Tozzetti, Notizie degli aggrandimenti delle scienze fisiche accaduti in Toscana nel corso di anni 60 del secolo XVII, (Firenze, 1780), 1, 188-204, 365. T-T prints (I gather not for the first time) very interesting letters. G. Giovannozzi, Scolopi galileiani (Publicazioni dell'Osservatorio Ximeniana dei PP. Scolopi, no. 124), (Firenze, 1917). P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 156-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Giovannozzi, 'Un capitolo inedito della storia del metodo sperimentale in Italia di R. Caverni,' Atti della Pontificia accademia romana dei nuove lincei, 71, (1918), 171-89. A. Neri, 'Il padre staderone,' Rivista europea, n.s., 23 (1881), 756-64.


Millington, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Newbury, Berkshire, 1628; Died: London, 5 January 1704; Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: Gentry; Also Thomas Millington; except that he was gentry not much is known. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cmb; Oxford University, M.A., M.D., D.D. Westminster School. Cambridge University and Oxford University, 1645-1659. Cambridge, Trinity College, 1646-9; B.A. 1649. Oxford, All Souls, 1649-59; M.A., 1651; incorporated at Cambridge, 1657; M.D., B.D., 1659 at Oxford.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Anatomy; Though a leading physician, Millington published nothing. As a young man in Oxford, however, he was active in the Oxford group of physiologists, pursuing both anatomical and physiological investigations.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1649. I am under the impression that he retained the Fellowship for the rest of his life. Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy, Oxford, 1675-1704. Millington ceased to reside in Oxford in 1676. He retained the chair. He did use deputies, at least some of the time. Medical practice in London: 1676-1704. Millington was highly fashionable and he amassed a fortune. First physician in ordinary to William and Mary, later to Queen Anne.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was called to the deathbed of Charles II, and was the first physician to William And Mary. Knighted in 1680.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Close connection with Boyle, Wallis, Wilkins, Willis and Wren in the circule in Oxford. Sydenham praised him as a practicing physician. Royal College of Physicians, 1672; Censor, 1678, 1680, 1681; Harveian Orator, 1679; Treasurer, 1686-9; Elect, 1691; Consilarius, 1691, 1695; President, 1696-1704. He was one of the original members of the Royal Society.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 442.
William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 363-5. George Clarke, A History of the Royal Society of Physicians, (London, 1964-1966), 1, 170, 258, 323; 2, 469, 472, 474-5, 483, 487. Robert G. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists: A Study of Scientific Ideas, (Berkeley, 1980).


Moffett [Moufet, Mouffet, Muffet, Muffett], Thomas



1. Dates: Born: London, 1553; Died: Bulbridge, Wiltshire, 5 June 1604; Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Merchant. Also Thomas Moffett, the father was a London haberdasher of Scottish descent. I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the father was at least affluent. Moffett went to Cambridge as a Pensioner, and after Cambridge he was able to spend six years on the continent, three of them studying at Basle, and three travelling extensively.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A. University of Basel; M.D. Merchant Taylor's School, 1564-9. Cambridge University, 1569-76; initially Trinity, then Caius in 1572; B.A., 1573: M.A., 1576 (from Trinity). M.D., 1578 at Basle. Travelled on the continent, 1579-82. M.D., incorporated at Cambridge, 1582.
5. Religion: Anglican; Moffett's younger brother was the Rector of Fobbing, Essex.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Entomology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Iatrochemstry. While in Basle he published several medical treatises, and later Nosomantica, 1588, a book on diagnosis. He became a Paracelsian and published De jure et praestantia chemicorum medicamentorum dialogus apologeticus, 1584. Either with De jure or at much the same time, Epistolae quinque medicinales. Both of these were iatrochemical, Paracelsian works; both were included in Zetzner's Theatrum chemicum. He is best known for Theatrum insectorum, which was published only well after his death, in 1634. He was also the author of The Silkewormes and their Flies, 1599. Raven has a very low opinion of Moffett as a naturalist. The book on insects, his best production as a naturalist, was the work of Gesner, Edward Wotton, and Thomas Penny, which Moffett received from Penny and put into its final form. Health's Improvement, was also posthumous-1655. It is mostly about diet. It includes some natural history.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Medical practice, 1584-1604. Wood says 'a very great practice.' It apparently included a number of the aristocracy. Wood says that Moffett was much honored and beloved by Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby. Moffett accompanied Lord Willoughby on his mission to Denmark, 1582. Personal physician to the Earl of Essex during his campaign, 1591-6. Physician to the Earl of Pembroke in Wiltshire, 1597-1604.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Lord Willoughby and the Earl of Essex. He dedicated Nosomantica, 1588, to Lord Willoughby. The Earl of Pembroke persuaded him to move to Wiltshire and secured for him a seat as Member of Parliament for Wilton in 1597. The Earl gave him the manor house of Bulbridge. Lady Mary Herbert, wife of the Earl of Pembroke, held Moffett in high esteem; she saw to it that the Earl gave Moffett a pension, which he received until his death. Moffett composed a life of Sir Philip Sidney (Nobilis, unpublished at the time); Sidney was the brother of Lady Herbert. To the Lady, Moffett dedicated Silkewormes, and to her son the life of Sidney. Thomas Penny (who appears to have been more a colleague than a patron) encouraged his research, and Moffett dedicated his first book to Penny. (I am not listing this.)
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Agriculture; Moffett participated in the College of Physicians' project to compose a pharmacopoeia. Silkewormes was consciously an effort to promote the planting of mulberry trees and the raising of silkworms in England.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Studied medicine at Cambridge under John Caius. Intimate friendship and cooperation with Penny. Studied medicine at Basle under Felix Platter and Theodor Zwinger. Moffet added a number of descriptionss and drawings from his own observations to Conrad Gesner's unpublished book, Theatrum Insectorum. Royal College of Physicians, 1588-1604; Censor 1588.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50) 13, 548-50
William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 91-3; Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, 574-5. Wood mistakenly considered Moffett an Oxford man. Charles H. Cooper & T. Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigiensis, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1858-61), 2, 400-2, 554. C.E. Raven, English Naturalists from Neckham to Ray, (Cambridge,; 1947), pp. 172-91. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 168-75. Victor Houliston, 'Introduction,' in Moffett, The Silkewormes and their Flies, (Binghamton, NY, 1989), pp. xi-xxvii.  H.M Fraser, 'Moufet's Theatrum Insectorum,' Gesnerus, 3 (1946), 131. B. Milt, 'Some Explanatory Notes to H.M. Fraser's Article about Moufet's Theatrum Insectorum,' Gesnerus, 3 (1946), 132-4.

Not Available and Not Consulted: W. Oldys, a life of Moffett in the 1746 edition of Health Improvement. W.H. Mullens, Thomas Muffett, Occasional Publications of the Hastings and St. Leonard's Natural History Society, No. 11 (1911). Reubin Friedman, 'Thomas Moffet (1553-1604). The Tercentenary of his Contribution to Scabies,' Medical Life, 41 (1934), 620-35.


Mohr, Georg



1. Dates: Born: Copenhagen, 1 April 1640; Died: Kieslingswalde, near Goerlitz, Germany, 26 January 1697 Datecode: - Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Governmental position, merchant; His father was David Mohrendal, a hospital inspector and tradesman. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Copenhagen, Denmark. Career: Holland (as best I can make out). Partly Denmark and Germany; Death: Kieslingswalde, near Goerlitz, Germany.
4. Education: None Known; His parents taught him reading, writing, and basic arithmetic. 1662, wanting to learn more mathematics, he left Denmark for Holland, where Huygens was teaching. Where he studied, and whether he met up with Huygens is unknown. He almost certainly studied under Spinoza. He later travelled in France and England. No mention of any university degrees.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Unknown. Secondary Means of Support: Patronage. What he did to support himself is unknown for most of his life. He enjoyed being a free, learned man, and did not want to be tied down to a government job which would interfere with his scientific work. A reasonable guess is that he taught to support himself. It is clear that he settled in Holland after studying (presumably) there. He fought in the Dutch-French conflict of 1672-3 and was taken prisoner. Sometime, perhaps directly after the war or around 1681, he returned to Denmark where the King offered to make him supervisor of royal ship building. He refused and returned to Holland around 1687. 1695-1697, finally, after resisting for several years, he accepted a job at Tschirnhaus's little museion in Kieslingswalde. This appears clearly to have been an arrangement of patronage.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Sci; His Euclides Danicus (1672) is dedicated to the Danish King Christian V. Mohr tried to benefit from this dedication, and was offered a position as supervisor for royal ship building. But he thought that as a mathematician and philosopher he should have more independence than this position would allow. According to the D.S.B. he left Denmark in 1687 because of a difference with the King; whether this alludes to the unsatisfactory job offer in not clear. This desire for independence has been mentioned by a few sources (Seidenberg, Andersen), who say that Mohr avoided patrons after this incident. Andersen even illustrates this with Mohr's surprised reaction to Tschirnhaus's marriage (1683), where he wonders how Tschirnhaus could give up his independence. Mohr himself then married in 1687. Despite this avoidence of patrons that has been cited, Tschirnhaus was a patron of Mohr toward the end of Mohr's life. They met in Holland, later spent some time together in France and England, and finally, Mohr joined Tschirnhaus's museion two years before his death.
9. Technological Connections: None known
10. Scientific Societies: None known; He corresponded with Tschirnhaus and Leibniz.

