Scientific Revolution - Westfall - DSB - Catalogue - RSW-DSB-RAH - Scientific Revolution
T H E   S C I E N T I F I C    R E V O L U T I O N
WESTFALL  CATALOGUE  -  SCIENTIFIC  COMMUNITY
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
Search - Name - Word - Category - Concept - Secondary Source - Author


Ingrassia, Giovanni Filippo


1. Dates: Born: Regalbuto (near Palermo, Sicily), ca. 1510; Died: Palermo, 6 November 1580; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70;
2. Father: nothing known about the family. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Paleontology; University of Padua; MD. Apparently started medical studies in Palermo. Soon transferred to Padua, where he was the student of Vesalius, whose lifetime follower Ingassia became. M.D., 1537.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Ingassia is best known for anatomical studies, especially of the bones, which date from the period in Naples. They show his continuing debt to Vesalius. He published on the plague. He is called the founder of legal medicine, which in his case included issues such as the validity of testimony taken under torture. And he also contributed to veterinary medicine.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Official; Medical Practioner; Nothing is known about his activities in the period 1537-44. In view of what followed, and in view of his degree, it is reasonable to assume that he practiced medicine and with success. 1544: appointed professor of anatomy and medicine at the University of Naples. Apparently this appointment was arranged by the Viceroy, Don Garcia di Toledo. 1556: Appointed Protomedicus at Palermo, at the recommendation of the Spanish Viceroy for Sicily, Juan de Vega. In Sicily Ingrassia became famous for his treatment of Giovanni d'Arragone, Marquis of Terranova, who had been very seriously wounded in a tournament.   As Protomedicus, Ingrassia was able, among other things, partially to control the endemic malaria by draining swamps, and to mitigate the impact of a plague by use of isolation hospitals. He was responsible for the first sanitary code. Capparoni states that Ingrassia's rapid professional advance was due to his fame as a physician.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Ars. The viceroys (above); The Marquis of Terranova.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Correspondence with Vesalius

SOURCES:
G. Pitrè, 'Pel IV centenario della nascita di G.F. Ingrassia,' Atti della R. Accademia delle scienze mediche in Palermo, (1913-15), 150-67. A. Piraino, 'G.F. Ingrassia, l''ipocrate siciliano' del '500 e la sua opera,' La cultura medica moderna, 15 (1936), 270-8. OK Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 42-4. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la médecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 3, 210-1. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G.G. Perrando, 'Festeggiamenti commemorativi,' Rivista di storia critica delle scienze mediche e naturali, 1 (1910-12), 75-9. B. Bilancioni, 'L'opera medico-legale di Ingrassia,' Cesalpino, 11 (1915), 249-71.


Joblot, Louis



1. Dates: Born: Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine, 9 August 1645 (this would appear to be the date of baptism rather than birth); Died: Paris, 27 April 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Merchant; His father, Nicolas, was probably a moderately well-to-do merchant. The godparents of the various children in the family were all quite prominent in the area. Louis was the fourth child. I interpret 'moderately well-to-do' to mean prosperous but not wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; (I am uncertain about this. Lorraine was certainly not part of France at that time. However, the name is certainly French.); Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: None Known; Nothing certain is known of his life prior to his 35th year. Perhaps he was educated at the College Gilles de Treves.
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Microscopy; Magnetism; Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; The publication of Descriptions et usages de plusieurs mouveaux microscopes (Paris, 1718) established Joblot as the first French microscopist. The first half of the treatise was devoted to the instrument itself; he developed new forms of it. The second half dealt with microscopic life (protozoa), and briefly he took up the generation of infusoria, opposing the theory of spontaneous generation. He formulated his own theory on magnetism, and in 1701 constructed the first artificial magnet.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Position; In 1680 he was appointed assistant professor of mathematics at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts, that is, the Académie of painting and scupture. (This position was not salaried. It appears to me that he had to have been receiving fees from students; no other source of support is mentioned.) In 1699 he became professor of mathematics at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts at a salary of 300 livres. It was not clear to me whether he could be considered a member of the Académie or not, but for my purposes it does not matter. He was a governmental employee in either case. He resigned his professorship in 1721.
8. Patronage: Aristocrat; He supplied microscopes to Marshal d'Estrées, and he instructed the Duchess of Maine in microscopis observation.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; He constructed the first artificial magnet, for use in magnetical investigations, in 1701. He wrote on the construction and use of microscopes, advancing the art. He also made microscopes with the aid of an instrument maker. His function at the Académie of painting was to instruction young painters in perspective.
10. Scientific Societies: As I said above, it is not clear to me whether he was an Academician in the proper sense, but he was certainly associated with the Academy of Painting and Sculpture throughout his known adult life.

SOURCES:
W.Konarski, 'Un savant barrisien, precureur de M. Pasteur, Louis Joblot(1645-1723),' Mémoires de la Société des letters, sciences et arts de Bar-le-Duc, 3rd ser., 4 (1895), pp.205-333. L.L. Woodruff, 'Louis Joblot and the Protozoa,' Scientific Monthly, 44 (1937), pp.41-47. Not in Nouvelle biographie générale. Beyond the present extent of the Dictionaire de biographie francaise.

Not Available and Not Consulted: H. Brocard, Louis de Puget, Francois Lamy, Louis Joblot, leur action scientifique d'apres de nouveaux documents, (Bar-le-Duc, 1905).


Johnson, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: probably Selby, Yorkshire, c.1600; Died: Basing, Hampshire, September 1644; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 44
2. Father: Unknown; No information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No university education. Bachelor of Physic, 1643, Oxford, by royal mandate-not to be listed. M.D., 1643, Oxford, by royal mandate-not to be listed.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption; he did fight on the King's side in the Civil War.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Johnson published four works that were the first local flora in England: Iter plantarum investigationis, 1629, and Descriptio itineris, 1632, both about botanical tours of Kent and of Hampstead Heath; Mercurius botanicus, 1634, describing a botanical tour to Oxford, Bath, Bristol, Southampton, and the Isle of Wight; and Mercurii botanici pars alter, 1641, another botanizing tour, this time of north Wales. The last two embodied an attempt to produce a British flora, and with his friend Goodyer he had plans to produce a more extensive British flora. These plans were cut short by his death. Johnson was an apothecary, and in his botanizing he always paid attention to the medicinal properties of plants. He published a new improved edition of Gerard's Herbal, and he was involved in the publication in London of the Pharmacopoei parisiensis, 1637. A Thomas Johnson, whom virtually everyone takes to be this Thomas Johnson, published a translation of the works of Paré in 1634, a book that exerted great influence on British surgery in the 17th century.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Seconardy: Medical Practioner; Apprenticed to the London Apothecary, William Bell, 1620-8. In apothecary business in London, 1628-43, established at his own shop on Snow Hill by 1633. In 1643 he left London to fight on the King's side in the Civil War. Johnson's botanical trip of 1634 was occasioned by his being in Bath in medical attendance on a wealthy woman, Ann Walter. It is well known that apothecaries practised medicine, and all the effort of the College of Physicians to stamp this out constitutes evidence that they did practice. Note Johnson's edition of Paré. Note that the two degrees Charles mandated for Johnson in 1634, presumably at his request, were medical degrees. Note also that John Ray later referred to Johnson's skill in medicine. Except for the episode with Ann Walter, this is very tenuous, but with that episode I am willing to list medical practice. Lieutenant Colonel to Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, the governor of Basing House, 1642-4. I keep this information, but I am highly dubious that it constituted a means of support.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Medicine; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; The king granted him two degrees in 1643 for his loyalty. He dedicated his Descriptio, 1632, and his edition of Gerard in 1634 to the Rector and Wardens of the Company of Apothecaries. For the latter he received a gift from the company. Johnson was a member of the Company; I am not going to list this. He dedicated Mercurius, 1634, to Sir Theodore Mayerne and several other physicians of the College of Physicians. He dedicated the English edition of Paré to Lord Herbert of Cherbury. He dedicated Mercurii pars alter to Thomas Glynn, son and heir of Sir William Glynn; during the Welsh expedition that gave rise to this book Johnson's party twice enjoyed Glynn's hospitality.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; See above for both.
10. Scientific Societies: Society of Apothecaries (Any One); Informal Connections: Friendship with Dr. George Bowles from 1630, with John Goodyer from 1631, and with John Parkinson in 1630s-all three of them fellow botanists. Company of Apothecaries, 1628; Court of assistants, 1640.

SOURCES:
H. Wallis Kew and H.E. Powell, Thomas Johnson, Botanist and Royalist, (London, 1932). C.E. Raven, English Naturalists from Neckham to Ray, (London, 1947), pp. 273-97. Sir D'Arcy Power, 'Epoch-making Books in British Survery VI. Johnson's Ambroise Parey,' British Journal of Surgery, 16 (1928), 181-7. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 10, 935-6. Richard Pulteney, Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, (London 1790), 1, 126-37. J.S.L. Gilmour, 'Thomas Johnson, the Iter and the Descriptio,' in Thomas Johnson, Botanical Journeys in Kent and Hampstead, ed. J.S.L. Gilmour, (Pittsburgh, 1972), pp. 1-4.


