Scientific Revolution - Westfall - DSB - Catalogue - RSW-DSB-RAH - Scientific Revolution
T H E   S C I E N T I F I C    R E V O L U T I O N
WESTFALL  CATALOGUE  -  SCIENTIFIC  COMMUNITY
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
Search - Name - Word - Category - Concept - Secondary Source - Author


Haak, Theodore


1. Dates: Born: Neuhausen, near Worms, 25 July 1605; Died: London, early May 1690. He was buried on 8 May. Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Government Position; Theodore Haak, a graduate of Heidelberg, held some sort of administrative post in the government of the Palatinate, in Neuhausen. Through his wife, the daughter of a prominent Huguenot theologian, David Toussaint, who was much in favor in the Palatinate, Haak père was related to counsellors of the Elector Palatinate as well as to an extensive circle of leading reformed theologians. There is no explicit information about the family finances, but there is quite a bit of indirect information-first, the connections above, and second, our Haak's ability to live in adequate comfort, moving about Europe, without ever holding any permanent remunerative employment. I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the family was, at the least, prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, Cambridge University, University of Leiden; Oxford University and Cambridge University, 1625-6. Oxford University, Gloucester Hall (the Calvinist center in Oxford), 1628-31, without taking a degree. In 1638 he matriculated in Leiden. Since he moved permanently to England later that year, he cannot have studied there long, and there is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist; His family in all directions were firm Calvinists. In the English Civil War he sided with and served the Puritan cause (not militarily).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Communication; Scientific Organization.  There is no evidence of independent scientific work by Haak. He was an active correspondent who functioned as a link, first between Hartlib's circle and the so-called Invisible College and the continent (primarily Mersenne), later between the Royal Society and the continent. He was one of the men in the Invisible College, and Wallis stated that Haak was the one who proposed the meetings.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Publishing.   Barnett, the only serious source on his life, is convinced that his style of life, an independent gentleman and amateur of learning without any regular gainful source of living, is inconceivable apart from personal means. Already in the late 20s Haak did his first translation, of an English devotional work into German. (It had six editions during the century.) He did another translation in the early 30s, which was published first in 1643. In 1645 he began the translation of The Dutch Annotations upon the Whole Bible, ultimately published in 1657. I gather that this was a translation into English of the Dutch translation of the Bible together with the extensive Dutch annotations. Haak was encouraged to undertake this work by the Westminster Assembly. As far as I can make out his remunderation was to be sole rights to the printing the sale of the book for fourteen years (from the date of publication) granted to him by Parliament. Barnett says nothing about the sales, but I am assuming that he made some money out of this, though I doubt that he did from other publications. Ordained deacon in London, 1632. He never took full orders and never held a benefice. He did work for the London Dutch church, on collections for clergy of the Palatinate displaced by the Thirty Years War, 1632-4. For this he received a small salary. He returned to the Palatinate in 1634, but was quickly forced to flee again. By 1638 he was back in England, which now became his permanent home. He was naturalized ultimately in 1657. In 1643-4 he was sent by Parliament on a diplomatic mission to Denmark. Employed episodically as a translator by the Westminister Assembly, and Parliamentary government, 1645-52. Parliament granted him a pension of ?100 a year, 1649. He had great trouble in ever collecting any of it. Perhaps this could be called patronage. However, Haak never sought out this employment and accepted it only from a sense of duty. He had language skills which the Parliament sorely needed to tap. I call it governmental employment rather than patronage. In 1648 he declined an offer to be secretary to Karl Ludwig, Elector Palatine, when the Peace of Westphalia restored him. However, Haak did function as his unofficial agent in London, sending information. This is a classic patronage relationship, and this I do count as such. Translator to the Secretary of State, John Thurloe, 1652-7, receiving fairly regular payments. Apparently Haak refused two offers of diplomatic posts on the continent. After the Restoration, Haak did some miscellaneous translation, both from and into English. I found no evidence that he earned any income from this. He translated about half of Milton's Paradise Lose into German. It was not published, but his manuscript was plagiarized for the first translation that was published, in 1682.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; I indicated above that I will not list the English connections as patronage. His relation to the court of the Elector Palatine does seem to be such, though rather tenuous. Note especially Haak's refusal of the proferred appointment in Heidelberg by the Elector, as well as his refusal of appointments offered in England. He preferred his quiet. Haak dedicated the Dutch Bible Annotations to Cromwell. However, Cromwell apparently rather despised Haak, and Haak detested Cromwell. Whatever the motives behind the dedication, I am unable to count it as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Haak invented a phosphorous-burning lamp, touted to supply light and heat without the need for bellows, in the 1680s. I feel that I need to list this, though I am highly uneasy with the category, and also with the device. None of the information about Haak, apart from this lamp, indicates involvement in chemistry, and I doubt that the lamp worked.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); He was part of the Commenian circle that formed around Hartlib in the late 30s. It included Dury and Pell; he remained in close touch with Pell until Pell's death. Intensive correspondence with Mersenne on behalf of the Hartlib circle, 1639-40. In 1647-8, until Mersenne's death, Haak revived this correspondence on behalf of the Invisible College. According to John Wallis, Haak first suggested the London meetings in 1645. In the Royal Society Haak continued his earlier function as a link with the continent. He was active in the promotion and maintenance of correspondence with scientists, especially in Germany. He proposed a considerable number of visiting Germans for membership of the Royal Society. His extensive correspondence with Pell survives. Intimate friendship with Hooke, after 1670s. Translated letters between Hooke and Leibniz, about 1680. Royal Society, 1661-96. He became a fellow upon the nomination of John Wilkins. Member of the Council, 1677.