SOURCES:
Kirsti Andersen, 'An Impression of Mathematics in Denmark in the Period 1600-1800,' Centaurus, 24 (1980), 322-4. [Biol. Q1.C39 v. 24]; C.M. Taisbak, 'Mohr, Georg,' Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 9 (Copenhagen, 1979), 605b-606b. [ref. CT1263.D33 1979] v. 9; J. Hjelmslev, 'Om et af den danske matematiker Georg Mohr udgivet skrift Euclides Danicus,' Matematisk Tidsskrift, B (1928), 1-7. , 'Beitraege zur Lebenabschreibung von Georg Mohr (1640-1697), Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Mathematics-fysiske Meddelelser, 11 (1931), 3-23.


Moivre [De Moivre, Demoivre], Abraham De



The family name was Moivre. Abraham De Moivre added the 'De' (not 'de' incidentally) in England, apparently to give himself status. The name is frequently indexed under D rather than M.
1. Dates: Born: Vitry-le-François, Champagne, 26 May 1667; Died: London, 27 November 1754; Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Medical Practioner; A provincial surgeon of modest means. With that description, I have to list his financial status as unknown. On the one hand, the father was able to have his son educated initially by a tutor and later to send him, at age eleven, to the Protestant academy at Sedan. On the other hand, Walker calls the father a poor surgeon.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Saumur; University of Paris; Catholic Village School. Protestant Academy at Sedan, 1678-82. Studied logic at Saumur, 1682-4. Collège de Harcourt, Paris, 1684. Studied mathematics privately in Paris with Ozanam, 1684-5. There is no mention of a B.A., and I concluded that De Moivre never earned one.
5. Religion: Calvinist; He was a Huguenot and left France as a result of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; De Moivre published his first mathematical paper in the Philosophical Transactions in the early 90's-in all fifteen papers in the Philosophical Transactions. His Doctrine of Chances, 1718, was perhaps the key work in the early history of probability. Miscellanea analytica, 1730. Annuities on Lives, 1725. An important theorem in trigonometry carries his name, and he contributed also to the theory of infinite series and to finite differences.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Pub; De Moivre left France because of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He was in England by 1686. He became a tutor of mathematics, and eked out a living from tutoring and from publications. His book on annuities was of great personal importance for this reason. He never succeeded in finding significant patronage. Apparently he always had an accent, and he never lost his love of French literature. He remained an outsider, who failed really to break into English society. He solicited subscriptions to publish Miscellanea analytica and had to delay publication because he did not get enough subscriptions. At the end of his life, he earned moneyk by solving problems of chance at coffee houses.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Sci; Halley introduced him to the Royal Society. De Moivre was always looking for patronage, which he never seriously found, and with several others (I think especially of the French mathematician in the Netherlands-Girard, I think-and of Michelini) he illustrates the possible tragic face of the system of patronage. Through Bernoulli he tried to enlist Leibniz's help in securing a university chair on the continent. He dedicated his paper 'Mensura sortis,' 1711, the seed of the Doctrine of Chances, to Francis Robartes (later the Earl of Radnor), who had suggested the problem to him. He was hoping that Robartes could get him the Lucasian chair. De Moivre dedicated the Doctrine, 1718, to Newton, who was his friend but never seriously helped him. He dedicated the second edition, 1738, to Lord Carpenter. He dedicated Annuities on Lives, 1725, to the Earl of Macclesfield. He dedicated Miscellanea analytica, 1730, to Martin Folkes. I am listing all of these dedications. I assume that De Moivre received modest gratuities in return for them. As I say, he never got the patronage his ability deserved.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; His Annuities on Lives was a conscious application of his understanding of probabilities to a very practical problem.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Berlin Academy; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Informal Connections: Friendship with Halley beginning in 1692. Intimate friendship with Newton and Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. Correspondence with Jean Bernoulli (which has been published), Varignon, and a number of other mathematicians on the continent. Royal Society, 1697. The Berlin Academy of Science, 1735. Paris Academy des Sciences, 1754.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 563. Helen M Walker, 'Abraham De Moivre,' Scripta Mathematica, 2 (1934), 316-33. Ivo Schneider, 'Der Mathematiker Abraham De Moivre,' Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 5 (1968-9), 177-317.


Molyneux, William



1. Dates: Born: Dublin, 17 April 1656; Died: Dublin, 11 October 1698; Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Gentry; Military; Samuel Molyneux was a member of the Protestant establishment, stretching back to the reign of Elizabeth, which governed and dominated Ireland. He followed a military career because of the civil war; he became the master gunner of Ireland. He had property in several counties. The only issue is how to classify him financially. Clearly he was at least prosperous. William Molyneux attended Trinity College as the Fellow Commoner. He (William M.) never had to earn a living. He was able to pass on a sufficient fortune that his son never had to earn a living. I think that wealthy is the correct classification.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish (I list him as Irish, but he was clearly part of the English ruling class, and he lived essentially in an English environment.); Career: Irish Death: Irish.
4. Education: Trinity, Dublin. Educated initially by a tutor. Trinity College, Dublin; 1671-5; B.A., 1675. Studied law in the Middle Temple, London, 1675-8. Honorary M.A., 1692. Honorary L.L.D. 1693 (I do not list either.)
5. Religion: Anglican. Molyneux appears to have teetered on the edge of a heterodoxy similar to Locke's. I saw no evidence that he moved beyond the limits of orthodoxy, however.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Natural History; Natural Philosophy; Molyneux's most important and best known work was Dioptrica nova, 1692. Questions of optics occupied much of his attention. He began to make astronomical observations no later than 1681, when he obtained a telescope from Flamsteed. He continued to observe throughout his life, but he never wrote anything on astronomy. He did publish a few papers of observations in the Philosophical Transactions, as well as papers on optics, natural philosophy, and miscellaneous topics. He collected materials on the natural history of Ireland for a 'description of Ireland' for Pitt's intended Atlas. This was never published. He read papers on natural history before the Dublin Philosophical Society. Molyneux translated Descartes' Meditations into English. The problem of the blind man who gains sight, which he proposed to Locke, remains a topic that is discussed even in our day.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; Inherited wealth from his distinquished and well-to-do family, one of the establishment Anglican families. Molyneux lived on his inheritance all his life. Joint Surveyor General of the king's buildings and works in Ireland, 1684-8, 1690-8?. His share of the salary was ?150. 1690, on a commission for stating the army's accounts (in Ireland). Salary: ?500; Represented the University of Dublin in Parliament, 1692, 1695. 1693, served a few months as a commissioner of forfeited estates, then resigned because of ill health. Salary: ?400 per annum. 1697-8, shared the responsibility of government with Lord Chancellor John Methuen and Lord Mayor Mr. Van Homrigh. I don't know whether he received remuneration.
8. Patronage: Government Official; The Duke of Ormond, who was the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, secured him the position of Surveyor General in 1684. While traveling in 1685, he received a payment of ?100 from the Irish government to view and make plans of the principle fortresses around Flanders (which he apparently never did). Dedicated Sciotherium telescopicum, 1686, to the Earl of Clarendon, then the Lord Leiutenant. Nominated as a commissioner of forfeited estates in Ireland by the government in 1693-though he resigned shortly. He dedicated The Case of Ireland, 1698, to William III. However, no one was willing to present the book to William, and in fact the book, which argued the sovereignty of the Irish Parliament, made William angry. I won't list this. Molyneux was a wealthy man, and his dedications reflect this; in general they were not fishing for patronge. He dedicated Dioptrica nova to the Royal Society, and the second part of it to his friend Henry Osborne, with whom he had discussed optical problems. He received some patronage from figures in the government of Ireland, but in general he did not need patronage and did not solicit it.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Military Engineer; Civil Engineering; Designed a telescopic sundial and a new hygroscope. With his father he experimented on gunnery and drew up a paper (unpublished) on the subject. There is no evidence that he drew plans of the principal fortress in Flanders, despite his commission to do so. While he was Surveyor General, he restored Dublin Castle, though it appears that the plans were not his.
10. Scientific Societies: Dublin Philosophical Society; Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Formed a Dublin Philosophy Society in 1683 and was elected the first secretary of the Society. In 1687 the Society collapsed. It was revived, 1693-7; Molyneux was a member but not very active during the second period. Correspondence with the Royal Society and Oxford Philosophy Society. Friendship and correspondence with Flamsteed and later Halley. The correspondence with Flamsteed is published in the General Dictionary. Lengthy correspondence with Locke from 1692 until Molyneux's death. Published in Some Familiar Letters (of Locke). Joined Moses Pitt in his work on the English Atlas beginning in 1882. Royal Society, 1685.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 585-8.
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 3123-42. K.T. Hoppen, 'The Royal Society and Ireland: William Molyneux, F.R.S. (1656-1698)', Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 18 (1963), 125-35. J.G. Simms. William Molyneux of Dublin (1656-1698), (Blackrock, County Dublin, Ireland: Irish Academic Press, 1982). [JC163.M65 S55 1982] This is easily the best source on Molyneux. 'Molyneux, William,' in Pierre Bayle, A General Dictionary Historical and Critical, tr. John P. Bernard, Thomas Birch, and John Lockman, 10 vols. (London, 1734-41), 7, 601-14.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Autobiographical sketch in Capel Molyneux, An Account of the Family and Descendants of Sir Thomas Molyneux, Kt., (Evesham, 1820). 'Introduction,' in Molyneux, The Case of Ireland Stated, reprint ed. (Dublin, 1977). John W. Davis, 'The Molyneux Problem,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 21 (1960), 392-408.