Johnson, William



1. Dates: Born: location unknown, England, c.1610; Died: London, 1665; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Gentry; The case is not clear, but it appears that he came from a family of gentry. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No records of education. Since there are no records, I will leave it this way; however, there is good reason to believe that Johnson was a member of the clergy before the Commonwealth, and this would probably have meant university education.
5. Religion: Anglican; The fact that he left the clergy upon the outcome of the Civil War strongly suggests that he was Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Pharmacology; Johnson was considered an iatrochemist, though he was at odds with other English iatrochemists. He published Three Exact Pieces of Leonard Piorovant, 1652, and in that same year Lexicon chemicum, drawn from Ruland, Basil Valentine, and Van Helmont. Though an iatrochemist, as an employee of the College of Physicians he wrote a defense of Galenic pharmacology (Some Brief Animadversions, 1665) against the attack of George Thomson.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Pharmacology; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Org; He is said to have inherited wealth from his gentry family. He was an apothecary, doing business from the premises of the College of Physicians. He became the Operator of the College of Physicians, at least by 1651, preparing chemical medicines and ingredients as samples and for sale, and instructing fellows in their preparation. He remained in this post until his death. In a publication of 1652, Johnson seemed to state clearly that for eight or nine years he was a member of the clergy. Apparently, when the outcome of the Civil War disrupted the church, he turned to pharmacology and chemistry.
8. Patronage: Medical Practioner; Johnson dedicated his Lexicon to Francis Prujean and other fellows of the College of Physicians. For Some Brief Animadversions, 1665, the College voted him a gratuity of ?100.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: Society of Apothecaries (Any One); Society of Apothecaries, 1654-65.

SOURCES:
G.N. Clark, History of the Royal College of Physicians, (London, 1964). Patricia P. McLachlan, Scientific Professionals in the 17th Century, Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1968, pp. 61-83. Cecil Wall, A History of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London, p.335.


Jones, William



1. Dates: Born: Llanfihangel Tw'r Beird, Anglesey, Wales, 1675; Died: London, 3 July 1749; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; John George was a small farmer, or yeoman. According to Welsh custom, Jones took the Christian name of his father (John) as his surname. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality:  Birth: English (i.e, Welsh); Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No records of his education, and it is established that as a young man he entered the counting house of a London merchant.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Navigation; By universal consent Jones was not an important mathematician. Nevertheless he did publish a number of mathematical works: Synopsis palmariorum mathesios, 1706 (a text for learners that did include fluxions and infinite series-Jones introduced here the symbol pi in its enduring meaning) and a number of papers in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1711 he published Newton's De analysi, one of the early shots in the priority battle, and his possession of Collins' papers was crucial for the Newtonian defense. Jones had completed Introduction to the Mathematicks, which was just commencing publication when he died; it was never published and is lost. His first book was A New Compendium of the Whole Art of Navigation.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Schoolmaster; He served at a merchant's counting house in London, 1690s. (I list this under Miscellaneous.); Taught mathematics on board a man-of-war in West Indies, 1690s-1702. (I am uncertain how to categorize this and end up putting it under Schoolmaster. It cannot have been much of a position.) When he returned, he set up as a teacher of mathematics in London. Tutor of some famous families, 1702-49: Tutor of Philip Yorke, first Earl of Hardwicke. Tutor of Thomas Parker, Earl of Macclesfield, and his son, the next Earl of Macclesfield and the President of the Royal Society. For many years Jones lived with the Parkers in Oxfordshire, as a member of the family. He had some sinecure office obtained for him by Hardwiche (secretary for the peace, I think, and not another, later post in the Exchequer), which paid ?200. Appointed deputy teller to the exchequer, another sinecure office, which he owed to Parker's influence. Jones did well enough, almost entirely through patronage, that his widow was able to send their son, the future Sir William Jones, who was only three when his father died, to Harrow and on to Oxford.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Bulkley of Baron Hill, a local landowner near his birthplace, help Jones to enter the counting house of a London merchant. Jones dedicated his New Compensium of Navigation to the Rev. John Harris (of the Lexicon technicum), in whose house Jones composed it. He accompanied Philip Yorke on the circuit and by his influence was made 'secretary for the peace.' Perhaps this was the sinecure (worth ?200 per annum) which Yorke (the Earl of Hardwicke and Keeper of the Seal) obtained for Jones. Nichols says that this office enabled him to 'lay aside' his employment as a teacher. He owed other governmental offices and much else to the recommendation of Parker, a governmental official. Jones had lost all his accumulated property through the failure of a banker; Parker (Macclesfield), in whose home he was living as a member of the family, came to his rescue. Hutton repeats a story that Jones, in some way not specified, 'compromised' (i.e., took care of, or adjusted) a scandalous Italian wedding in the Parker (Macclesfield) family. Hence the saying 'that Macclesfield was the making of Jones, and Jones the making of Macclesfield.'
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Applications of mathematics in navigation, developing methods to calculate positions.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: Close friedship with Newton from 1706. He obtained the privilege of access to Newton's manuscripts and edited some important tracts by Newton. Acquired the papers and correspondence of John Collins in 1708. They proved to be critical to Newton's defense in the priority dispute. Jones bequeathed the manuscripts to Lord Macclesfield. Royal Society, 1712; Vice-president at the time of his death. One of the committee appointed by the Royal Society to decide the priority dispute regarding the calculus.

SOURCES:
Rigaud, Correspondence of scientific Men of the 17th Century, (Oxford, 1841). Charles Hutton, A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, (London, 1795), 1, 672-4. John Schore Lord Teignmouth, Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence of Sir William Jones, Philadelphia, 1805). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50) 10, 1061-2. John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 6 vols. (London, 1812), 1, 463-5.


Jonston, John



1. Dates: Born: Szamotuly, Poland, 3 Sep 1603; Died: Skladowice, Poland, 8 June 1675. Datecode: - Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Unknown; His father was Simon Johnston, who emigrated with two brothers from Scotland to Poland. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Polish; Polish; Polish; Birth: Sambter, Posen, Poland. Career: Mostly Poland; Death: Liegnitz, Silesia, Poland.
4. Education: University of St Andrews; University of Wittenburg; University of Leipzig; University of Frankfurt; University of Franeker; M.A. University of Frankfurt; University of Leiden; M.D. Cambridge University, M.D., Ph.D. He attended the school of Bohemian Brothers in Ostrorog (from 1611), then the Schoenaichianum in Beuthen a.O., and the gymnasium at Thorn in Prussia (from 1619). He was sponsored in these studies by his paternal uncle. He travelled extensively, sometimes as a private tutor, and attended various universities. He attended St. Andrews (1622-1625; M.A. 1623), studying theology, scholastic philosophy, and Hebrew; he was supported in St. Andrews by primate John Spotswood among others. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. 1628, foreign travels to Wittenberg, Leipzig, and Frankfurt. Franeker (M.A. 1629); Cambridge (1630), taking botany and medicine; Frankfurt; and Leiden (matriculated 1630). He received an M.D. from Leiden in 1634, and the same degree ad eundem from Cambridge later that year. 1634, Ph.D. in Leiden and Cambridge, on basis of his disseretation De febribus.
5. Religion: Calvinist; He was a Calvinst, and as such the Catholic University of Cracow was closed to him. He was specifically active as a member of the community of Czech Brethren at Leszno.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; . Medical Practioner; He published Enchiridion historiae naturalis in the period 1625-8. (Trans into English, 1657.); 1642, Idea universae medicinae practicae in Amsterdam. English trans. in 1652; various Latin editions after 1644.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1625-1628, he returned to Poland and took the position of a tutor in the house of the Kurtzbach-Zawadski family in Lissa [Leszno]. During these years he published Enchiridion historiae naturalis. (Trans into English, 1657.); 1628-1630, travelled and attended various universities. 1631, assumed a position he had accepted in 1630 as a tutor in the house of Raphael Leszczynski, palatine (wojewoda, a royally appointed post) of Bielsk. Jonston's student was Boguslaw Leszczynski, Rafal's son. He chose this appointment in prefernce to the chair of philosophy at Deventer, which was offered to him at the same time. 1632, he travelled with Boguslaw Leszczynski and sons of other Polish magnates to various universities. Their first stop was Franeker (1632), then Leiden. In 1632 Jonston published Thautomatographia naturalis in Amsterdam. In 1634, they went to England. After this they toured around Europe until news of Raphael Leszczynki's death summoned them home in 1636. Jonston settled in Lissa (Leszno) and remained in the service of the Leczczynkis as 'Archiater et Civitatis Lesnensis Physicus Ordinarius.'; He was an active pedagogue at the Leszno academy, which was under the direction of his friend Commenius. He turned down the offer of the chair in medicine at Frankfurt a.O. in 1642. He also turned down offers from Heidelberg and Leiden. He was well enough to do that he purchased an estate at Ziebenburg in 1652. 1665, the circumstances of the Polish-Swedish war forced him to move to an estate at Ziebendorff near Leignitz which he had inherited a few years before. He remained here for the rest of his life. He was a practicing physician for most of his life.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; The elector of Brandenburg offered him the chair at Frankfurt. The Leszczynski family were clearly important patrons for most of his life.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He was a practicing physician for most of his working life.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 10, 968-9. T. Bilikiewicz, 'Johann Jonston (1603-1675) und seine Taetigkeit als Arzt,' Suddhoffs Archiv, 23 (1930), 357-81. _____, 'Jonston, Jan (1603-1675),' Polski Slownik Biograficzny, 268-70. Andrzej Dzieczkowski, 'Jonston, Jan (1603-1675),' Wielkopolski Slownik Biograficzny, ed. Antoni Gasiorowski and Jerzy Topolski, (Panstwowe Sydawnictwo Naukowe), p. 302. Roman Pollack, Bibliografia literatury polskiej. Pismiennictwo staropolskie. (Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawn., 1963-65), 2, 293-5.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Niceron, Memoires pour servir l'histoire des hommes illustres, 41 (1740), 269-76. J. Arnold, 'Wiadomosc o zyciu i dzielack J. Jonstona,' Roczn. Tow. Przyj. Mauk Warsz, 7, (1811). H. Barycz, 'Rozwoj nauki w Polsce w dobie Odrodzenie,' Odrodzenie w Polsce. Materialy Sesji Nauk. PAN 25-30 Pazdziernika 1953 r. T. 2: Historia Nauki. Cz. 1 w-wa 1956 pp. 61-2; 135-6. Osob. pt. Dzieje nauki w Polsce w epoce Odrodzenia. 'Jan Jonston-lekarz i uczony XVII wieku. Materialy Sumpozjum Naukowego. Leszno-Lublin 6-8 Czerwca 1975. Sumpozjum zorg. Leszczynskie Tow. Kult. oraz Inst Hist Nauki, Oswiaty i Techn. Studia i Matialy z Dziejow Nauki Polskiej. Ser. B. Redn. nauk. zesz: Jozef Babicz, Helena Ostromecka, Aleksander Piwon. Stanislaw Szpliczynski, 'Jan Jonston z Szamotoul, Tytaniczny trud barokowego erudyty w swietle wielkiej dydaktyki,' Slaski Kwartalnik Historyczny Sobotka, 31 (1976), nr. 2, 223-9. J.J. Rembowska, 'Jan z Szamotoul Jonston, przyrodnik XVII v,' Arh. Historii i Filoz. Medycyny, 8 (1928), 20. Hist. Nauki, Leszno, 1971. J. Schwann, 'Jan Jonston-wielki lekarz XVII wieku,' Zycie i Kultura, (1954) nr. 41. B. Swiderski, 'Dr. Jan Jonston, wybitny uczony dawnego Leszna,' (Leszno, 1935). Nauka w Wpolska, p. 1973.