SOURCES:
Pamela R. Barnett, 'Theodore Haak and the Early Years of the Royal Society,' Annals of Science, 13 (1957), 205-18. _____, Theodore Haak, F.R.S., (1605-1690), (Den Haag, 1962). This is the authoritative source on Haak. R.H. Syfret, 'The Origins of the Royal Society,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 5 (1948), 75-137. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 8, 855. Dorothy Stimson, 'Hartlib, Haak, and Oldenburg, Intelligencers,' Isis, 31 (1940), 309-26. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 278-80. Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 7, 368-9. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 10, 257.


Hakluyt, Richard



1. Dates: Born: probably London, probably early in 1552; Died: London, 23 November 1616; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Merchant; Also Richard Hakluyt, a member of the Skinners' Company, which dealt in skins and furs. He was from a long established Herefordshire family, possibly of Dutch origin. The father died in 1557 when our Richard Hakluyt was about five, and the mother soon after. Hakluyt's cousin, yet another Richard Hakluyt, became his guardian. I do not see how to avoid the conclusion that the family was at least prosperous. Four sons all received university education, and there was property in Hereford that Hakluyt eventually inherited after the death of his older brother.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English. Hakluyt spent five years in Paris. Since he was in the English embassy, I am not counting this as French residence. Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Westminster School. Oxford University, Christ Church, 1570-7; B.A., 1574; M.A., 1577.
5. Religion: Anglican; Hakluyt was ordained in 1578, held a number of benefices, and served two parishes.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Gog; Hakluyt became active already in his student days in encouraging English overseas colonization, and in collecting information about the voyages of discovery. His major work, The Principal Navigations . . . of the English Nation, 3 vols. was published in 1598-1600. An earlier version had come out in one volume in 1589. He published (often after translating) a number of separate accounts of voyages of discoveries. He also participated in projects of overseas expansion. Thus he was one of the patentees of the Virginia Company.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Mis; Hakluyt stayed on in Oxford after his M.A., still holding his studentship (in effect, fellowship) at Christ Church, 1577-83. He continued to hold the studentship, now no longer resident in Oxford, until about 1586. While an undergraduate he received some support from the Skinners' Company. He obtained a 'pension' of ?6/13/4 from the Clothworkers' Company in 1578 in order to study divinity. It would have lapsed in 1583, but Lord Burghley intervened to have the pension continued to aid his geographical research. The pension continued until 1586. Chaplain asnd secretary to the English Ambassadar in Paris, Sir Edward Stafford, 1583-8. Parks and Taylor are both convinced that he was really the client and agent of Walsingham to gather geographical information. A prebendal stall at Bristol, 1586. Rectory of Wetheringsett, Suffolk, 1590. He held this living until his death, and here he resided through the 90s and frequently thereafter. Hakluyt became a consultant to the East India Company in 1599. The company records show his participation and also payments to him. Already in 1594, according to a letter which survives, he was consulted by a Dutch venture, and he demanded a fee of ?20 for his services-although it is not clear that he was in fact paid on that occasion. I cannot quite call this patronage, and I am listing the consulting income under miscellaneous. Prebendary of Westminster, 1602, with annual stipend of ?32/5. Archdeacon of Westminster, 1603-5. (He received an extra ?4 each year for this office.); Chaplain of the Hospital the the Savoy, 1604. Hakluyt was a director of the Virginia Company in 1589, and later, in 1606, a patentee of a new Virginia Company. In 1612 he became a charter member of the North-west Passage Company. I did not see any suggestion of a salary with these positions. His brother Oliver presented him to a benefice in Gedney, Lincolnshire, 1612. Family property fell to him upon the death of his elder brother in 1591. A year later, upon the death of his younger brother Edmond, he inherited another property, which derived from his uncle.