Monardes, Nicolas Bautista



1. Dates: Born: Seville, probably 1508; Died: Seville, 10 October 1588 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80; There is debate about the year of Monardes' birth, of which there is no definitive evidence. Many and perhaps most put it about 1493, on the basis of a statement by him near the end of his life. Nothing in his life makes sense with this date, however. It leaves the whole of his young manhood unrecorded. It has him attending university in his late 30's and marrying about the age of 40. It has him undertaking the work on the materia medica of the new world, the work for which he is known to history, when he was over 70. This is all most improbable, so that the evidence, in itself not more definitive than that for 1493, that he was born about 1508, fits the rest of his life much better. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80;
2. Father: Pub; His father was Niculoso de Monardis, an Italian bookseller who had established himself in Seville. No evidence about the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sp; Career: Sp; Death: Sp
4. Education: Alchemy; University of Seville; M.D. B.A., Alcal, 1530. B.Med, Alcal, 1530. M.D., Seville, 1547.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Pharmacology; Botany. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Mineralogy; Monardes is the best known Spanish physician from the 16th century. He was translated into Latin, English, Italian, French, German, and Dutch. Through him the materia medica from the new world first began to be known in Europe. Because of his tests on animals, he is considered as one of the founders of experimental pharmacology. He gave the first scientific description of several species of plants. He also described some animals, such as the armadillo, living specimens of which he did see. So also some of the minerals of America. He wrote a book on iron that was famous; it included information of the working of iron and was not confined solely to its pharmacological uses.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Merchant; Personal Means; Monardes father-in-law was the physician to the upper class of Seville. Monardes apparently took over the practice and maintained it throughout his life. Various surviving documents establish his extensive mercantile enterprises, which included the importation of drugs and involvement in the slave trade. It is clear that Monardes was quite wealthy by his middle years, but there is no suggestion that he inherited the wealth. However, he received a large dowry, and eventually his wife inherited a great deal. Monardes clearly managed the estate well and multiplied its value. He took holy orders in 1577 after the death of his wife; this had nothing to do with his means of support.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Three early books were dedicated to physicians, whom I have interpreted (in the light of Monardes whole career) as friends rather than patrons. He dedicated a book of 1545 to the government of the city of Seville. He dedicated his first book (1565) on the materia medica of the new world to the Archbishop of Seville, as well as a new edition of it in 1569. He dedicated an addition (on the Bezoar stone) to the 1569 edition to the Duchess of Bejar. There were also books dedicated to the Duke of Arian and the Duke of Alcal. I gather that all of these aristocrats were also his patients. He dedicated a new edition of the 1565 book, which had new additions, to the King. He dedicated a book of 1574 to the Pope.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: It seems clear that l'Écluse became acquainted with Monardes in Seville; later he translated Monardes' work on the materia medica of the new world into Latin, and later still l'Écluse translated more of his work.

SOURCES:
José M. Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionario historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2, 69-72. Francisco Guerra, Nicols Bautista Monardes. Su vida y su obra, (Mexico City, 1961).
Francisco Rodriguez Marin, La verdadera biografia del doctor Nicolas Monardes, (Madrid, 1925).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Joaquin Olmedilla y Puig, Estudio historico de . . . Monardes, (Madrid, 1890). Carlos Pereyra, Monardes y el exotismo médico en el siglo XVI, (Madrid, 1936).


Monte, Guidobaldo del



[from the Latinized version, sometimes Guido Ubaldo; but Ubaldo was not the family name]
1. Dates: Born: Pesaro, 11 January 1545; Died: Montebaroccio (near Pesaro and Urbino), 6 January 1607; Datecode: Lifespan: 62;
2. Father: Aristocrat; Military; His father, Ranieri, was created the Marchese del Monte, the title Guidobaldo inherited, by Duke Guidobaldo II of Urbino. The father was a noted soldier and author of two books on military architecture. Guidobaldo inherited an estate on which he was able to live; the family had to have been at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Padua; He studied at Padua, where, inter alia, he was a friend of Tasso. There is no mention of a degree, which would have been irrelevant to him. He also studied mathematics under Commandino in Urbino.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mechanics; Mathematics; Astronomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Liber mechanicorum, 1577-on statics, with a return to pure Archimedean principles in rejection of the quasi-dynamic analysis of Jordanus. Later, Paraphrase of Archimedes: Equilibrium of Planes, 1588, and De cochlea, 1615 (posthumous). Guidobaldo left three manuscript treatises on proportions and on Euclid. He composed two works on astronomy: Planisphaeriorum, 1579, and Problematum astronomicorum, 1609 (posthumous). Guidobaldo was the author of what has been called the best Renaissance study of perspective, Perspectivae libri sex, 1600, and a manuscript on refraction in water.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. Secondary Means of Support: Eng; He served in the Turkish campaigns in Hungary. There is no mention of income from this, and I suspect that as an aristocrat he did not receive any. What his indirect compensation was I do not know. Soon after the campaign he retired to the family castle of Montebaroccio where he pursued his studies until his death. In 1588 he was appointed visitor general of the fortresses and cities of Tuscany. This appears to have been a temporary appointment, not a permanent one.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Guidobaldo dedicated his Liber mechanicorum and his treatise on the calendar to Duke Francesco Maria II. I have not found any exposition of his relationship with the court of Urbino, but his father's relationship with it had been the foundation of the family's position. (However, note the theater in Urbino mentioned below). I cannot doubt that in some fashion Guidobaldo also depended on it, as this dedication suggests. Recall that his brother was Card. del Monte. Note his brief relation with the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Guidobaldo was himself a patron; he was instrumental in Galileo's appointments in Pisa and Padua.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Architecture; Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; He designed the ducal theater in Urbino. He left behind a treatise on the Archimedean screw to raise water. In some sources it is asserted that he elaborated Commandino's instrument (a reducing compass) into the proportional compass, though apparently this is dubious. However, he did invent other mathematical instruments. He invented machines and corresponded with Contarini about them.
10. Scientific Societies: In Urbino Guidobaldo was the friend of Commandino and Baldi. He saw Commandino's Latin translation of Pappus through the press after Commandino's death. He corresponded with the Venetian mathematician Barozzi (Barocius). He was the patron and friend of Galileo, with whom he exchanged a few letters.

SOURCES:
Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathetics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 222-42. _____, 'Materials for a Scientific Biography of Guidbaldo del Monte,' Actes du XIIe Congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, Paris, 1968, 12 (Paris, 1971), 69-72. _____'The Origins of the Proportional Compass,' Physis, 10 (1968), 53-69. Stillman Drake and I.E. Drabkin, Mechanics in Sixteenth-Century Italy, (Madison, Wis., 1969), pp. 44-8.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: A. Favaro, 'Galileo e Guidobaldo del Monte,' Atti della R. Accademia di scienze, lettere ed arti di Padova, 30 (1914), 54-61. B. Baldi, Cronica de'matematicic, (Urbino, 1707), pp. 145-7. G. Mamiani, Elogi storici di F. Commandino, G. del Monte . . ., (Pesaro, 1828). G. Arrighi, 'Un grade scienziato italiano Guidobaldo del Monte in alcune carte inedite della Biblioteca Oliveriano di Pesaro,' Atti dell'Accademia lucchese di scienze, lettere ed arti, n.s., 12 (1968), 183-99.