Juncker, Johann



1. Dates: Born: Londorf, near Giessen, 23 December 1679; Died: Halle, 25 October 1759 Datecode: - Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Unknown; Juncker was born into modest circumstances as the 5th of 12 children. His father was Johann Ludwig Juncker. No adequate information on financial status, though 'modest circumstances' may well mean 'poor.'
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; Germany; Birth: Londorf, near Giessen, Germany. Career: Halle, Germany. Death: Halle, Germany.
4. Education: Mar; University of Halle; University of Erfuhrt; M.D. He received his primary education at the Pädagogium, a boarding school near Giessen. 1696, at the University of Marburg studying philosophy. 1697, at the University of Halle studying theology and following a program in literature under the classicist Christopher Cellarius. 1707, he went to Erfurt for a short time to study medicine. He received his M.D. in 1718. That date for the M.D. (could it be a typo, for 1708?) causes problems, but in view of his entire career I am letting it stand.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Medical Practioner;
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Position; 1701-1702, & 1707, taught at the Pädagogium in Halle. He evidently worked as a private tutor in the principality of Waldeck. This brought him into contact with the 13-year-older countess of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Charlotte Sophie (1667-1723), whom he married in 1707. He then lived in Schwarzenau (in the county of Wittgenstein) with her, working as a physician. I certainly assume that this marriage, and two subsequent ones, brought personal means with them. 1716, he returned to Halle. 1717, he became physician to the Royal Pedagagical Institute and Orphanage in Halle, a kind of training hospital. 1729, he became professor of medicine at the University of Halle. He was also rector twice. He was eventually appointed Prussian privy councillor.
8. Patronage: Unknown. I have found no evidence of patronage, though I feel that some must exist. The positions he managed to obtain seem to demand it. Some measure of Juncker's rise from a lowly family to privy councillor can be gauged from the women he married: 1. 1707, Charlotte Sophie, abbess of the protestant Stift at Schaaken, daughter of Count Christian Ludwig von Waldeck-Wildungen. 2. 1725, Joh. Elisabeth, daughter of Johann Philipp Lichtenberg, administrator (Amtsvertreter) of Jägersburg and criminal judge (Zentgraf) at Biebesheim. 3. 1727, Christiane Eleonore, daughter of the Saxon Oberst Phillip Wilhelm von Bamsdorff.
9. Technological Connections: Med. He practiced medicine during most, if not all, of his career.
10. Scientific Societies: None known.

SOURCES:
A. Hirsch, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 14, 692. Hans-Heinz Eulner, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 10, 661a-2b.


Jungius, Joachim



1. Dates: Born: Lübeck, 22 October 1587; Died: Hamburg, 23 September 1657 Datecode: - Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Schoolmaster; He was the son of Nicolaus Junge, a professor at the Gymnasium at St. Katharinen, Luebeck. He was murdered in 1589. His mother Brigitte Holdmann, later married Marint Nortmann, another professor at St. Katharinen. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Luebeck, Germany. Career: Hamburg, Germany. Death: Hamburg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Rostock; University of Giessen; M.A. University of Padua; M.D. Until 1605, Gymnasium St. Katharinen, Luebeck. 1606-1608, University of Rostock, studying metaphysics at the faculty of arts under Johann Sleker. 1608, University of Giessen, matriculated and received his M.A. 1616, University of Rostock, began his study of medicine. 1619, University of Padua, received his M.D.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed); I am not altogther comfortable with this assumption, because Jungius was reprimanded later in his life for having attended a Calvinist service, but I understand this to have been more of a gesture, than a regular practice.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Philosophy of Science.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; 1609-1614, professor of mathematics, University of Giessen. 1614-1615, resigned his post at Giessen and devoted himself (with Christoph Helvich and Wolfgang Ratke) to educational reform. Thereafter, practiced medicine in Luebeck (1619-1623), Brunswick (1625), and Wolfenbuettel (1625). 1625, professor of medicine, University of Helmstedt. 1624-1625 and 1626-1628, professor of mathematics, University of Rostock. 1629-1657, professor of natural science and rector of the Akademisches Gymnasium, Hamburg. (Until 1640, he was also the rector at the Johanneum.)
8. Patronage: Unknown; All of those academic appointments were impossible without patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: 1623 (or 1622), he founded a scientific society, Societas Ereunetica, modelled on the Accademia dei Lincei. I'll keep this information, but unless someone else shows up in this otherwise unknown society, it seems better not to list it.

SOURCES:
Hans Kangro, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ) 10, 686a-9a. Hans Kangro, Johann Jungius Experimente und Gedanken zur Begruendung der Chemie als Wissenschaft: ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des 17. Jahrhunderts (Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1968), esp. 336-342. Christoph Meinel, In physicis futurum saeculum respicio: Joachim Jungius und die Naturwissenschaftliche Revolution des 17. Jahrhunderts (Goettingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 1984). Adolf Meyer, ed., Beitraege zur Jungius-Forschung (Hamburg: Paul Hartung, 1929).

Not Consulted: G.E. Guhrauer, Joachim Jungius und sein Zeitalter (Stuttgart-Tübingen, 1850).


Kaempfer, Engelbert



1. Dates: Born: Lemgo, Germany, 16 September 1651; Died: Lemgo, 2 November 1716 Datecode: - Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Church Living; His father, Johannes Kemper (1610-1682), was a Lutheran minister, first pastor of the Nicolai church in Lemgo, and also Ephorus at the Gymnasium. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; Dutch; German; Germany; Birth: Lemgo, Germany. Career: travelling, but afterwards 15 years in Lemgo. Death: Lemgo, Germany.
4. Education: University of Thorn; University of Cracow; M.A. University of Koenigsburg; University of Leiden; M.D. He attended the Latin school in Lemgo (1665) and Hameln (1667), Gymnasia in Lueneberg (1668-1670) and Luebeck (1670), and the Athenaeum of Danzig (1672). 1674, University of Thorn. 1674-1676, University of Cracow, studying languages, history, and medicine. Received an M.A. (1676?). I assume there was a B.A. 1676-1681, University of Koenigsberg, studying natural sciences and medicine. He had contact with people at the University of Uppsala in the early 1680s, but I don't know if he actually attended. 1694, University of Leiden, received his M.D. (1694).
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geography; Botany;
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Personal Means; 1681-1683, lived in Uppsala and Stockholm. 1683-1685, a member (as secretary to the ambassador and physician) of the embassy of Charles XI of Sweden to the Shah of Persia. The embassy travelled overland via Moscow (where they met with Peter the Great) to the Caspian sea, and then to Isfahan, where they waited a year and a half before being received. 1685, when the embassy returned home, he stayed and joined the Dutch East India Company. First, he was stationed as a physician at Bandar Abbas (1685-1688). Then (1688 & 1689), he spent some time as ship physician travelling between Indian ports. 1689, he arrived in Java, and, 1690, was appointed to accompany the annual voyage of the East India Company to Japan as a physician. He remained at Nagasaki (1690-1692), and twice accompanied the chief of the factory at Deshima (a small island where the Dutch were isolated) on his embassy to Edo (now Japan). 1693, he returned to Java, and by the end of the year was back in Holland. 1694, he returned home to Lemgo, where he settled on the family estate 'Steinhof' in neighboring Lieme. 1694-1716, practiced medicine and was court physician to the counts of Lippe. 1700, he married (for wealth) Maria Sophia Wilstach, the only daughter of Wolfrath Wilstach, a prominent merchant.
8. Patronage: Partronage from Atisan and Magistrate; He owed his position on the Swedish embassy to contacts at the Swedish court and the university. Two candidates who may have helped were his fellow Germans: Elias Pufendorf, Chancellor of Bremen and Verden, and Samuel Pufendorf, teacher of natural and civil law at the University of Lund, and later court historian in Stockholm. Ludwig Fabritius, the Swedish ambassador whom he accompanied, recommended him to the East India Company. His Disputationes (1694) was dedicated to the mayor of Leiden, Witsch. The counts of Lippe for whom he worked were: Simon Heinrich (until 1697) and Friedrich Adolf.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Karl Meier-Lemgo, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 10, 729a-30b. Karl Meier-Lemgo, Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716) er forscht das seltsame Asien, (Hamburg: Cram, de Guyter & Co, 1960).