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Merchant Patronage; The whole of Hakluyt's career hinged on patronage motivated by interest in his geographical research. Already in 1580 he dedicated his first publication, a translation of Cartier's Short and Briefe Narration, to Edmond Bray, Esq., the High Sheriff of Oxford. He dedicated his second publication, Divers Voyages, to Sir Philip Sidney, who happened to be Walsingham's son-in-law. Hakluyt composed the Discourse on the Western Planting, 1584, as Raleigh's client. He presented the document, dedicated to Elizabeth of course, to the Queen to gain her support for Raleigh's expedition. At the same time he presented to her his analysis of Aristotle's Politics, also dedicated to her. She bestowed the prebendal stall at Bristol upon him in return. All of the accounts link the presentations/dedications and the prebend in precisely this way. In 1587 he dedicated his translation of Laudonnière's account of Florida and later that year an edition of Peter Martyr's Decades to Raleigh. There are differing accounts of the post in the embassy in Paris. One is that he was already the client of Walsingham, who arranged it. He did dedicate the initial edition of Principal Navigations, 1589, to Walsingham, who apparently bore at least part of the expense of publication. The other account is that he owed the position in English Embassy to Lord Howard of Effingham (the Earl of Nottingham) and Sir Edward Stafford (the ambassador, who was also Lord Howard's brother-in-law). He dedicated the first volume (1598) of the definitive three volume edition to Lord Howard, the Lord High Admiral, and Stafford's wife (the Countess of Sheffield in her own right) presented him to the living of Wetheringsett in 1590. Walsingham died before he had time to reward Hakluyt much. But in the late 90s he became the client of Sir Robert Cecil, Burghley's son, who was to be Hakluyt's most fruitful patron. He dedicated the second and third volumes (1599, 1600) of the Principal Navigations to Cecil and also his edition of Galvano's Discoveries, 1601. (The last dedication refers to Cecil's patronage and support.) Cecil, who was the principal Secretary of State, rewarded him with a prebendary of Westminster and the chaplaincy in the Savoy. Until the Savoy position opened, Hakluyt was Cecil's personal chaplain. He was acquainted with many eminent merchants and his research obtained their support. I have indicated above that his paid consultancies for mercantile ventures do not appear as patronage to me. Haluyt did dedicate his translation of de Soto's narrative to the Virginia Company. The Taylor volumes print all of his dedications.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; This heading gives me trouble. All of Hakluyt's geographical research was directed toward practical use, and I cannot list him here under the category, None. He did not contribute to the science of navigation itself, but he was constantly concerned to propagate knowledge of navigation in England. In the 80s and 90s he lobbied for the establishment of formal instruction in navigation. Similarly Hakluyt never drew a map himself. Skelton argues that he did not think in a cartographic idiom. The Principal Navigations are in prose, with only one world map in the three volumes. However, already in Oxford he lectured on what he called the new cartography (i.e., the revised understanding of the world). He was important in printing and thus disseminating the best maps he could find. The experts think that he aided Molyneux with the location of details on his globe on 1592, and that possibly he also aided Wright in the same way with his Mercator projection of the Molyneux globe. This map, the highest product of 16th century English cartography, he published in the Principal Navigations.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Correspondence with Abraham Ortelius, a Spanish (better, Flemish) Cosmographer, and Gerard Mercator. All of his correspondence is in the Taylor volumes.