Montmor, Henri Louis Habert de



1. Dates: Born: Paris, c. 1600; Died: Paris, 21 January 1679 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 79.
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position. Jean-Robert, Lord of Montmor and of Mesnil, and treasurer de l'extraordinaire des guerres and treasurer de l'épargne. Montmor came from a wealthy family related to the greatest families in the kingdom. Its leading members were high government officials who grew rich in the king's service. His uncle, Charles de Malon, was lord of Bercy and Conflans and president of the Grand Conseil. His cousin Nicolas de Bailleul, was president of the Parlement. Montmor married a cousin, Marie Henriette de Birade de Frontenac, whose brother Louis later became governor of New France.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known. He received an excellent education. Nothing is said about a university or a degree; such were of no significance to wealthy aristocrats.
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Montmor's significance in the history of science lies in his patronage of scientists and philosophers. He was founder and patron of the Académie Montmor. He wrote a Latin poem on Cartesian physics, De rerum naturae, and was known as a propagator of Cartesianism.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position. When he was twenty-five, his father obtained for him a position as conseiller in the Parlement of Paris. Costar writes that Montmor had an income of 100,000 livres. In 1632 he purchased the office of Maître des Requêtes with part of the 225,184 livres capital that he received from his parents. Montmor's son, who became Maître des Requêtes in his turn (in 1699), suffered a bankruptcy of 600,000 livres. A 'fatal melancholy' overtook Montmor, who was forced to sell his own post. He never recovered from this blow and soon died.
8. Patronage: None Known. Montmor was himself the patron of learning and of science. In addition to the académie, he was the recipient of dedications, such as Mersenne's Harmonie universelle.
9. Technological Connections: None Known. Montmor provided his clients with 'an infinity' of machines and instruments with which he had stimulated his own curiosity for thirty years, but he could not supply them with a forge, a laboratory, or an observatory, which would require the patronage of a sovereign. He made an implicit appeal to the king for the creation of an institution under royal patronage which alone could supply the more elaborate needs. The Académie Montmor is usually called the forerunner of the Académie royale des sciences. Despite his recognition of the fundamental importance of instruments, I have decided not to list this.
10. Scientific Societies: He was elected to the Académie Française in 1634. On 30 April 1635 a group met at his town house on the Rue Sainte Aroye (?) (now 79 Rue du Temple). In the 40's he offered Descartes full use of his country house, but Descartes declined. No document proves conclusively that regular scientific meetings took place at Montmor's residence before 1653. In 1653 Gassendi moved into his house in the Rue du Temple. Montmor encouraged him to write La vie de Tycho Brahe, and Gassendi dedicated it to him. Gassendi also made him the executor of his will and left Montmor all his books, manuscripts and the telescope Galileo had given him. When Gassendi died, Montmor arranged his funeral, and collected his writings and wrote a preface to the six-volume Latin edition published at Lyons in 1658. Gassendi's presence in Montmor's household certainly contributed to the development of the meetings held there by the cultivated men who had previously gathered around Mersenne and who now assembled on the Rue du Temple. In those meetings some experiments were conducted. From the end of 1657 the weekly gatherings of what came to be called the Académie Montmor can be dated. At Montmor's request, Sorbière prepared a plan for the organization of meetings in the form of nine articles. The goals of the meetings 'will not be the vain exercise of the mind on useless subtleties; rather, one should always propose the clearest knowledge of the works of God and the advancement of the conveniences of life, in the arts and sciences that best serve to establish them.'; Among the members of the Académie Montmor were Chapelain, Sorbière, Montmor, Clerselier, Rohault, Pierre Huet, Roberval, and Huygens (when he was in Paris). Oldenburg also visited the house in the Rue du Temple when he stayed in Paris. According to Huygens' journal, he met Auzout, Frénicle de Bessy, Desargues, Pequet, Rohault, La Poterie, Sorbière, and Boulliau there. The activities of the Académie Montmor during the first years included Chapelain's announcement of Huygens's discoveries (the pendulum clock, the first known satellite of Saturn, a diagram of his system of Saturn-planet and ring), Rohault's experiments on the magnet, Pecquet's dissertations, and Thevenot's presentation of his tubes. Soon two currents appeared within the Académie Montmor: a tendency to seek natural causes, and a preference for observation and experiment. The problem worsened in the following years, and the Academy received various kinds of criticism. In response to all the criticism, the Academy attempted to reform itself. Experiments were tried there with an air pump constructed according to Huygens' plan. Nevertheless, as Huygens wrote to Moray in 1664, a widespread desire was felt to establish the academy on a new basis. Montmor, meanwhile, continued to receive scientists and to take an interest in philosophers. Montmor was himself a good scholar. He assembled a very rich library in which the correspondence of important contemporaries, such as Gui Patin ands Chapelain had a major place.

SOURCES:
Faustin Foiret, 'L'hotel de Montmor,' La cité, bulletintrimestriel de la Société historique et archeologique du IVe arrondissement de Paris, 13 (1914), 309-339. Dictionnaire de biographie française (under Habert de Montmor, Henri Louis). Harcourt Brown, Scientific Organizations in Seventeenth Century France (1933). Pellissin and d'Olivet, Histoire de l'Académie, 2 vols.

Not Available and Not Consulted: René Kerviler, 'Henri-Louis Habert de Montmor, de l'Académie française et bibliophile (1600-1679),' Le bibiophile français, 6, (Paris, 1872).


Montmort, Pierre Remond de



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 27 October 1678; Died: Paris, 7 October 1719; Datecode: Lifespan: 41
2. Father: Aristocrat; François Reymond, Ecuyer, Sieur de Breviande. A noble family. His father wanted him to become a magistrate. Montmort received a substantial inheritance on which he lived. The family had to have been wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known; On the advice of his father he studied law, but tired of it and ran away to England. He toured extensively there and in Germany. After he returned to France in 1699, he began to study Cartesian physics and philosophy under Nicolas Malebranche. He and a young mathematician, Francois Nicole, taught themselves the new mathematics over a period of three years. He learned the principles of algebra and geometry from Carré and Guisnée.
5. Religion: Catholic. He became a canon at Notre Dame de Paris about 1700, but later gave up his clerical office in 1706.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His book on probability, Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard, (Paris, 1708), made his reputation among scientists and led to a fruitful collaboration with Nikolaus I Bernoulli. The greatest value of this book lay perhaps not in its solutions but in its systematic setting out of problems about games.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; From his father he had a substantial inheritance in 1699, which he did not waste frivolously. Later he brought an estate at Montmort, and married Mademoiselle de Romicourt, the niece of the Duchess of Angouleme (who was the widow of the illegitimate son of Charles IX). His brother persuaded him to become a canon at Notre Dame de Paris about 1700, but later he gave up his office to get married. Before his marriage, Montmort gave away 25,000 écus to charity, possibly the income from the canonry.
8. Patronage: None Known; There were, in Montmort's life, relations and financial affairs pertaining to the nobility. I'll list the ones we found, but they do not sound like patronage to me. While a young man, he stayed in Germany with M. de Chamois, plenipotentiary of France to the Diet of Ratisbon, who was some relation. In 1710, the Duchess of Angouleme came to live at the Château de Montmort after selling her property to settle her affairs. She died three years later. There appear to have been some legal processes regarding the testament she left Montmort, and it is not clear how lucrative it was. Clearly this was all related to Montmort's marriage.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1716-1719; Royal Society (London); 1715-1719; He was elected fellow of the Royal Society when he was visiting London in 1715. The Académie made him an associate member the following year (he could not be granted full membership because he did not reside in Paris). Montmort was taught by Malebranche and worked with Nicole. Nicolas Bernoulli once spent three months at his estate. Montmort corresponded with Leibniz, Halley, Craig, Taylor, Hermann, and Poleni.

SOURCES:
'Eloge de M.de Montmort,' Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences pour l'année 1719, (Paris, 1721), pp. 81-93. Nouvelle biographie générale, 36, 369-71. Index biografique (Académie des sciences), p. 367.


Montanari, Geminiano



1. Dates: Born: Modena, 1 June 1633; Died: Padua, 13 October 1687; Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Unknown; We are told only that Giovanni Montanari died when Geminiano was ten. Geminiano was reared by his mother. Fabroni says that the family circumstances forced Montanari to study law, the one of all the arts and sciences most devoted to gain. On the other hand Montanari mentions, in his sketch of his own life, that he was the heir to his grandmother. In a word, no clear information on the financial circumstances in which he grew up.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Germany; Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Salzburg; MD, PD, LD; Montanari was sent to Florence when he was twenty to study law and was there for three years. Because of an unfortunate love affair with a prominent woman, he was forced to leave. He was invited [sic] to Vienna. At Salzburg (Tiraboschi and Fabrooni say the university of Salzburg, though I had not known there was a university of Salzburg) he earned degrees in both civil and canon law. Apparently he also obtained degrees in both philosophy and medicine somewhere sometime. I accept all three degrees as doctorates because they were so mentioned in his epitaph. In Vienna he learned the principles of Galilean science from Paolo del Buono.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Physics; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology; Meteorology; Hydraulics; After Count Malvasia interested him in astronomy, he did a map of the moon for Malvasia's ephemerides of 1662. Montanari published a volume of ephemerides and astronomical tables for himself in 1665. From 1669 he was involved with Cassini's sundial in San Petronio. He studied variable stars, and carried out lots of observations of comets. He studied capillary phenomena, and he experimented with a megaphone and with sound. He carried on a long campaign to discredit astrology. Montanari did experimental studies in biology-aritifical incubation and blood transfusions. (This is categorized as Physiology.); He studied meteorological phenomena and tried using the barometer both to predict weather and to measure altitude. He passed on an unpublished manuscript on hydraulics to his student Guglielmini. Montanari was something of a polymath; I could also list optics because of work on atmospheric refraction.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Law; Montanari practiced law in Vienna for a time until about 1657. And when he returned to Italy he was for a time legal advisor to Prince Leopoldo de' Medici. When he returned to Italy from Vienna he appears to have gone first to his native Modena where he was in the service of Duke Alfonso IV d'Este. Before long he went on to Florence and the service of Leopoldo, but returned to Modena in 1661 as court philosopher and mathematician (with a stipend of 840 lire). At the court he met Cornelio Malvasia, an aristocrat from Bologna, who first interested Montanari in astronomy. When Alfonso died, Montanari declined further service in the Modenese court but went instead to Bologna with Malvasia, who secured his appointment to the chair of mathematics at the University. He apparently also enjoyed the patronage of Francesco II d'Este. 1664-78, professor of mathematics at Bologna. It is of interest that Mengoli was also professor of mathematics at Bologna during these years, but neither man is mentioned in the accounts of the other. When a financial crisis arose in Bologna in the late 70's, Padua revived its chair of astronomy and meteorology (with an initial stipend of 700 florins, increased later to 900) for Montanari. While he was in Padua, Montanari was heavily employed by the Venetian state, especially in the organization and management of the mint.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Magistrate; See the Este and Medici and Malvasia above. When Duke Alfonso IV died in 1662, his widow (who was regent for her son) offered Montanari to continue in the court as a legal advisor. Montanari had become absorbed in astronomy, and he declined in order to go with Malvasia to Bologna. However, he did apparently return frequently to Modena to instruct the young Francesco II in mathematics and astronomy. He dedicated his observations of the comet of 1664 to the Senate of Bologna. He dedicated lectures delivered in the academy in Torino to the Duchess of Savoy. In Venice, the patrician Girolamo Cornelio favored him, building an observatory for him in his (Corraro's) house in Venice, and there Montanari spent much of his time. In Padua Card. Barberigo had a special observatory built for him.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Military Engineer; Cartography; Instruments; To map the moon, Montanari developed a reticule for his telescope. He also worked on a pendulum clock. While in Bologna he made lenses which were considered excellent. He developed what sounds like a sort of orrery, a machine he called a 'Sferologio' that showed all of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Montanari developed a level that used a telescope to achieve greater accuracy. The same telescope was equipped with a reticule intended to make it possible to measure distances directly. He published a piece on the megaphone, which he understood could be used both to project the voice and to amplify sound arriving at the ear. In Venice he advised strongly the diversion of all rivers away from the lagoon in order to keep it from silting up-in direct opposition to the position Castelli had taken. Montanari's advice was taken. He published a manual for gunners and he composed an unpublished manuscript on fortification. The Venetian state used Montanari for advice on the control of rivers and protections of the lagoon, on fortification, and on organization of the mint (which occupied much of the rest of Montanari's life).
10. Scientific Societies: In the mid 60's Montanari organized the Accademia della Traccia in Bologna, the precursor to the Accademia degli Inquieti and the Instituo. He was also a member of the Accademia gelati. He engaged in a number of heated controversies, especially with the Jesuits and especially with Fabri.