Not Consulted: John Z. Bowers, 'Engelbert Kaempfer: Physician, Explorer, Scholar, and Author,' Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 31 (1966).


Keckermann, Bartholomew



1. Dates: Born: Danzig, 1571/73; Died: Danzig, 25 August 1609 (some sources say 1608); Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 38
2. Father: Government Official; Schoolmaster; George Keckermann was for years an official in the court of the Duke of Pomerania. He was then conrector of a school in Danzig, and then later apparently a merchant. Bütner says that Keckermann came from a merchant family, but this seems, from the other sources, to describe only the father's final years. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German. I am treating Danzig as essentially German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; Univeristy of Leipzig; University of Heidelberg; M.A., D.D. Privately educated by Jacob Fabricius, rector of Danzig Gymnasium. 1590 (NDB says 1598, but this seems impossible), went to Wittenberg, then to Leipzig for a semester in 1592 (NDB: 1600), then to Heidelberg in the same year (NDB: 1600). I assume B.A. at one place or another. 1595, M.A., Heidelberg. 1602, D.Div., Heidelberg.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Keckermann is known as a leading reformed theologian in Germany. However, he does not appear to have been entirely an orthodox Calvinist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Gog; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Optics; Though primarily a philosopher and theologian, Keckermann wrote a piece that holds an important place in the history of geography. He also published on astronomy, geometry, and optics, but in all cases only university lectures that contained nothing original.
7. Means of Support: Academic; ca. 1595, tutor, then lecturer in Philosophy, Heidelberg. 1600, professor of Hebrew, Heidelberg. 1602 (NDB and Adam say 1601), professor of philosophy, Danzig Gymnasium.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Magistrate; Elector Frederick IV named Keckermann to the positions in Heidelberg. The Senate of Danzig offered him a position as early as 1597, but he stayed in Heidelberg until he had finished the D.Div. The Senate then appointed him professor in the Gymnasium (which I am treating as an academic position).
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Joachim Staedtke, 'Keckermann,' in Neue Deutsche Biographie, 11, (Berlin, 1977), 388-9. Melchior Adam, Vitae germanorum philosophorum (Frankfurt, 1663), pp. 499-502. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 15, 518. Emil Menke-Glückert, Die Geschichtschreibung der Reformation und Gegenreformation. Bodin und die Begründung der Geschichtsmethodologie durch Bartholomus Keckermann, (Leipzig, 1912). Manfred Büttner, 'Die Neuausrichtung der Geographie im 17. Jahrhundert durch Bartholomus Keckkermann,' Geographische Zeitschrift, 63 (1975), 1-12.


Keill, James



1. Dates: Born: Edinburgh, 27 March 1673; Died: Northampton, 16 July 1719; Datecode: Lifespan: 46
2. Father: Gentry; This is an informed surmise. It is known that his grandfather was of the affluent gentry and that his uncle, Dr. William Cockburn, was the son of a gentleman of some estate. No information on financial status. I have chosen not to guess, but it is worth noting that Keill was able to travel about the continent for some six years, studying medicine but without any visible source of income.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Edinburgh; University of Leiden; Abr, M.D. A school in Edinburgh. Edinburgh University, 1688-92. No degree; Keill travelled about on the continent. It is known that he was in Paris part of the time and attended Lemery's lectures on chemistry. University of Leiden, 1696-8. M.D. at Aberdeen, 1699. He did not in fact ever study there. Honorary M.D. from Cambridge University, 1705. This was on the occasion of Queen Anne's visit to the university; it must have been the same time when Newton was knighted.
5. Religion: Anglican; Keill's brother John was closely allied with the high church party, and I suspect that he was also.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry; Keill revised, completed, and published the translation of Lemery's Course of Chymistry, 1698. Anatomy of the Human Body Abridged, 1698-largely derivative although later edition incorporated Keill's own incring knowledge of anatomy. Despite its derivative nature, it was the most popular English compensium of anatomy of its time. Keill was an iatromechanist in the tradition of Pitcairne. His physiological theories showed up in later editions of the Anatomy. In 1708, An Account of Animal Secretion . . . and Muscular Motion, which drew heavily on the Newtonian concept of attraction. Keill was the first to calculate, on dubious grounds, the rate at which the blood flows. Essays on Several Parts of Animal Oeconomy, 1717, was the second edition of Secretion. Tentamina medico-physica, 1718, translated the Essays into Latin. Keill attempted to relate his physiology to practice. His Medica statica, 1718, conclused with a number of health precepts and with two medical essays.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Keill taught anatomy privately at oxford and Cambridge in the late 90's and early years of the 18th century. Medical practice at Northampton, 1703-19. His practice included a number of the nobility, apparently Hans Sloane's patients who had country estates near Northampton.
8. Patronage: Medical Practioner; Owed his honorary degree to Queen Anne's visit to Cambridge in 1705. I don't know who engineered this, but I am not going to list it as patronage from the court. Dedicated Anatomy. 1698, to Dr. Edward Tyson whose encouragement and favor he acknowledged. He dedicated Medicina statica britannica (appended to the Tentamina to Dr. John Freind, who was an old acquaintance. Sir Hans Sloane introduced him to the Royal Society and sent him his wealthy patients when they were at their country seats. There is no way to avoid the conclusion that Keill was Sloane's client.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship and extensive medical correspondence with Sir Hans Sloane. Royal Society, 1712.

SOURCES:
F.M. Valades and C.D. O'Malley, 'James Keill of Northampton, Physician, Anatomist, and Physiologist,' Medical History, 15, (1971), 317-35. T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 309-26. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950) 10, 1197-8. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2809-11. Anita Guerrini, 'James Keill, George Cheyne, and Newtonian Physiology,' Journal of the History of Biology, 18 (1985), 247-66. _____,'The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and their Circle,' Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986), 288-311.


Keill, John



1. Dates: Born: Edinburgh, 1 December 1671; Died: Oxford, 31 August 1721; Datecode: Lifespan: 50
2. Father: Gentry; This is an informed surmise. It is known that Keill's grandfather was of the prosperous gentry, and that the father of his uncle, Dr. William Cockburn, was a man of some estate. No information on financial status. I choose not to guess, but I will note that Keill's younger brother, James, was able to travel about the continent for six years, studying medicine but without visible means of support.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Edinburgh; Oxford University, M.A. A school in Edinburgh. Edinburgh University; M.A., 1692. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. Oxford University, Balliol, 1691-4; M.A., 1694. M.D. conferred by Oxford in 1713 as he took up the Savilian chair. I will not list this degree.
5. Religion: Anglican; Keill was a high church Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; Keill's first publication, An Examination of Dr. Burnet's Theory of the Earth, 1698, was an attack on cosmogonical theories of the origin of the universe held by some mechanical philosophers. Keill became a propagator of Newtonian philosophy. Introductio ad veram physicam, 1701 (later also in English). Keill constantly compared the atheistic tendencies in Cartesian natural philosophy with the Newtonian philosophy. An article on short range forces between particles in the Philosophical Transactions. Introductio ad veram astronomicam, 1718 (also later in English). Euclides elementorum libri priores sex, 1715, with treatises on trigonometry and logarithms attached. As is well known, Keill became Newton's champion (or mouthpiece) in the priority dispute.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; Personal Means; In 1694, after he had followed David Gregory to Oxford, Keill began to deliver experimental lectures on Newtonian philosophy in his chamber in Balliol. Later he was appointed as lecturer in experimental philosophy in Hart Hall. Deputy to Thomas Millington, Professor of natural philosophy, 1699-1709. Treasurer for the refugees from the Palatinate, 1709-11. The sources all refer to this as a governmental position. Keill conducted the refugees to New England. When he returned in 1711, Harley (later Earl of Oxford) supported him for about nine months. Decipherer to Queen Anne, 1712-16. Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, 1717-21. He inherited a large fortune from his brother, James Keill, in 1719, but he did not live to enjoy it for long.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Ecclesiastic Official; Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; Keill's book against Burnet attracted the attention of Dean Aldrich of Christ Church, and it seems clear that from this time his career floated on high church patronage. Through the influence of Aldrich, he became Millington's deputy, and was elected to the Royal Society. I assume that the high church connection was behind Harley's patronage of him. Aldrich arranged for a place for him in Christ Church. I assume that the same influences stood behind his ultimate appointment to the Savilian Chair. Queen Anne. Robert Harley helped him become treasurer for the refugees in 1709, supported him for nine months, and arranged for him to be decipherer to the Queen,; He was very much Newton's client in the priority dispute with Leibniz. As far as I know, his reward for his service was not monetary. The Duchess of Chandos requested his English edition of Vera astronomia, and to her he dedicated it.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with David Gregory, whom he followed from Edinburgh to Oxford. In his last fifteen years he was largely occupied in maintaining Newton's priority. Royal Society, 1700.

SOURCES:
Sir David Brewster, Memoirs of the Life, Writing and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton, pp. 335, 341-2. Frank Manuel, Portrait of Isaac Newton, (Cambridge, Mass., 1968), pp. 271-8, 321-3, 329, 335-8, 351, 399, 456. Robert Schofield, Mechanism and Materialism, (Princeton, 1969), pp. 25-30, 42-4. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950) 10, 1198-9. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2801-8. James E. Force, 'Some Eminent Newtonians and Providential Geophysics at the Turn of the Seventeenth Century,' Earth Sciences History, 2 (1983), 4-10. Anita Guerrini, 'The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and their Circle,' Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986), 288-311.