SOURCES:
Edward Lynam, ed, Richard Hakluyt and his successors (Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 93), (London, 1946). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 895-6. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2461-74. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 2, 186-9. G.B. Parks, Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages, (New York, 1928). E.G.R. Taylor, 'Introduction,' in The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts (Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 76-7), (London, 1935). D.B. Quinn and R.A. Skelton, 'Introduction,' in Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, (Cambridge, 1965), pp. ix-lx. D.B. Quinn, ed., The Hakluyt Handbook, 2 vols. (Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 144-5), (London, 1974). D.B. and A.M. Quinn, 'A Hakluyt Chronology,' in Quinn, ed., The Hakluyt Handbook, 1, 263-331. This is the best source of information about Hakluyt's life, presented in tabular form rather than as a prose biography, that I have found. R.A. Skelton, 'Hakluyt's Maps,' in Quinn, ed., The HakluytHandbook, 1, 48-73.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Foster Watson, Richard Hakluyt, (London, 1924).


Hales, Stephen



1. Dates: Born: Beakesbourne, Kent, 17 September 1677; Died: Teddington, Middlesex, 4 January 1761; Datecode: Lifespan: 84
2. Father: Gentry; Thomas Hales was from an old and distinguished family. The grandfather, Sir Robert Hales, outlived his eldest son Thomas, who thus never held the status of baronet. Stephen Hales' mother died in 1687, when he was nine or ten, and his father five years later, in 1692. It is clear that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A., D.D. Cambridge University, Bene't College (later renamed Corpus Christi), 1696-1703; B.A. 1700; M.A., 1703; B.D., 1711. D.D. by diploma from Oxford, 1733.
5. Religion: Anglican; Hales was ordained in 1709 and soon thereafter took up pastoral duties that were his primary function all his life. He was very active in the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge from 1722. In 1724 he became a trustee of the D'Allone bequest, for the conversion and education of black slaves in the West Indies, and he was one of the Georgia Trustees, for the colonization of Georgia, which developed out of the D'Allone bequest. Hales' father and grandfather had been strongly influenced by Puritanism, but Hales wholly conformed to the established church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Physiology; Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Hales is regarded as one of the founders, and perhaps the most important, of plant physiology. In Vegetables Staticks he measured the pressure of sap and the transpiration of moisture from the leaves. He also took the most important step after Harvey and Malpighi in elucidating circulation. In Haemastatics (published in Statical Essays, 1731) he succeeded for the first time in measuring blood pressure. His experiments (reported in Vegetables Staticks) with air, and the apparatus he devised for them stimulated the later discoveries of Black, Cavendish, Priestley, and Lavoisier. He pursued medical issues all his life.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Although the family was wealthy, there is no indication I saw that Hales received any inheritance. However, the family in effect installed him in Teddington. He became a fellow of Bene't College in 1703 and continued to hold the fellowship after he left Cambridge until 1718, when he vacated it by accepting the living of Porlock, Somersetshire. Perpetual curate of Teddington, Middlesex, 1709 until his death. I don't understand the meaning of the title, perpetual curate, though apparently it allowed him to retain his fellowship when the title of rector or vicar would not have. At any rate Teddington was a living worth about ?87/4 per annum. The Bridgman family, who had the right of alternate presentation to Teddington, were cousins. In 1723 he exchanged Porlock for Farringdon, Hampshire. He made his home in Teddington, but resided in Farringdon during the summers. Appointed Clerk of the Close (i.e., Chaplain) to the Princess of Wales, 1751. This carried a salary of ?200.