SOURCES:
Enciclopedia italiana, 23, 720. G. Tiraboschi, Biblioteca modense, (Modena, 1781-3), 3, 254-79. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 170-7. C. Bonacini, 'Nel terzo centenario della nascita di Geminiano Montanari,' Atti e memorie. Accademia di scienze, lettere, ed arti (Modena), 4th ser., 4 (1934), 63-76. A. Fabroni, Vitae italorum, 3 (Pisa, 1779), 64-119. Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 241-4.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Campori, 'Notizie e lettere inedite di Geminiano Montanari,' Atti e memorie della deputazione di storia patria di Modena e Parma, 8 (1876), 65-96. C. Bonacini, 'Sull'opera scientifica svolta a Modena da Geminiano Montanari,' Rassegna per la storia dell'universita di Modena, Fasc. 5 (1933).


Moray [Murrey, Murray], Sir Robert



1. Dates: Born: Scotland, 1608? By his own (ambiguous) account, between 10 March 1608 and 10 March 1609. Died: London, 4 July 1673; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Gentry; Sir Mungo Moray of Craigie, Perthshire, was descended from an ancient family of distinction. No definite information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: Scottish, English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known. It was generally assumed that Moray had had a university education, and St. Andrews was frequently mentioned. He did not attend St. Andrews, however, and there is absolutely No Information about his education.
5. Religion: Calvinist. The issue is ambiguous. Moray, a genuinely religious man, generally sided with the Presbyterians in Scotland. However, he was a very moderate and liberal one, and his spiritual brethren appear to have been more the Latitudinarians.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Org; Subordinate Disciplines: Chemistry; Moray was primarily a public figure, a statesman and diplomat, and only secondarily a scientist. He was a central figure in the establishment of the Royal Society, interceding for it with the court, and he was described in his day as the soul of the Society. He was a virtuoso in the style of the day, interested in everything but accomplished (in science) in nothing. However, he did experiment fairly extensively in chemistry and was known at the time as a chemist.
7. Means of Support: Military; Government Official; Patronage; Served in a Scottish regiment in France, 1633-about 1651. He became a client of Richelieu and was apparently his agent in England in 1639. Lieutenant-Colonel and later Colonel of the Scottish Foot Guards in the French service, 1645-c.51. Robertson (pp. 68-71) has details about how a colonel extracted personal gain from the business of recruiting. The only name for it is soldier of fortune. Mazarin's agent in London, 1645-7. Justice-Clerk, Privy Councillor, and Lord of Session in Scotland, 1651-2. With Cromwell's victory and the Commonwealth union with England these positions ceased. Privy Councillor, Lord Ordinary of the Scottish Court of Session, Justice-Clerk, and Lord of Exchequer, 1661-1667. Robertson says that all but one (which one?) of these appointments was honorary; I take him to mean no remuneration. With Lauderdale, Moray was a major figure in Scottish pollitics and government from 1663 to 1670. In 1667 he was one of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and he was a member of the commission to govern Scotland, 1667-8.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Knighted by Charles I in 1643. He was the client of Cardinal Richelieu and his agent in London in 1639, and later the agent of Cardinal Mazarin. His intimate friendship with Charles II, which began about 1648, aided in obtaining a charter for the Royal Society and occasioned his election as first president of the society. In London he resided in the palace. Engaged by John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale, in 1648 to negotiate with the Prince of Wales. I think that one has to consider Lauderdale as Moray's patron in the political life of the early Restoration. A rift between them began to develop in 1668, and by 1670 Moray had ceased entirely to be active in the public life of Scotland. About that time Lauderdale became openly hostile to Moray. Alexander Bruce, Earl of Kincardine, was his intimate friend, but I see nothing I would call patronage in their relation.
9. Technological Connections: None; This is a bit ironic since Moray's interests tended strongly toward the utilitarian, as the records of the Royal Society indicate. He was knowledgable about chonometry. However, I have not found his active participation in any technological projects.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections Correspondence with Bruce on scientific questions-and later (1660-70) with Huygens. Moray was either the first or one of the first to be inducted into the freemasons in England (1641). Royal Society, 1660; President, 1660-2. Moray was one of the initial gathering in November 1660 that decided to organize the Society.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 1298-9. Alexander Robertson, The Life of Sir Robert Moray: Soldier, Statesman and Man of Science (1608-1673), (London, 1922). This is easily the best source on Moray. D.C. Martin, 'Sir Robert Moray, F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 239-50. Thomas Birch, History of the Royal Society of London, (London, 1756-7), 3, 113-14. Clifford Dobell, 'The Kincardine Papers,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 4 (1946). 174-8. John Aubrey, Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. O.L. Dick, (London, 1949), pp. 211-12.


More, Henry



1. Dates: Born: Grantham, early October 1614. He was baptized on 11 October; Died: Cambridge, 1 September 1687; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Magistrate; Alexander More is described as 'a gentleman of fair estate and fortune.' He was also many times mayor and alderman of Grantham. Clearly prosperous-aside from the description above is the inheritance that he left to Henry More.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; M.A., D.D. Grantham grammar school, then Eton, 1628-31. Cambridge University, Christ's College; B.A., 1636; M.A., 1639. Honorary Doctor of Divinity, 1660. I don't list this.
5. Religion: Anglican; Reared in a Puritan home, More rejected Calvinism at Eton; he detested the doctrine of predestination. He took holy orders in the Anglican church shortly after incepting M.A. He is probably best described as a moderate Latitudinarian.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; More was one of the most prominent Cambridge Platonists. Greatly stimulated by Descartes in the 40s, he was perhaps the primary agent in introducing the Cartesian philosophy into England. Later he came to see the philosophy as mechanistic materialism and turned strongly against it. An Antidote against Atheisme, 1652, Immortality of the Soul, 1659, Enciridion metaphysicum, 1671, and much else express his fear that Cartesian philosophy promoted atheism.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, 1639-87. In 1642 he was instituted into the living of Ingoldsby, Lincolnshire, which was in his father's presentation. More held it only very briefly. He inherited what is described as a very large legacy from his father. Biographia britannica says that he possessed an 'easy fortune.' The estate included a farm in Lincolnshire. In 1676 he was persuaded to accept a prebend at Gloucester. More held this position and income only a short time before he resigned it in favor of a friend.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; He was offered several ecclesiastical positions after he took orders, but More was not seeking preferment. He declined the mastership of his college, the deanery of Christ Church, Oxford, the provostship of Trinity College, Dublin, with the deanery of St. Patrick's, and two bishoprices said to be worth ?1500 per annum. The Earl of Nottingham, the Lord Chancellor but more importantly the brother of Anne Conway, eventually persuaded him to accept a prebend in 1676, though he soon resigned it. Clearly this is a virtual rejection of patronage in comparison to what he could easily have had. It is hard to know how to classify his relationship with the Conway family, especially Anne Conway, who was the sister of one of More's favorite pupils, John Finch. He spent nearly every summer at the Conway estate, Ragley, in Warwickshire. He composed some of his treatises at her request and dedicated them to her; he also dedicated Immortality of the Soul to Lord Conway. It was Anne Conway's brother, the Earl of Nottingham, who arranged the prebend in Gloucester. Anne left him a legacy of ?100. Nevertheless, the relationship was not primarily financial, and I hardly know if it should be considered as patronage. John Cockshutt of the Inner Temple, about whom no one seems to know anything, left More a legacy of ?300 to have his principle works translated into Latin. More undertook it himself; the drudgery effectively finished his intellectual life. The Opera omnia in two volumes were published in 1679
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Correspondence with Boyle. Friendship with Newton. Controversy with Thomas Vaughan, 1650-1. Royal Society, 1661-87.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 868-70. Marjorie Nicolson, ed., Conway Letters: The Correspondence of Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway, Henry More, and their Friends, (New Haven, 1930). There is no good biography of More; the passages on him in this volume are the best I have found. Robert A. Green, 'Henry More and Robert Boyle on the Spirit of Nature,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 23 (1962), 451-74. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 5, 3168-77. Aharon Lichtenstein, Henry More: The Rational Theology of a Cambridge Platonist, (Cambridge, 1962).