Kellner, David



1. Dates: Born: Gotha, mid 17th cent. Died: unknown; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: German; German; Birth: Gotha, Germany. Career: Nordhausen, Germany. Death: unknown (Germany is so probable that I will list it.)
4. Education: University of Helmstaedt; M.D. He studied medicine in Helmstedt, receiving his M.D. in 1670 (or 1673). I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Lutheran assumed.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Surgery; Metallurgy.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; He worked in Nordhausen, signing himself 'Practioner in the Imperial Free City of Nordhausen, and Body and Court Physician of Royal Prussia, Princely Saxony, and the County of Stolberg.'
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Scientist; The second of his surgical dissertations is dedicated to Johann Langguth, a physician in the service of Duke Ernst of Saxony. It is possible that Langguth advanced Kellner in his work. A reference in his Schenkeldiener (1690) mentions that he wrote the book in 1683 when he was with Duke Heinrich, his prince and overlord, in Roemhild. The book itself is dedicated to Johann Scheib, the surgeon and barber of Gotha (the prince's city of residence) whom Kellner calls his friend and patron. I am accepting his statement that he was personal physician to the ruler of Prussia.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Agriculture; He wrote a work entitled Hochnutzbar und bewahrte edle Bierbraukunst, mit einem Anhang ueber Wein und Essig (Leipzig-Gotha, 1690; 2nd ed., Leipzig, Eisenach, 1710). I know nothing more about this book that its title.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 2, 2059-60. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 3, 187-8. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 3, 499.


Kepler, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Weil der Stadt, Germany, 27 December 1571; Died: Regensburg, 15 November 1630 Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Soldier; Common soldier of fortune. Poor.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; German; Birth: Weil der Stadt, Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Regensburg, Germany
4. Education: University of Tübingen; M.A. 1579, German and Latin Schreibschule, Leonberg. 1584, Adelberg monastery school (lower seminary). 1586, Maulbronn, a prepatory school for the university of Tübingen (higher seminary). 1587, matriculated University of Tübingen, but the Stift, the seminary for scholarship students was full, so he stayed at Maulbronn for another two years. 1589, taken into the Stift. 1588, passed Baccalaureat exam. 1591, M.A., Tübingen. He began the theology course, but was called away to Graz in second year.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; (from wife), Astrology; Calvinist; Education: After passing competitive Wuerttemberg state examinations he entered the school at Maulbronn. In 1589, he entered the Stift as a scholarship student, recieving 6 gulden per year; as a scholarship student he was forever bound into ducal service. In addition, his maternal grandfather granted him the income from a meadow. Graz: 1594, teacher of mathematics at the Lutheran Stiftschule at Graz. He earned a salary of 150 gulden (his predecessor had received 200), which was raised to 200 after his marriage, and was granted 60 gulden moving expendses. The job of district mathematician and calendar maker was later added to his duties. He made 5 calendars in all; for the first he received an honorarium of 20 gulden (no information on the others). He also received income doing astrological nativities and prognostications for lords. 1597, married the reasonably wealthy two-time widow, daughter of a wealthy mill owner, Barbara Mueller. Her wealth was tied up in land, and was sufficient, Kepler reckoned, to support him after a few years. Her holdings included 10,000 gulden from which Kepler received 70 gulden for maintenence, the yield of a vineyard, and a house. Unfortunately. it was difficult to liquidate her assets when Kepler was forced to leave Catholic Graz summarily in 1598, especially because it became illegal for Protestants to lease to Catholics. He was allowed to return, but sought other employment, working for a few months with Tycho Brahe, but then returning shortly to Graz before being banished altogether in 1600. Upon his ultimate expulsion, he was dismissed from his job, paid a half-year's salary, and provided with a letter of recommendation. His exit tax was lowered to 5% from 10%. 1600, went to work for Tycho Brahe in Prague, until Tycho died and Kepler assumed his position. 1601, Imperial Mathematician to Rudolf (500 gulden salary). Barbara inherited about 3000 gulden of landed property from her father in 1603. She died in 1611, leaving no will and consequently he got nothing, except for 2000 gulden for her children which he invested (1615) in the treasury of the Upper Austrian representatives. Rudolf abdicated in 1611. In 1612, he died, freeing Kepler to leave Prague. 1612-1628, district mathematician and teacher in Linz (to which was added the task of completing a map of Upper Austria, which he later had removed). He received a salary of 400 gulden (plus travel expenses for the map). (In late 1616, after a political battle over whether he ought to be retained, he was granted a small hononrarium as a consolation for the insult.); 1613, he married an orphan, Susanna Reuttinger, a ward of Baroness Elizabeth von Starhemberg. While in Linz, Kepler again supplemented his income with proceeds from calendars. For instance, he paid for the publication of the ephemerides of 1617 with a calendar for 1616. In all, he made six popluar calendars between 1617 and 1624. Kepler was allowed to stay on in Linz after the expulsion of the Protestants in 1626, and even retained his position despite a prolonged absence from 1626-1628. 1612, Emperor Matthais continued the post of Imperial Mathematician at reduced salary of 300 fl/yr plus 60 gulden for dwellings and wood costs. and gave his consent for Kepler to move to Linz. Ferdinand continued Kepler's appointment as imperial mathematician until Kepler's death. 1628, moved to Sagan to work for Albrecht von Wallenstein, at a salary of 1000 gulden, and a press, for which Wallenstein promised to provide twenty bales of paper and 1,040 gulden priting costs annually. In 1630, the congress of electors dismissed Wallenstein. Kepler tried to return to Linz, to collect on two 6% bonds (2000 and 1500 gulden), but died en route.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Education: After Landesexamen in 1583, Kepler got a scholarship from the Duke of Wuerttemberg; this scholarship bound him forever into ducal service. In 1590, the magistrate of Weil proposed him to the senate of the university of Tübingen for a stipend of 20 gulden per year, which was granted. The senate renewed it in 1591. The senate then recommended him for the post of teacher of mathematics to the protestant school at Graz. Graz: For moving to Graz, Kepler received a loan of 50 gulden from Prof. Gerlach, the superintendent of the school; Kepler was later granted 60 gulden moving expenses. The commissioners of the school upon the occasion of his wedding granted him as a 'veneration' a silver cup worth 27 gulden. Kepler requested and received from the commissioners a raise to a 200 gulden salary after his wedding. He was sought out by Lords to do nativities and prognostications with which he supplemented his income. (I include this under Miscellaneous); The city granted him a honorarium of 20 gulden for his first calendar. The city was generally kind to him; after the expulsion of Protestants he was given a half-year's salary and a letter or recommendation. In 1596, he visted the Duke of Wuerttemberg and presented him with the idea of an artistic representation of his system of nested spheres from the Mysterium which he wanted to dedicate to the Duke. He later applied to Duke Johann Friedrich of Wuerttemberg for a job, but was rejected because he was suspected of being 'a sly Calvinist.'; The Duke of Wuerttemberg later arranged that the court documents of Kepler's mother's trial be sent to Tübingen for the decision of the legal faculty (in which Kepler had a contact, Christoph Besold), and he was responsible for the order that she be absolved and the charges dismissed. The Mysterium was dedicated to the estates of Styria, from whom Kepler received a 250 gulden honararium in 1600. After the general expulsion order for Protestant teachers in 1598, archduke Ferdinand made an exception in the case of Kepler, allowing him to continue as district mathematician. Kepler attributed his favor at court to the regimental counsellor Manechio. Ferdinand also rewarded Kepler for an astronomical essay Kepler addressed to him in 1600. After the expulsion of all Protestants, Ferdinand ordered Kepler be reimbursed his 5% exit tax, but this was never carried out. As emperor, Ferdinand confirmed him as imperial mathematician, and again excepted him when expelling non-Catholic teachers. Ferdinand also finally wrote drafts to pay him some of his back pay to finance the publication of the Rudolfine Tables, which was eventually dedicated to him. Ferdinand approved Kepler's move to Ulm in 1626. He recieved Kepler graciously in Prague in 1627, awarding him 4000 gulden (in drafts) for dedication of the Rudolfine Tables. He could have stayed in service, but would have had to become Catholic. Even as Kepler lay dying the Emperor sent a gentleman with 25 or 30 Hungarian ducats to his aid. The Emperor owed 12,694 gulden to his family in 1633. Though claims continued to be made up until 1717, this money was never paid. At the end of his life Kepler called himself Duke of Friedland. I do not know why. Presumaby he received the title from Wallenstein or Ferdinand (perhaps given the title after Wallenstein's downfall?). The Bavarian chancellor Herwart von Hohenburg was a major patron to Kepler. They corresponded and H.v.H. lent Kepler books which he did not have. H.v.H. was probably partly responsible for Kepler's permission to stay in Graz (see directly above). Kepler appealed to Michael Maestlin often as though to a patron, for instance asking around for a job in 1600, but Maestlin seldom was able to oblige him. 1600, Tycho supported him in Prague. Kepler moved very much in the orbit of Tycho, including living in the same house from the beginning of 1601. Tycho assigned Kepler the task of refuting Ursus. 1601, Kepler became Imperial mathematician to Rudolf II. He had tremendous trouble getting paid his 500 gulden salary. At one point, the Emperor paid 400 gulden in printing costs, which Kepler spent on household expenses, he then granted an additional 500 gulden for which he reserved the entire edition of Astronomia nova for himself (Kepler eventually had to sell the entire edition to the printer). He often gave extra compensation, such as a draft for 2000 talers in 1610, on which Kepler could not collect. Kepler dedicated numerous works to the Emperor, including the Astronomia nova, Astronomiae pars optica, and De stella nova. He also prepared numerous reports for the Emperor on astrological or scientific matters. After abdicating, Rudolf asked Kepler to stay on, which he did, until the Emperor's death. By March 1611, he was 3000 gulden in arrears. Casting about for another job, Kepler presented a copy of the Astronomiae pars optica to Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. The Duke's gift to Kepler was so small that Herwart von Hohenburg increased it out of his own pocket. Elector Ernst of Cologne sometimes occupied days of his time at court, and lent him a telescope. Kepler presented him with the manuscript of Dioptrice. Baron Johann Friedrich Hoffman von Gruenbueehel und Strechau, an imperial advisor, housed Kepler when he first visited Prague, and later provided Kepler with two instruments built on Tychonic designs. Kepler dedicated his first work after leaving Prague to Peter Wok von Rosenberg, the leader of the Utraquist faction and one of the richest and most powerful families in Bohemia. Kepler exchanged letters with Wenzeslaus Budowetz, a Czech aristocrat. Kepler had allies in two court advisers: Johannes Barwitz, who helped Kepler in his fights to get paid; and Johannes Matthaeus Wackher von Wackenfels, to whom Kepler dedicated an essay on snowflakes. Johannes Jessenius, a distinguished anatomist at the University of Prague and a friend of Kepler, sponsored him at his first meeting with Tycho, and later when rector (1617) he contemplated hiring Kepler. Kepler was a frequent guest of the imperial councilor Johannes Polz. Johann Georg Goedelmann, the ambassador to the electorate of Saxony, took over as godfather to Kepler's son. Kepler was a friend of Johannes Pistorius, father confessor and adviser to Rudolf II, to whom Kepler had to report. He dedicated a copy of De stella novis to King James I. Kepler was also going to dedicate the Harmonices Mundi to James I. In 1620, the English ambassador, Sir Henry Wotton, visited him and invited him to England. In a vain attempt to collect on the 2000 taler draft, Kepler dedicated Eclogae Chronicae to Tobias Scultetus, an imperial advisor, who had been appointed fiscal procurator in Silesia. Previous to the Kepler's application to become mathematician in Linz, he had been invited to come to Linz by Austrian Lords, such as Helmhard von Joerger. Linz Patrons: Baron Erasmus von Starhemberg and Georg Erasmus von Tschernembl, the Protestant leaders of Upper Austria; the Lords von Polheim, Maximilian von Leichtenstein and Helmhard von Joerger. Emperor Matthias, who succeeded Rudolf, continued Kepler's position and paid Kepler 400 gulden for finishing the Rudolfine Tables etc. After Magini's death Giovanni Antonio Roffeni, prof. of philosophy at Bologna, offered Kepler the job, but he declined. The representatives of Upper Austria were Kepler's major patrons in Linz. There was an occasion in 1616 when Kepler became the object of a political fight among the representatives, with the Lords facing off against the knights and the Lords prevailing on Kepler's side (see above). The representatives presented him with a goblet worth 40-50 gulden on the occasion of his second marriage. Kepler presented Stereometria to the reps., who granted him 150 gulden. The Epitome is dedicated to them as well. In 1628, the representatives paid him 200 gulden for the presentation of the Rudolfine Tables, paid his traveling expenses, and gave their consent to be dismissed. Kepler dedicated the ephemerides of 1621-1629 (1630) to the representatives. Kepler's best friend for almost twenty years was the Strasburg humanist and noble Matthias Bernegger, to whom Kepler appealed on occasion for a job. Kepler produced a belated dedication sheet for the Harmonice mundi (1620) to Frederick V of the Palatinate, the winter-king and son-in-law of James I, whom Kepler saw as a great hope in matters of creed. The printing of the Epitome was subsidized by Abbot Anton von Kremsmuenster, president of the prince's private exchequer and previous member of the representatives of Upper Austria. He helped Kepler in his effort to use some of the money still owed him by Rudolf to finance the publication of the Rudolfine Tables. The book on logarithms (1624) is dedicated to Landgrave Philip of Hesse-Butzbach, who had it printed in Marburg. Later, when visiting the Landgrave at Butzbach, he had been attracted by the instruments and facilities. Landgrave Philip was willing to use his influence with Landgrave Georg to whom Kepler and submitted a petition for interim employment (1627) and had asked to use his influence with the Duke of Wuerttemberg. Georg offered him a house in Marburg and support should the emperor dismiss him. The imperial vice-chancellor, Baron Ludwig of Ulm intervened for Kepler at one point in Kepler's attempt to get paid. Count von Herbersdorf, president of the Bavarian district, succeeded in getting permission for Kepler to hire printers regardless of creed after the Protestants had been expelled from Linz. Kepler was assisted to remove the seal of the reformation commission on his library by the Jesuit Father Paul Guldin in Vienna (he wanted to borrow some of the books under seal). In Ulm (1626) Kepler had friends in Gregor Horst, previously professor of medicine in Wittenberg and Giessen and physician-in-ordinary to Landgrave Ludwig of Hesse, with whom he stayed; and Johann Baptist Hebenstreit, rector of the gymnasium, who looked after the bales of paper Kepler had purchased for the Rudolfine Tables. Albrecht von Wallenstein, imperial General-colonel-commander-in-chief and General of the Baltic and oceanic seas, and holder of the duchies of Friedland and Sagan, was Kepler's last major patron. An avid believer in astrological prognostication, he had requested an anonymous nativity from Kepler as early as 1608 (though Kepler knew who it was), and had asked for an update in 1624. He returned an honorarium and a promise of 'princely favors' for whenever Kepler would be in need of them. His most attractive feature to Kepler was his belief in the peaceful co-existance of creeds, but in 1628 all citizens of Sagan were ordered to become Catholic or leave, though Kepler and his printers were again excepted. Kepler dedicated the ephemerides for 1629-1639 (1630) and a short work in reply to the Jesuit Johannes Terrentius (1630) to Wallenstein. Philip Mueller, professor at Leipzig, with whom Kepler corresponded, was able to get Kepler a press that he could take to Sagan. Dr. Thomas Lindemann, rector of the University of Rostock called Kepler to the university (1629). Before taking the job Kepler demanded that Wallenstein get him released from imperial service and get him the 11,817 gulden he was still owed by the Emperor (he probably didn't really want to go).
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; Kepler erected an instrument in Graz to observe a solar eclipse. He designed a model of the nested spheres which never got completed. He also designed a small fountain based on a valveless pump which he had Joost Buergi construct and then presented to the Emperor. Part of his duties in Linz was to be the completion of a map of Upper Austria. I am not aware that he actually did this. In 1613 Kepler was ordered by the Emperor to Regensburg to assist in the debate about the reform of the calendar. In Ulm, Kepler was asked to help in the regulation of the town's weights and measures. He solved the problem in a lengthly essay and designed a new regulatory measuring basin. To his work on logarithms I add his calculation of the volume of casks.
10. Scientific Societies: None; He corresponded with (among others): David Fabricius, Johannes Fabricius, Tycho Brahe, Michael Maestlin, Longomontanus [Severin], Thomas Harriot,