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Hales was a dedicated cleric, amply supported in his own opinion, who did not aspire to more and remained largely aloof from patronage. He dedicated Vegetable Staticks to the Prince of Wales (later George II), and later Statical Essays to him as well. William Cowper, the Lord Chancellor, presented him to the living of Porlock. Although he did not seek the position with the Princess of Wales, he accepted it but refused to treat it as a sinecure. He had been close to the Prince (Frederick) before his death. After his own death the Princess erected a monument in Westminister Abbey to his memory. The King offered him a canonry at Windsor, but he arranged to get the offer withdrawn.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Chemistry; Medicine; Pharmacology; Mechanical Devices; Agriculture; Hydraulics; Hales designed and constructed an instrument similar to an Orrery. He suggested a themometer for high temperatures, a mercurial gauge to measure the pressure of sap and a sea gauge to measure depths via pressure. He invented surgical forceps for removing stones from the urethra. Perhaps his best known and most important instrument was the pneumatic trough. Suggestions on the preservation of sides of beef by injecting brine into the arterial system, and major improvement in the distilation of fresh water from salt water in sea-voyages. The latter involved careful calculations of the weight of coal versus the weight of water that would have otherwise to be carried along. The government put the method into use. (I categorize this under chemisty.) He also carried out extensive chemical analyses of various medicinal spring waters. A method of preventing the spread of fires. (Without details I do not know how to categorize this.); He was deeply involved in medicinal questions, especially with his ventilators (mechanical devices) to remove fetid air from prisons, hospitals, ships, (and grain elevators). The devices did dramatically reduce mortality, and Hales can be regarded as the one who effectively established the medicinal value of fresh air. Hales drew the inspiration for the ventilator directly from his own scientific work on the elasticity of air found in Vegetable Staticks. Haemastaticks contains medical recommendations on therapeutic bleeding and surgery, and Hales made further efforts to derive practical medicinal applications of his scientific work. His long campaign against strong liquors was as much medicinal as moral. He worked over the years at developing a medicine that would dissolve stones. This led him into work on the medicinal value of various spring waters. It also led to his appointment to an official board to examine Mrs. Stephens' remedy, a famous nostrum at the time for the stone, which Hales came to support. Hales received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society for his work on medicine for the stone. He designed a farm implement called the back-heaver. His ventilator was used in drying and ventilating grain. He worked at improving the method of winnowing and cleaning grain. He also built a ventilated greenhouse for theDowager Princess of Wales; it markedly improved the plants growing in it. His Vegetable Staticks included instructions on growing hops and transplanting trees. In Teddington, in 1754-5, Hale supervised the construction of a system of ditches that brought a new water supply to the village from a series of springs. He was one of the founders of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, and is one of the best examples of the application of science to use that I have found. Allan and Schofield are very good on this issue.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Informal Connections: Intimate Friendship with W. Stukeley, after 1703. Friendship with A. Pope and H. Walpole. Correspondence with Mark Hildesley. Royal Society, 1718. Council 1727 (and I think other times). Copley Medal, 1739. He was one of the founders of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (later renamed the Royal Society of Arts); Vice President, 1755. Academy of Science at Paris, 1753.