Not Available in to Time to be Consulted: Sarah Hutton, ed. Henry More (1614-1687): Tercentenary Studies, with a biography and bibliography by Robert Crocker, (Dordrecht, 1989).


Morin, Jean-Baptiste



1. Dates: Born: Villefranche, Beaujolais, 23 February 1583; Died: Paris, 6 November 1656 Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: French; Birth: Villefranche, Beaujolais, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France.
4. Education: University of Avignon; M.D. 1609, studying philosophy at Aix. I assume B.A. 1611, studying medicine at Avignon. 1613, received the M.D.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Astronomy; Astrology.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Astrology. 1613-1621, supported by the Bishop of Boulogne, who sent him on a long trip to Germany, Hungary, and Transylvania, to visit mines and study metals, and made use of his astrological predictions. 1621-1629, supported by the Duke of Luxembourg. 1630-1656, professor of mathematics at the College Royal. Judicial astrology provided him with an income of 4000 livres/year.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; Court Patronage; The Bishop of Boulogne, and the Duke of Luxembourg were his major patrons. 1629, Morin turned down an offer of patronage from Marhsall d'Essiat. In addition, Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin consulted with him. Cardinal Mazarin gave him an annual pension of 2000 livres. The printing of Astrologia gallica (The Hague, 1661) was paid for by Louise-Marie de Gonzaga, Queen of Poland. Unknown influential people probably got him the post at the College Royal.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Instruments; Perhaps he practiced medicine while supported by the Bishop and the Duke. I confess to extreme skepticism on this, however; I'll bet a month's salary it was the astrology. Morin developed a method to determine longitude based on the moon. Because of the primitive state of lunar theory then, the method was impractical. He proposed the replacement of pinnules with telescopes on astronomical instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres..., 3 (Paris, 1729), 86-102. L. Moreri, Le grande dictionnaire historique..., 6 (18th ed. Amsterdam, 1740), 456. Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 14, 224-7.

Not Available Soon Enough to be Consulted: 'Morin' in Pierre Costabel and Minette Martinet, Quelques savants et amateurs de science au XVIIe siècle, (Paris, 1986).


Morison, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Dundee, Scotland, 1620. The older sources, Pulteney, DNB, and Vines, all say Aberdeen, if it matters. Died: London, 10 November 1683; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Unknown; We know only his names, John Morison. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sc Career: Sc, France; & English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Aberdeen; Ang, M.D. Aberdeen University; M.A., 1638. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. Studied medicine in Paris, 1644-8, but I saw nothing to indicate that he was enrolled in the university. M.D., 1648, at Angers. Incorporated M.D. at Oxford the day after he took up a professorship there. I do not list it.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption, supported by his fighting for the royalist cause during the Civil War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Praeludia botanica, 1669, his first book, was critical of current taxonomy. Plantarum umbelliferarum distributio nova, 1672. Plantarum historiae universalis oxoniensis pars secunda, 1680. Pars tertia was published after Morison's death by Jacob Bobart. Pars prima was never published and apparently never written. The Historia was Morison's major work. Morison was an important figure in the improvement of taxonomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Fellow at Aberdeen University, 1638-42. Morison was seriously wounded in 1644 fighting on the royalist side and after recovering he fled to France, where he stayed until the Restoration. In Paris he became at first tutor to the son of a consellor named Bizet while he studied medicine. I list this under patronage. Physician and gardener to Gaston, Duke of Orleans, 1649 (or 50)-60. Having been introduced to Charles in France, Morison became royal physician and royal professor of botany and supervisor of the royal gardens, 1660-83. The appointment carried a salary of ?200 (usually deeply in arears) and a house. Professor of Botany at Oxford, 1669-83.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Vespasian Robin, French king's botanist, recommended him to the Duke of Orleans in 1649. The Duke of Orleans. Charles II brought him back to England and named him royal physician and royal professor of botany. Morison dedicated part of Praeludia to Charles, a second part to James, Duke of York, and a third part to Dean Fell of Christ Church, who had been instrumental in his appointment to the chair in Oxford. The dedication has a very interesting passage which states that the Duke of Orleans had been planning to finance the publication of Morison's system of taxonomy when he suddenly died in 1660, and which in effect begs Charles to take up the burden. Charles was apparently unmoved. Morison dedicated Distributio nova to the Duke of Ormond, Chancellor of the university and to the Vice-Chancellor and other figures in the university who had contributed to the plates. He dedicated his publication in 1674 of Boccone's treatise on French plants to Charles Hatton, son of Lord Hatton. Charles Hatton had been Morison's student in Paris, and he footed the bill. Pulteney says that the edition of Boccone 'excited the attention of the learned, augmented Morison's patronage, both abroad and at home,' and encourage his to prosecute his further work. Although Charles II did not sponsor Morison's great work, he did get support from a bevy of private patrons who covered the cost of 126 plates in the pars secunda of the Hisatoria (the only part that Morison himself published). I have gone through the plates, which are dedicated to a whole platoon-great aristocrats such as Prince Rupert, the Duke of Monmouth, the Duke of Lauderdale; a number that I would call gentry, such as John Cotton, Bart. and Sir Robert Southwell; several bishops; some I would call governmental officials such as the two Secretaries of State, Coventry and Williamson (which I am not listing for lack of space); a very considerable number of physicians, mostly from the College of Physicians; quite a few apothecaries from the College of Apothecaries; and even some scientists such as Boyle and Wren. I do not list the last three categories for lack of space.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; Even though he held an M.D. and was a personal physician to Charles, I saw no indication whatever that Morison ever practised medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Friendship with Jacob Bobart. Pupil of Robin. Royal College of Physicians, 1660.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13 958-60.
J. Reynolds Green, A History of Botany in the United Kingdom, (London, 1914). Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 1, 298-312. S.H. Vines, 'Robert Morison, 1620-1683, and John Ray, 1607-1705,' in F.W. Oliver, ed. Makers of British Botany, (Cambridge, 1913), pp. 8-43. S.H. Vines and G.C. Druce, 'Robert Morison,' part of the 'Introduction' to An Account of the Morisonian Herbarium in the Possession of the University of Oxford, (Oxford, 1914), pp. xxiv-lii.