SOURCES:
Max Caspar, Kepler. Martha List, 'Kepler,' Neue Deutsche Biographie, 11 (Berlin, 1977), 494-508.


Khunrath [Kunrath, Kuhnrat[h], Cunradius, Conrathus], Conrad



1. Dates: Born: Leipzig, date unknown; Died: unknown place, not later than 1614; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; Denmark; Un. Birth: Leipzig, Germany. Career: Holstein, then part of Denmark; Death: unknown
4. Education: Univeristy of Leipzig; It is possible, but has not been proven, that he identical with a person of the same name and place of birth who enrolled at the University of Leipzig in the winter of 1562.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Pharmacology; Iatrochemstry. He was a follower of Paracelsus and attributed some cures to the influence of the planets, but I have seen few secondary sources that call him an alchemist and none that call him an iatrochemist (though it seems to be the only possible category for a Paracelsian).
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; He lived in the duchy of Holstein (then Danish) for a number of years and at Schleswig (1594). I presume he practiced medicine.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
R.J. Forbes, A Short History of the Art of Distillation (Leiden, 1970), pp. 153, 158, 380. Hans Kango, Joachim Jungius Experimente und Gedanken zur Begruendung der Chemie als Wissenschaft; ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des 17. Jahrhunderts (Wiesbaden, 1968), p. 307. Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 2, 2081. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 3, 312-13.


Khunrath [Kunrath], Heinrich



1. Dates: Born: Leipzig, ca. 1560; Died: Dresden (or Leipzig), 9 Sep 1605 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Unknown; It is generally assumed, but not proven, that he is the brother of Conrad Khunrath. No information on Financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Germany; Birth: Leipzig, Germany. Career: Germany. Death: Dresden [or Leipzig], Germany.
4. Education: Univeristy of Leipzig; University of Basel; M.D. It is not known whether he is identical with Henricus Conrad Lips, who enrolled at the University of Leipzig in the winter of 1570. 1588, University of Basel, matriculated in May and received his M.D. in September. I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Lutheran (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine at least in Hamburg (in 1598) and at Dresden. He may have been a professor at Leipzig.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Ladenburg, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 15, 709. Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 2, 2081-2. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 3, 313-14. Thorndike, 7, 273-5. Walter Pagel, Das medizinische Weltbild des Paracelsus (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1962), pp. 71-2, 93, plates 2 & 3. Claude K. Deischer and Joseph L. Rabinowitz, 'The Owl of Heinrich Khunrath: Its Origin and Significance,' Chymia, 3 (1950), 243-4.