SOURCES:
A.E. Clark-Kennedy, Stephen Hales, D.D., F.R.S. An Eighteenth Century Biography, (Cambridge, 1929). _____, 'Stephen Hales, Physiologist and Botanist,' Nature, 120 (1917), 228-31. Jocelyn Thorpe, 'Stephen Hales,' Notes and Records, 3 (1940), 53-63. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 916-20. D.G.C. Allan and Robert E. Schofield, Stephen Hales: Scientist and Philanthropist, (London, 1980). This is easily the best source on Hales. Michael Hoskin, 'Forward,' to Hales, Vegetable Staticks, (London, 1961). Andre Cournand, 'Introduction,' to Hales Statical Essays, (New York, 1964). Francis Darwin, 'Stephen Hales, 1677-1761,' in F.W. Oliver, ed. Makers of British Botany, (Cambridge, 1913), pp. 15-83.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: G.E. Burget, 'Stephen Hales,' Annals of Medical History, 7 (1925), 109-16. I.B. Cohen, 'Stephen Hales,' Scientific American, 234 (1976), 98-107.


Halley, Edmond



1. Dates: Born: Hagerston (near London), Middlesex, 29 October 1656?; Died: Greenwich, 14 January 1743; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Merchant; Also Edmond Halley, he was as a prosperous salter and soapmaker. The astronomer's mother died in 1672; his father was murdered in 1684. It is clear that the father was wealthy. Aside from the business, he had accumulated properties in London that brought in rents of about ?1000 per annum.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; St. Paul's School, 1671-3. Oxford University, Queen's College, 1673-6; as the wealthy frequently did, Halley left without B.A. M.A. by a royal mandate, 1679 (not to be listed). Ll.D, 1704; D.C.L., 1710, both from Oxford (not to be counted as advanced degrees).
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; All of the smoke about his heterodox views must have come from some fire, though there is cause to suspect that the extent of his free-thinking has been exaggerated. However, it does seem clear that Halley questioned (or better rejected) the universal authority of Scripture-for example, in his famous paper on the cause of the deluge and in his calculation of the age of the earth from the salinity of the sea, which yielded an age well beyond the accepted Scriptural chronology.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Physics; Subordinate Disciplines: Demography; Magnetism; Met; Halley was a major astronomer. He began observing seriously already as an undergraduate and published a paper on theoretical astronomy in the Philosophical Transactions at that time. He is known today primarily for A Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets, 1705, but he made other important contributions: the catalogue of the southern skies (Catalogus stellarum australium, 1678), the method of measuring the astronomical unit via transits of Venus, the establishment of stellar motion and the secular acceleration of the moon. He published important editions of Apollonius and of other ancient geometricians as well as papers in pure mathematics. He is considered the founder of geophysics, especially for his paper on trade winds and his work on tides. He was one of the pioneers in social statistics by calculating annuities from the mortality tables of Breslau (1693). He was constantly concerned with the magnetism of the earth, and developed a general theory about this. He also experimented at determining the law of magnetic poles. He was concerned as well with weather, and published on the relation of barometric pressure to the weather. Halley was something of a universal natural philosopher. He worked on historical geology and on the sources of springs and fountains, which I am subsuming under his geophysics. He published papers on optics, especially a universal theorem for determining the foci of lenses (again subsumed under physics). Navigation was a constant concern, and he was an important figure in it. I subsume this under his astronomy and magnetic science.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Org; The issue of Halley's personal means after his father's demise is debated. There is no question that his father supported his scientific work until his death, with an annual allowance of ?300. Folkes' memoir (in MacPike) claims to quote Halley himself about the crisis of 1684 and his need to interrupt everything to defend his patrimony. He did take a fairly menial position with the Royal Society, and later he was happy to get the appointment with the Chester mint. However, recent biographers seriously question that he was made destitute by his father's death; they contend that there is too much evidence that he continued to have some personal means. Halley had an allowance of ?300 from his father when he left for St. Helena. Not long after he returned, he set out on a grand tour of the continent, and when he returned from that and married, he was apparently still supported by his father. Assistant of the secretaries of the royal society, 1685-96. Deputy controller of the mint at Chester, 1696-8. Naval captain in command of the Paramore, a vessel built explicitly for Halley's scientific expeditions, which were concerned with navigation, 1698-1701. On a mission concerned with a naval base at an Adriatic port of the Austrian empire, 1702-3. Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford, 1704-43. Astronomer Royal. 1720-1743. Naval captain on half pay, 1729-43.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Sci; Sir Joseph Williamson and Sir Jonas Moore, both governmental officials, backed Halley's expedition to St. Helena. Charles II recommended him to the East India Company and procured transport to St. Helena for him in 1676. He received a treasury grant of ?500 for equipment. He dedicated a planisphere of the southern hemisphere stars to Charles II. It included a constellation (I think the one we call the Southern Cross) which he named 'Robur Carolinum.' With the assitance of Williamson again, he obtained a royal mandate for his M.A. degree at Oxford. It appears that Archbishop Tillotson supported him for the Savilian chair in 1691. He cannot have supported him very strongly, however, because Halley did not get the appointment, and all the accounts suggest that he lost it on religious grounds. At one point Newton acted as his patron, appointing him to the position at the Chester mint. Halley had patrons among officials powerful in the navy. They sponsored his expeditions in 1698-1701. The Earl of Nottingham, the Secretary of State (but if I understand correctly also connected with the navy) arranged for the mission to the Austrian empire and then, when he returned, engineered his appointment to the Savilian chair. As he completed his first Austrian mission, the Holy Roman Emperor presented him with a valuable diamond ring. Halley dedicated his map of the Atlantic (with isogonic lines of magnetic variation, 1701) to William III, and the world map on the same principles (1702) to Prince George. Halley dedicated his 1706 edition of Apollonius' De sectione rationis to Dr. Aldrich, Dean of Christ Church. However, Aldrich had been involved in instituting the project, and this does not smell like patronage to me. Halley owed his position as Astronomer Royal to the Earl of Macclesfield and the Earl of Sunderland. In 1729 Queen Caroline arranged for him to receive the half pay of a naval captain, in order that his income be sufficient.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Military Engineer; Halley was as involved in technological concerns as in pure science. His astronomy had the problem of longitude determination (via lunar positions) in mind most of the time. In 1731 he published such a method claimed to be accurate within 69 miles at the equator, a serious improvement. As was frequently the case, cartography was intimately connected with navigation. He drew up a map of magnetic declinations as a possible means to determine longitude. The isogonic lines were the first use of this device in cartography. Earlier, somewhat similarly, he produced a world map with trade winds shown. His expedition of 1701 produced a chart of the Channel, and earlier he had done charts of the mouth of the Thames and of the western coast of Sussex. He did a survey of the New River, the canal and aqueduct that brought fresh water to London. The expedition in the Atlantic was as much concerned with determining the precise locations of islands and ports as it was with magnetici declination. He mapped the Austrian part of the upper end of the Adriatic. He was much involved with instrumentation-a thermometer, a device (an alternative to the log and line) to determine the speed of a ship through the water, an improvement in the backstaff to measure the height of the sun, and of course his famous diving bell. Much later he helped Harrison to make his clock. Halley's paper on gravity in 1687 was concerned with gunnery and trajectories. The mission to Austria was to advise on the fortification of a port on the Adriatic, and on his second mission he oversaw the actual building of the fortifications.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Informal Connections: Friendship with Newton. Involved in the Newton-Leibniz controversy. Friendship (followed by enmity) with Flamsteed, 1675-6. Helped Harrison to make his clock. Worked with David Gregory on the translation of the conics of Apollonius. Royal Society, 1678-1743. Assistant of the secretaries, 1685-96. Editor of the Philosophic Transactions, 1685-92. Council, 1703 (and I think other times). Secretary, 1713-21. The Académie des Sciences at Paris, 1729-43.