Morland, Samuel



1. Dates: Born: Sulhamstead Banister, Berkshire, c.1625; Died: Hammersmith, Middlesex, 30 December 1695; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Church Living; Thomas Morland was rector of Sulhamstead Banister. No explicit information on financial status, though it is highly suggestive that Morland went to Cambridge as a sizar.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; Winchester College, 1639-44. Cambridge University, Magdalene College, 1644-53; B.A., 1648; M.A., 1652.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; He appears to have been reared an Anglican. He definitely embraced the Puritan cause during the Civil War. His career after the Restoration would have been impossible had he not conformed.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Hydraulics; Possibly a case could be made for listing mathematics, because Morland devoted considerable attention to calculating machines nad published tables to ease calculations. However, though I will list this under technological involvements, I do not consider it participation in the discipline of mathematics. Much of Morland's effort after 1660 went into pumps and hydraulics.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Mis; Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1649 to at least 1653. On two foreign embassies, 1653, 1655. On the second he was Commissioner Extraordinary to the Duke of Savoy on behalf of the Waldenses, a mission of some importance to Cromwell. Assistant to Secretary Thurloe, 1654. Appointed gentleman of the privy chamber, 1655. Under the Interregnum Morland did very well, earning about ?1000/year according to his own account, which seems inflated. Because he committed no major offenses and performed services for the royalists (primarily warning Charles of a plot to kill him), he survived the Restoration well enough, but he was not equally prosperous. He did get a pension of ?500, which he sold upon hearing a rumor that it would be revoked. He did eventually obtain a number of official positions: Secretary to the Commissioners for Ireland, 1668-no terminal date and no salary mentioned; Commissioner of Appeal in Excise, 1669, with a salary of ?200 per annum; Commissioner of Excise, 1672, with a salary of L500. The King granted him an annuity of ?300 in 1672, and two pensions (?400 and ?200) in 1678. I have the impression that he never saw anything of the annuity, but both James and William honored the two pensions, which he received until his death. Appointed Master of Mechanicks to the King, 1681, on the occasion of his success in raising water from the Thames to Windsor Palace. He received a gift at the time, but no salary is mentioned in connection with this title. Morland invented a new pump that attracted a lot of attention. He had an arrangement with an artisan who made and sold Morland's pumps; a schedule of prices, the first similar schedule for a mechanical device that is known, exists. I list this under Miscellaneous.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Oliver Cromwell employed him on two foreign embassies, and in general he flourished under the Protectorate. Morland dedicated his History of the Evangelical Churches in the Valleys of Piemont, 1658, to Cromwell. I hve not looked at the book, but the topic was of interest to Cromwell and important to his reputation, so this is a significant dedication. In 1656 Morland became Clerk of the Signet, with a salary of ?150 plus fees he collected for sealing documents. Apprently Morland warned Charles of a plot to kill him, and Charles II granted him a full pardon in 1660. He was knighted at the same time, and created a baronet a little later. He received a pension (which he soon sold). Later he received an annuity from Charles and still later, appointments, and ultimately a pension. He also received gifts from Charles on an irregular basis. Morland dedicated his Tuba stentoro-phonica, 1671 to Charles. Nevertheless Morland was always disappointed with his rewards, and his whole life appears to have been one long effort to gain preferment from Charles. In his autobiographical sketch Morland states explicitly that he turned to mathematics and experiments (his phrase) to attract the king's attention. He was always careful to demonstrate his inventions, especially his pump, before the king. In 1681 his pump performed spectacularly at Windsor, raising water (carefully colored with wine to make it visible) from the Thames and shooting it forty feet more into the air. As a result of the pump, Charles sent Morland to Paris to help Louis XIV raise water to Versailles. Morland was less of a success in Paris, though Louis did ultimately reward him with a handsome gratuity, and Morland dedicated his Elévation des eaux, 1685, to Louis.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; Mathematics; Military Engineer; Raising water was always Morland's central occupation. Early in the Restoration he tried to make a machine that exploded gunpowder (in effect the first internal combustion engine) to create a vacuum into which water would be sucked. Later he worked on a steam engine and at one point applied for a patent, but this also did not work out. However, he did construct a force pump using a piston that, among other things, raised water from the Thames to Windor Palace. The French did not choose to adopt his pump for the Versailles water works. He apparently did build a system, with his pump, to supply water to the garden of Lord Arlington, and he constructed the water works in his own garden. The speaking-trumpet attracted a lot of attention for a time. I don't know how to categorize it. Morland built two arithmetical machines and later a third machine to do trigonometric calculations. He also published tables to facilitate computations. He designed a new capstan to weigh heavy anchors. Morland translated a work on fortification, and he designed a new gun carriage. He designed two different barometers-a balance barometer and a diagonal barometer intended to expand the scale for easier reading.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 965-70.
W.E.K. Middleton, 'Sir Samuel Morland's Barometers,' Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences, 15 (1962), 343-51. H.W. Dickinson, Sir Samuel Morland: Diplomat and Inventor, 1625-1695, (Cambridge, 1976). This is easily the best source on Morland; it seems unlikely to be replaced.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.O. Halliwell, A Brief Account of the Life, Writings and Inventions of Sir Samuel Morland, (Cambridge, 1838).


Morton, John



1. Dates: Born: England, c.1671. Born between 18 July 1670 and 18 July 1671. Died: Great Oxzendon, Northamptonshire, 18 July 1726; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, Emmanuel College; B.A., 1691; M.A., 1695. ad enundem degree at Oxford, 1694.
5. Religion: Anglican; He was a clergyman in the Anglican Church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Morton's only publication was The Natural History of Northamptonshire, 1712. In this work he followed Woodward's proposition that the delyde was responsible for the geological features of the county and for its fossils.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Curate of Great Oxendon, 1694-1706; Rector of Great Oxendon, 1706-26.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; I have not found who preferred Morton at Great Oxendon. In a letter of 1704 Morton speaks of the encouragement of gentlemen and noblemen of Northamptonshire, which enables him to pursue his natural history of the county. The work was published by subscription, the new device then coming into practice. I have not been able to see a copy of the book and do not know who subscribed, except that a letter mentions Sir Walter Hawkesworth as one of them.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with John Ray; correspondence with Sloane, Dr. Richardson, Dr. John Woodward, and Lhwyd. Royal Society, 1703-26

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 13, 1050-1. Nichols, Illustrations of the Literaturary History of the 18th Century, 1, 324-7. H.T. Wake, 'Epitaph on the Rev. John Morton,' Notes and Queries, Ist ser., 6, 358. Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 1, 354-5.


Mouton, Gabriel



1. Dates: Born: Lyons, 1618; Died: Lyons, 28 September 1694; Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France;
4. Education: University of Lyons; DD; Before 1646 he obtained his doctorate in theology in Lyons. During his leisure time he studied mathematics and astronomy, rapidly acquiring a certain renown in the city.
5. Religion: Catholic. At four years of age he entered St. Paul's Church in Lyons as an enfant choeur. After taking holy orders he became vicaire perpetuel at St. Paul's Church. He is buried at the chapel there. He spent his whole life in Lyons fulfilling his clerical duties.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Mouton was a pioneer in research on natural and practical units of measurement. His Observationes diametrorum solis et lunae apparentium (1670) was the fruit of his astronomical observations and certain computational procedures he had developed. Mouton proposed to deduce the length of a terrestrial meridian from the variations of the length of a pendulum. A fraction of the terrestrial meridian would be adopted as the universal unit of length. The measuring procedures at the time were too unsatisfactory. The topic wouldn't be taken up again until 1790. He determined with astronomical accuracy the apparent diameter of the sun at apogee.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Spent whole life in Lyons fulfilling his clerical duties.
8. Patronage: Non
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Instruments; He presented a very pratical computational device for completing ordered tables of numbers when the law of formation was known. He constructed an astronomical pendulum remarkable for its precision.
10. Scientific Societies: None known.

SOURCES:
Michaud, Biographie générale. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66). P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.


Muenster, Sebastian



1. Dates: Born: Niederingelheim, Hesse, 30 January 1488 (Bagrow says 1489); Died: Basel, 26 May 1552; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Government Position; His father was a Spitalmeister. A Spital is a hospital, or sometimes poorhouse. Thus his father was a 'hospital master.'; According to Burmeister's judgment, his family was poor, but not so poor that they could not travel to other cities to visit relatives, for instance.
3. Nationality: Birth: Niederingelheim, Germany. Career: Germany, Switzerland. Death: Basel, Switzerland.
4. Education: None Known. Some private education in Latin in preparation for the university is assumed because Ingelheim had no grammar school. c. 1505, began studies at Heidelberg. Since he does not appear in the matriculation roles, it is assumed that he attended lectures given by the Franciscans rather than the university. After entering the Minorite order (1506), he was sent by the order to Rufach to study Hebrew under Konrad Pellikan. He also studied for a time at Freiburg. He never received a degree, or (I gather) the equivalent of one. This caused him a little trouble later on in life.
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; 1505, entered the Minorite order. 1507, took his vows. 1512, became a priest. 1529, converted to Protestantism. This was in Basel, where he spent the rest of his career. I think this means we should call him Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: geography. Subordinate Disciplines: mathematics, astronomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Publishing; Schoolmaster; 1511-14, he accompanied Pellikan to Pforzheim as the equivalent of a famulus, a sort of servant/apprentice. He assisted Pellikan in teaching there as well. 1515-18, lecturer in theology and philosophy at the cloister in Tübingen. 1518, moved to Basel, where he still worked as a lecturer. He also worked as a proofreader, editor, and translator for the publisher Adam Petri (1454-1527). 1520/21, moved to Heidelberg, probably on orders from the order. 1521-3, probably still lecturing. 1524-7/9, occupied the chair of Hebrew at the University of Heidelberg. After he threatened to leave because his salary was too small, it was raised from 25 to 30 gulden (as a Minorite, he was underpaid anyway; another professor received 60 gulden). 1529, he left the order and moved to Basel, where he occupied the chair of Hebrew, at a salary of 60 gulden. Until 1545, students lodged at his house, bringing in a certain amount of income, but it was not significant and they were enough trouble that he eventually did without them. Münster saw his position as being so poorly paid that he considered resigning and living on his income from publishing books, but he remained on the faculty because of certain rights and privileges professors had (e.g. tax-free status). 1530, he married Anna Selber, daughter of the notary Sixtus Selber and widow of Münster's former employer, the printer Adam Petri. It seems that the motive for this marriage was certainly partly economic. 1542-4, he was professor of theology at Basel, and received an additional ?60 of salary (60 gulden = ?75). 1547/8, elected rector.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Unknown; Kaspar Satzger, the Provinzial (father superior), to whom Pellikan was secretary from 1514, was a patron to both Pellikan and MÜnster. Though he is falsely said to have been court preacher in Heidelberg to the Elector Ludwig V of the Palatinate, he did serve on a commission of the university appointed by the Elector to investigate Luther's teachings. He also gave private instruction in Hebrew to the son of the Lord of Erbach at his court during Easter vacation of 1526. The Kalendarium Hebraicum (1527) is dedicated to the Bishop of Trient, Berhard Cles, who intervened to allow Münster to travel to Basel from Heidelberg to oversee its printing while the university was trying to prevent his going. It seems to me that Münster must have had some connection at Basel that arranged his position before he left Heidelberg, but I do not know who it might have been.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Instruments; Münster did a map of Germany, and other maps including one of the area around Basel. In order to compile his geography, Münster sent sets of instructions, including simple instructions for surveying, to various people throughout Germany (and Europe, I believe). In 1525 Münster published a description of an instrument (which he called an Instrument of the Sun) for observations of the stars.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Karl Heinz Burmeister, Sebastain MÜnster: Versuch eines biographischen Gesamtbildes, Baseler Beiträge zur Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 91 (Basel, 1963). This work is quite detailed. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 2 (Nr. 210), 19-29.