Kirch, Gottfried



1. Dates: Born: Guben, Germany, 18 December 1639; Died: Berlin, 25 July 1710 Datecode: - Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Artisan; He was the son of a tailor. Because of unrest, his parents had had to flee Poland, leaving all of their belongings, and Gottfried apparently had to provide for himself while continuing his education. That is, they were poor.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Guben, Germany. Career: Germany; Death: Berlin, Germany.
4. Education: Jen; He studied at Jena under the polyhistorian Erhard Weigel. No mention of a degree; He learned practical astronomy from Hevelius in Danzig, probably acting as some kind of apprentice.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy.
7. Means of Support: Cal, Government Position; He lived in mostly in Leipzig and Coburg, until he moved to Guben around 1690, making his living by computing and publishing calendars and ephemerides. His first calendar appeared in 1667, and it was published annually from 1685-1710, when his son took over. In 1700, he was called to Berlin by Frederick III, elector of Brandenburg (later Frederick I of Prussia) as the first astronomer at the observatory to be established with the new Berlin Academy. He received a salary of 500 taler which was taken out of the earnings from the new calendar monopoly established by Friedrich in 1700.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Academic; Erhard Weigel, his first teacher, ought to be counted as a patron. First, he recommended Kirch to Hevelius, from whom Kirch learned how to observe and how to calculate calendars. Later, in 1697, Weigel appeared at the Reichstag in Regensburg advocating the acceptance of the Gregorian calendar by the Protestant princes. He told his former student Leibniz of his plan for the foundation of a 'collegium artis consultorum' of approximately 20 members which should work for the Reichstag in exectuing the calendar reform and thereafter hold the monopoly on calendar production. Leibniz lobbied his patroness Sophie Charlotte of Brandeburg, and she, in turn, convinced her husband, Elector Friedrich, of the uselfulness of such a scientific society. 'The Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin' was founded in 1700. Leibnitz, its first president, called Gottfried Kirch to Berlin as astronomer of the Society to carry through the calendar reform which had been approved in 1699. The calendar monopoly (whose income was estimated at 2500 taler in 1700) was the primary source of income for the Berlin academy for the entire 18th century. Clearly, Frederick III was his most important patron. Even before he called Kirch to Berlin (1700), some friends had seen his pitiful financial situation in Leipzig and had appealed to the Elector, without Kirch's knowledge, for a stipend. He granted it, but Kirch refused it, fearing some poor students, for whom the funds had originally been intended, would be deprived. While in Berlin awaiting the construction of the new observatory (which was not finished in his lifetime), Kirch made some observations at the private observatory of Baron Bernhard Friedrich von Krosigk, a wealthy nobleman and amateur astronomer.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Kirch made a number of instruments, and also invented a new circular micrometer (1679).
10. Scientific Societies: BA; Kirch was the first astronomer at the observatory of the newly-established Berlin academy (1700).

SOURCES:
Guenther, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 15, 787-8. Diedrich Wattenberg, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952-), 11, 634-5. P. Aufgebauer, 'Die Astronomenfamilie Kirch,' Die Sterne, 47 (1971), 241-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.E. Bode, Astronomisches Jahrbuck für das Jahr 1816, (Berlin, 1813), pp. 111, 113f. H. Ludendorff, 'Zur Frühgeschichte der Astronomie in Berlin,' Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaft, Vorträge und Schriften, 9 (1942).


Kircher, Athanasius



1. Dates: Born: Geisa a. d. Ulster, Germany, 2 May 1602 [or 1601]; Died: Rome, 28 November 1680; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Academic; Let; He was the youngest of six sons (there were also 3 daughters) of Johannes Kircher of Mainz, D.D. His father studied philosophy and theology at Mainz, receiving a doctorate in theology. He was called first by the Benedictines in Seligenstadt to be professor of theology. Afterwards, he was called by the Prince-Abbot Balthasar of Fulda, who named him councillor and named him baliff of Haselstein (which I believe may be the abbey at Fulda). The abbot was expelled due to political upheaval, and Kircher also lost his position. Thereafter he moved with his family to Geisa a.d. Ulster, where he dedicated himself to scholarship and raising his children. He declined all subsequent offers for political positions. All six sons entered religious orders. I think the only reasonable interpretation is that the family was too poor to educate them otherwise.
3. Nationality: German; Ger, France; It; It. Birth: Geisa a. d. Ulster, Germany. Career: Germany, France, Italy. Death: Rome, Italy.
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. Lots of study, but all in Jesuit institutions. There is clearly the equivalent of a B.A. 1614-1618, Jesuit Gymnasium in Fulda, learning Greek and Hebrew. c. 1618-1622, at Paderborn (Jesuit College?), studying humanities, natural science, and mathematics. After the college was closed due to military pressure, he finished his education in philosophy at Cologne. 1623, at Koblenz, where he took up humanities and languages and taught Greek. 1624, at Heiligenstadt, studying languages and 'physical curiosities.'; 1625-1628, studying theology at Mainz. Being ordained within the Jesuit order and admitted to the fourth vow, he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. (Catholic); 1616, entered the Jesuit order. 1628, was ordained a priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geography; Astronomy; Optics. Subordinate Disciplines: Occult Philosophy; Magnetism; Geology; . Kircher was a polymath. These categories do not give a fully adequate description of his interests.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; While still a student, he taught to support himself. At Koblenz (1623), he taught Greek, at Heiligenstadt (1624), he taught grammar, and at Mainz, he taught Greek and conducted the choir. I am pretty sure that the three named places were all Jesuit colleges. He worked for the elector of Mainz at cartography. He spent a year of probation in Speyer (1629). 1628-1631, professor of ethics (philosophy), mathematics, Hebrew, and Syriac, at the Jesuit college in Würzburg. He fled because of the pressure of the Thirty Years War. 1631, taught mathematics, natural philosophy, and oriental languages at the Jesuit college at Avignon. 1633, he answered a call to Rome by Pope Urban VIII and Cardinal Barberini. He was appointed professor of mathematics, physics, and oriental languages at the Collegio Romano. He resigned after 8 years (he seems to have had an 8 year contractual obligation) and returned to independent studies. All told, he undertook such independent studies for 46 years of his life. He was supported in Rome by Papal as well as other patronage. Sometime around 1660 Kircher sold exclusive rights to publish his books to a prominent Dutch publisher for a large sum of money. Especially through his work on Egypt he had become a superstar. He is the first scientist I have found who was able to command support through the sale of his works.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; ca. 1625-1628, Kircher came to the attention of the Elector of Mainz through his experimental investigations and was called to his residence at Aschaffenburg, where it was Kircher's duty to discuss problems of mechanics with the Elector. During this period he was also assigned the task of surveying and making an exact map of the territory regained from the Protestants for the Archbishop of Mainz. He had some connection with the Senator of Provence and scientific patron, Nicholas Peiresc. While in Aix (after leaving Avignon and before taking up his position in Rome), he entered into the circle around Peiresc. When Peiresc heard of his plans to take the teaching position offered by the Emperor in Vienna, he went behind Kircher's back to the heard of the order, Mutius Vitelleschi, and, through Cardinal Barberini, to the Pope, to prevent Kircher leaving by having him called to Rome. Kircher dedicated his first book to the nobles of Avignon, including Peiresc. 1633, the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II appointed him to the professorship of mathematics at Vienna or the position of court mathematician, but Cardinal Barberini quickly offered him a position in Rome so that he would not go. Kircher's books on magnetism (1640) and the Egyptian language (1643) are dedicated to Ferdinand III. Ferdinand III supported the costs of having manuscripts copied and sent to Kircher. Ferdinand also paid for the printing of books on heiroglyphics and ancient cultures (1652); he paid 3000 scudi printing costs, and granted Kircher a pension of 100 scudi, which his successor Leopold I also paid. Kircher, who apparently understood the patronage game very well, also dedicated individual chapters of the book on hieroglyphics to a variety of individuals in high places. Especially the study of Egyptian antiquities and hieroglphics made Kircher a cultural superstar of the mid 17th century, so that he could command patronage from almost any source. 1633, Urban VIII and Cardinal Barberini called him to Rome. Barberini was a major patron in Rome throughout Kircher's time there. 1637-1638, he accompanied the later Cardinal Friedrich of Hessen-Darmstadt to Malta as his confessor. Friedrich converted to Catholicism under the tutelage of Barberini, and through this contact became impressed with Kircher, whom he specially requested as his confessor. Cardinal Fabius Chigi, later Pope Alexander VII, was a patron. Kircher dedicated two volumes of one of his works to the Prince of Fulda, Joachim, Baron of Gravenegg. Kircher's notable museum was founded with a donation from Alfons Donnius, secretary of the Roman Senate and people. From a wide variety of nobles and rulers, mostly German, he received extensive gifts of stuffed animals and birds from the new world for the museum. The museum also inclued a notable collection of portraits of ecclesiastical officials and rulers, all of which we given to him. Kircher's disciple, Caspar Schott, produced a commentary on Kircher's pantometer (see technical connections) which he dedicated to Duke Ludwig von Mecklenburg, one of Kircher's patrons. When Kircher 'translated' the hieroglyphs on an obelisk for the Pope, the Pope asked him what he wanted in return. Kircher refused anything for himself but asked for a donation to the church he was restoring (see below). He received a very large one. After he dedicated a book to the next Pope, he was asked again what he wanted and replied in the same way. The gift this time was significant but not nearly as large as the other. Finally, an episode which illustrates how well Kircher was tied into sources of patronagae toward the end of his life: In 1665, Kircher discovered the spot where a miraculous deer with a crucifix between its antlers had appeared to St. Eustachius and resolved to rebuild the ruined church which marked the spot. First, he received a letter of credit for 100 scudi from the Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneberg. After he published Historia Eustachio-Mariana (1665), he received a draft for 1000 imperials from Emperor Leopold, 400 scudi from Johann Friedrich, Count of Wallenstein and Archbishop of Prague, and 700 scudi from Peter of Aragon, Viceroy of Naples. He collected large sums for this project from Catholic rulers all over Germany.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Navigation; Cartography; . These are not especially significant technical connections (except the longitude one): he described a device for measuring magentic force using a balance, promulgated the use of magnetic inclinations to find longitude, described a graduated aerometer, and described the method of measuring temperature by the bouyancy of small balls. He also designed and built sundials at Koblenz and Mainz. From time to time he also did surveying and mapping, e.g., for the Elector of Mainz, and while in Narbonne (before he arrived at Avignon). In connection with this he developed a triangulation instrument. 1638, Kircher wrote and dedicated to Paul Lascaris, the Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John (the Johanniterordens), a book for the use of knights designed to help them solve 'the most important mathematical and physical problems.' This involved, as I understand it, a mathematical instrument, which I believe was called Kircher's pantometer.
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: He acted as a kind of astronomical clearing house for observations between G.B. Riccioli, G.D. Cassini, and Hevelius. Kircher worked closely with Caspar Schott, S.J., and Joseph Petrucci.

SOURCES:
Fritz Krafft, Neue deutsche Biographie11, 641b-5a. Karl Brischar, 'P. Athanasius Kircher, ein Lebensbild,' Katholische Studien, 3, no. 5 (1877). John Fletcher, 'Astronomy in the Life and Correspondence of Athanasius Kircher,' Isis, 61 (1970), 52-67. Note: Fletcher is not particularly significant; I put it down for reference. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 232. A number of details in this report come from an oral presentation by Martha Baldwin who is completing a biography of Kircher.

Not Available and Not Consulted: John Fletcher, ed., Athanasius Kircher und seine Beziehungen zum gehlehrten Europa seiner Zeit, (Wolfenbütteler Arbeiten zur Barockforschung, 17), (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988).


Koenig, Emanuel



1. Dates: Born: Basel, 1 November 1658; Died: Basel, 30 July 1731 Datecode: - Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Pub; His father was a bookseller. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Swiss; Sw. Birth: Basel, Switzerland. Career: Basel, Switzerland. Death: Basel, Switzerland.
4. Education: University of Basel; M.A., M.D. Until 1674, he attended the Gymnasium at Basel. 1677, received his M.A. from the University of Basel. I assume there was a B.A. 1682, received his M.D. from the University of Basel.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Natural History;
7. Means of Support: Academic; He travelled for a number of years in France and Italy. 1695-1703, professor of Greek, University of Basel. 1703-1711, professor of natural philosophy, University of Basel. 1711-, professor of theoretical medicine, University of Basel.
8. Patronage: Unknown; Sci; Those academic positions were not obtained without patronage. Through the efforts of his friend Georg Wolfgang Wedel, professor of medicine at Jena, he was admitted into the Accademia Natureae Curiosorum.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine
10. Scientific Societies: Lp; 1682, he became a member of the Accademia Naturae Curiosorum (after 1687, the Accademia Caesarae Leopoldina), taking the name 'Avicenna.'

SOURCES:
Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 2, 2136. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 3, 641-3. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie generale (Paris, 1857-1866), 28, 7-8. Partington, 2, 318, 616, 713-14. Thorndike, esp. 7, 43-7.


Kunckel, Johann



1. Dates: Born: Hütten, Schleswig-Helstein, Germany, 1630/1638; Died: Stockholm, Sweden, 20 March 1703; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Artisan; His father was a master glassmaker (as the family had been for a couple of centuries) and some kind of chemical analyst and alchemist in the service of duke Friederich of Holstein. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: German; German; Sweden. Birth: Hütten [or somewhere in the district of Wittenberg bei Ploen], Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Career: Germany, Sweden; Death: apparently in Stockholm [or nearby], Sweden.
4. Education: None Known; He had no university education. He was taught glassmaking and the chemistry of glassmaking by his father and other glassworkers. He learned the 'apothecary's art' in Rendsburg, and some more advanced chemistry of glass maunfacturing later in Dresden.
5. Religion: Lutheran. (Lutheran, assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Alchemy. Kunckel was deeply involved in alchemy. As a chemist he had something to do with phosphorus, and he contributed to the chemistry concerned with glass. In 1679 he published a translation of Neri's Ars vitraria, augmented by himself.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Pharmacology; Schoolmaster; 1655/1656-after 1660, he was in the service of Dukes Franz Karl and Julius Heinrich of Sachsen-Lauenberg as chamberlain and apothecary. He was court and personal apothecary at the castle at Neuhaus/Elbe. Around 1663, he had a drug and medicament trade in Eckernforde. Thereafter, he wandered for a few years. ca. 1667- ca. 1677, he was 'gentleman of the bedchamber' (geheim Kammerdiener) and chemist of the private chemical laboratory to Johann Georg II, Elector of Saxony, at Dresden. Here he appears to have been working essentially at alchemy. ca. 1677, he taught chemistry at Wittenberg. (I understand this to have been a practical chemistry course, and not to have been an official university position.); 1679-1688, after advising the Elector against an alchemical proceduree being offered to him, Kunckel became a geheim Kammerdiener to Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg (at a salary of 500 talern). He was also in charge of a chemical laboratory at Berlin and later of a glassworks. This was the most prosperous period of his life, and no small part of this was due to his patronage relationship with the Elector. After receiving the crystal privilege (1678), he was in charge of the glassworks near Potsdam. In 1679, another glassworks was erected to his plan (the lease on this was renewed in 1690). In 1685, the Elector gave him the 'Gut und Schulzengericht' of Kladow, near Potsdam, and two islands in the river where he erected (1686-1688) a laboratory specifically for producing colored glass. He was bound to offer his glass first to the court and the 'Guineishen Handelsgesellschaft' (founded 1682). After the death of his patron, the new Elector Friedrich III did not grant him the previous privileges, but instead offered them for 12500 taler, and even demanded to be paid back 8000 taler. Apparenntly Kunckel had enemies at court, though no details about them are offered. Although he was leasee and director of the glassworks for life, these new costs, competition, and the closure of one of his plants due to fire forced Kunckel to give up. He sold his home in Berlin and his share of a Bismuth and Cobalt mine in Wernigerode and moved to the estate at Kladow. In 1691, he took out a loan to purchase and develop an estate at Prenden. He then (1694) traded his holdings (the islands of Pfaueninsel and Sandwerder, and the Kladow estate) for an estate of Dreissighufen, near Prenden. 1689, Charles XI of Sweden hired him as councilor of mines (Bergrat), but he evidently continued to live in Prussia. In 1693 he was called by Charles to Sweden. He received permission and travelled there (1693), where he was enobled as Baron Kunckel von Löwenstern. In 1694, he returned to Prussia. 1695/96, he travelled to Sweden, where he signed a consulting contract with the Kupferbergwerkgesellschaft at Falun. It appears that in Sweden he also engaged in alchemical pursuits. Despite the continuing connections with Sweden he appears to have maintained his residence in Prussia.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Dukes of Sachsen-Lauenberg (see above). The Elector of Saxony (see above). He owed his appointment to Dr. Langelott and councilor Vogt. He lost this position because of court intrigue. Georg Caspar Kirchmeier (1635-1700), professor of rhetoric in Wittenberg, provided Kunckel with the laboratory in which he taught practical chemistry (see above). Because of lack of space I am not listing this one. 1677, through the mediation of the Elector's personal physician, Chr. Mentzel (also not listed) Kunckel was asked to advise Frederich William, Elector of Brandenburg, on the activity of a goldmaker (alchemist), and thus won the Elector's trust. The Elector gave him a job and acted as his patron until his death in 1688 (see above). The Elector also gave him a gift of 1500 talern in 1681 to buy a house. Kunckel gave his first vessel of red glass to the Great Elector, and received one hundred ducats. For a chalice of the glass that weighed twenty-four pounds he later received 800 taler from the Elector of Cologne (an Archbishop) who had requested that Kunckel make it. King Charles XI of Sweden (see above). The king ennobled Kunckel to Baron von Loewenstein (1693).
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Pharmacology; Instruments; Kunckel experimented with chemistry to produce valuable colored glass. His ruby glass, which was produced by introducing gold, was his greatest achievement, though he produced others as well. He also published a practical text on glass making in 1679. Kunckel improved upon the furnace used in glassmaking.
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1693, member of the Academia Caesarea Leopoldina, taking the name 'Hermes.'; 1699, member of the Académie royale.

SOURCES:
Ulrich Troitzch, Neue deutsche Biographie13, 287a-98b. Partington, 2, 361-77. Hermann Peters, 'Kunckels Verdienste um die Chemie,' Archiv für die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 4 (1912), 178-214. Peters takes a fairly negative view of the Kunckel legend. H. Maurach, 'Johann Kunckel: 1630-1703,' Deutsches Museum Abhandlungen und Berichte, 5, no. 2 (1933), 31-64.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Axel Helne, 'Johann Kunckel von Lowenstein (1630-1702),' [in Danish] Tidsskrift vor Industri (1912). Johannes Kunckel, Ars vitraria experimentalis, vorwort von Günther Stein, (Hildesheim, 1972). _____, Collegium physico-chemicum experimentale, (Hildesheim, 1975).





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

BACK - HOME