Muralt, Johannes von



1. Dates: Born: Zürich, 16 February 1645; Died: Zürich, 12 January 1733 Datecode: - Lifespan: 88;
2. Father: Merchant; He was the member of the old noble de Muralto family, which had been driven from its seat in Locarno in 1555 upon its conversion to Protestantism. The family eventually settled in Bern and Zürich and found new prosperity. Some of Muralt's ancestors were physicians and diplomats. His father Johann Melchior von Muralt (1614-1686) was a successful merchant. I take that to mean at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Swiss; Sw. Birth: Zürich, Switzerland. Career: Zürich, Switzerland. Death: Zürich, Switzerland.
4. Education: University of Basel; M.D. University of Leiden; He was educated at the Zürich Latin school, the Collegium humanitatis and the Collegium Carolinum. 1665-7, studied medicine at the University of Basel. He matriculated in 1665. In 1666, he studied medicine under Johann Caspar Bauhin (1606-85), son of Caspar Bauhin. In 1667, he defended a Consultatio medica de angina. I do not know whether this indicates he received a B.A., but it is likely. 1667, he matriculated at the University of Leiden, where he also defended a dissertation. Franciscus de le Boë Sylvius suggested that Muralt take his doctorate, but Muralt had promised to Bauhin to return and take his doctorate at Basel. 1688, he was in London. He had some contact with the Royal Society. His fellow student at Leiden, Henry Sampson (M.D., 1668), travelled with him to London and provided him with letters of introduction, etc. He also spent a short time at Oxford in 1669. 1669-70, studying surgery in Paris. He had connections and lodging through the anatomist Louis Gayant (d. 1673), founding member of the Académie des Sciences, and Prévôt of the college of surgeons, St. Côme, and 'surgeon of the King's armies.' He had contact with the midwife François Mauriceau (1637-1709), and the physician and anatomist Jean Pecquet (1622-74). 1671, in Lyon, where he visited Charles Spon (1609-1684) and Noel Falconet (1644-1734). 1671, received his M.D. in medicine and surgery at the University of Basel. This was an unusual degree for the time, and Muralt took some pride in it.
5. Religion: Calvinist; (assumed; he was certainly Protestant)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Surgery; Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology; Zoology.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1672, he settled in Zürich, married, and began to practice medicine and surgery. The Zürich surgeons guild challenged his right to practice in the city. However, his success as a physician overcame their opposition. He was eventually made an honorary member of the surgeons guild. He lectured and did public dissections at the surgeons' guildhall. 1688, he was named archiater. His duties included devising sanitary measures to guard against disease, advising the marriage court, inspecting apothecaries, supervising the training of midwives, and treating internal disorders at the city hospital. As I understand it, the position of archiater was distinct from that of Stadtarzt. 1691, he was appointed professor mathematics at the cathedral school and also became canon of its chapter.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Unknown; From his student days (see section 4), Bauhin, Slyvius and Sampson might be called patrons. Muralt explicitly named Gayant his patron, and his Exercitatio anatomica de experimentis novissime factis a Ionne Muralto, Tigurno (1670) is dedicated to Gayant, Pecquet, and Mauriceau. While in London, he was offered the position of personal physician to William Godolphin, ambassador to Portugal, but his parents dissuaded him from accepting. 1692, he was offered a chair at the University of Franeker by the Prince of Nassau, 'Erz-Statthalter der Provinzen von Friesland und Grüning,' but Muralt turned it down. Meanwhile, in view of the way things went in that age, someone had to have stood behind his appointment as archiater.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine quite successfully, applying the knowledge he learned from anatomical dissections. He developed new surgical procedures and set them forth systematically in his writings. He is also responsible for founding anatomical teaching in Zürich.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp; 1681, member of the Academia Caesario-Leopoldina Natura Curiosorum, with the name 'Aretaeus.'

SOURCES:
August Hirsch, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 23, 53-4. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 4, 302-3. Urs Boschung, Johannes von Muralt (1645-1733): Arzt, Chirurg, Anatom, Naturforscher, Philosoph (Schriften zur Züricher Universitäts- und Gelehrtengeschichte, 5) (Zürich: Hans Rohr, 1983) [R566.M8 J63 1983]

Not Consulted: Berhard Peyer, Die biologischen Arbeiten des Arztes Johannes von Muralt (1645-1733) (Thayngen: Karl Augustin, 1946). [R566.M8 P4]


Mydorge, Claude



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 1585; Died: Paris, July 1647; Datecode: Lifespan: 62
2. Father: Lawyer; Government Position; Mydorge belonged to one of France's richest and most illustrious families. His father was conseiller at the Parlement of Paris and Judge of the Grand Chambre. His mother was the sister of the 'président Chrétien de Lamoignon.'
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; His work in geometry was directed to the study of conic sections. His work on the subject, first published in two volumes in 1631 and enlarged to four in 1639, was reprinted several times under the title De sectionibus conicis. His works on conic sections contain hundreds of problems published for the first time, as well as a multitude of ingenious and original methods that later geometers frequently used. According to Baillet, he succeeded Viète as the premier mathematician of his day. He studied the properties and nature of light and refraction, and he studied vision. He also carried out extensive astronomical observations.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; He pursued a legal career. He was, first, conseiller at the Chatelet, then treasurer of the generalité of Amiens (which appears to have been nothing more than a title to hold). Mydorge had such extensive personal means that he could afford to devote his activities to mathematics. In 1613 he married the sister of La Haye, the French ambassador to Constantinople.
8. Patronage: None.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Navigation. He determined the latitude of Paris with great precision. He was a member of the commission appointed to judge Morin's method of determining longitude.
10. Scientific Societies: Intimate friendship with Descartes. Mydorge met Descartes about 1625 and became one of his most faithful friends. In 1627 Mydorge spent more than 100,000 ecus to make various lenses and optical instruments for Descartes, to aid him in his search for an explanation of vision. He also played a role in the reconciliation between Descartes and Fermat after 1638.

SOURCES:
Biographie universelle, 29, (Paris, 1860), 666. Nouvelle biographie générale, 37, 88. M. Cantor, Vorlesungen uber Geschichte der Mathematik, 2, (Leipzig, 1913), 673-4, 768-9. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.


Mylon, Claude



1. Dates: Born: Paris, c. 1618; Died: Paris, c. 1660; Datecode: ca. Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Government Official; His father was a counselor to Louis XIII and Controller-General of Finance. Nothing is said about financial status, and yet it is impossible to believe that the family was not wealthy. Mylon was admitted to the bar two years before reaching the legal age-surely an indication of influence (which is not, to be sure, identical to wealth, though the two frequently cohabit).
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France;
4. Education: None Known; He was admitted to the bar as an advocate before Parlement in 1641, two years younger than the required age of majority.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Communication. Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; He became interested in mathematics as early as 1645. Mylon's importance in science derives from the service he provided by facilitating communication among many learned men from 1650-60. After the death of Pailleur, the director of the Académie Parisienne, Mylon had access to the papers of the society. He sent information on Fermat's and Frenicle's problems in number theory to Holland. He shared Fermat's and Pascal's problems on games of chance with Schooten. He was also in contact with Mersenne, Debeaune and Roberval. In his correspondence, Mylon did attempt to enter into the mathematical exchange himself, without displaying outstanding qualities as a mathematician.
7. Means of Support: Lawyer; Personal Means; In 1641 he was admitted to the bar as an advocate before Parlement. The entry 'Per' is frankly speculation, but I find it impossible to reject.
8. Patronage: Non
9. Technological Connections: Non
10. Scientific Societies: Some time before 1654 Mylon was the secretary of the Académie Parisienne, a continuation of the Mersenne group.

SOURCES:
Christiaan Huygens, Oeuvres complétes, 1, 316. See also 14, 4-9. A.R. Hall & M.B. Hall, eds., The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg, 1, 225. There is just precious little information about Mylon. The two notes above are extremely short, the Halls' being a copy of the one in Huygens' Oeuvres. Mylon does not appear in Biographie générale, Nouvelle biographie générale, Moreri, Zedler, or Bayle. Costabel's article in the DSB is far and away the most complete account I have found.





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

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