SOURCES:
A. Armitage, Edmond Halley, (London 1966). C.A. Ronan, Edmond Halley, Genius in Eclipse, (Garden City, NY, 1969). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50) 8, 988-93. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2494-2520. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 536-9. John Aubrey, Brief Lives, pp. 120-1. Eugene Fairfield MacPike, Correspondence and Papers of Edmond Halley, (Oxford, 1932). This contains, along with much else, a list of all of Halley's correspondence published by 1932 plus the texts of other letters not previously published. _____, Dr. Edmond Halley (1656-1742). A Bibliographical Guide to His Life and Works, ((London, 1939). Charles H. Cotter, 'Captain Edmond Halley, R.N., F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 36 (1981), 61-77. Edward Bullard, 'Edmond Halley (1656-1741),' Endeavor, 15 (1956), 189-99. A.H. Cook, 'Halley in Istria, 1703: Navigator and Military Engineer,' Journal of Navigation, 37 (1984), 1-23. _____, 'The Election of Edmond Halley to the Savilian Professorship of Geometry,' Journal for the History of Astronomy, 15 (1984), 34-6. Simon Schaffer, 'Halley's Atheism and the End of the World,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 32 (1977), 17-40. Gerald Funk and Richard S. Westfall, 'Newton, Halley, and the System of Patronage,' in Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley, Norman J.W. Thrower, ed., (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), 1990, pp. 3-13.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Eugene Fairfield MacPike, Hevelius, Flamsteed and Halley: Three Contemporary Astronomers and Their Mutual Relations, (London, 1937).


Hardy, Claude



1. Dates: Born: LeMans, c. 1598 (DBF puts it in 1604); Died: Paris, 5 April 1678; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Government Position; Sebastian Hardy (who has his own entry in DBF) was receiver of taxes in LeMans at the time Hardy was born, and later a financier and counsellor of the audit office in Paris. No explicit word on the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Non 
5. Religion: Unknown; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Hardy exposed the fallacy of Yvon's method for the duplication of the cube in his Examen of 1630 and again in his Refutation of 1638. Hardy owed his greatest fame to his knowledge of Arabic and other exotic languages, and in particular to his edition of Euclid' Data (1625). He is said to have occupied himself with a project for a universal langauge.
7. Means of Support: Lawyer; Government Position; Little is known about his life. In 1625 he was a lawyer attached to the Parlement of Paris and in 1626 a counselor to the Chatelet (the court of justice in Paris).
8. Patronage: None 
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: He took part in the weekly meetings of Académie Mersenne, and he knew Gassendi. He was a friend of Claude Mydorge, who introduced him to Descartes. Later, in the debate over Fermat's method of maxima and minima, he supported Descartes.

SOURCES:
Nouvelle biographie générale, 23, 370-1. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 17, 645. G. Loria, Storia delle mathematiche, 2, (Milan, 1931), 309.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: P.Colomies, Gallia orientalis, (The Hague, 1665), pp.165-166, 259-60. C.de Waard, ed., Correspondence du M. Mersenne, (Paris), 1, 187, 619, 666; 2, 116, 550, 551; 3, 230; 4, 322, 323; 5, 136; 7, 63, 288-92; 8, 417, 418. MS4705.M53A3. 


Harriot, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Oxfordshire, c.1560; Died: London, 2 July 1621; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Unknown; The only information, in the records at Oxford, is that Harriot's father was a commoner (plebeian). No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Oxford University, St. Mary Hall, 1577-80; B.A., 1580.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; During his lifetime there were all sorts of stories about Harriot's atheism, centering on the charge that he challenged the universal authority of Scripture. There seems to be no doubt that he held atomistic views, which had the potential at least to be in conflict with orthodoxy. Nevertheless, I list Heterodoxy with grave doubts. Neither I nor anyone else has been able to find solid evidence to support the rumors. The rumors themselves began with a Jesuit diatribe of 1592 against the religious order in England; that hardly increases my confidence in the truth of the rumors.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Navigation; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Optics; Chemistry; Harriot carried out extensive telescopic observations of the satellites of Jupiter and of sunspots. He enriched algrebra with a theory of equations and one of interpolation. Artes analyticae praxis, posthumous, 1631, was Harriot's only published scientific work. Especially early in his career, he worked on navigation for his patron Raleigh, and he continued to be interested in the problems of navigation all his life. He wrote a treatise, Arcticon, which has been lost. He investigated the theory of Mercator's map. In the early 90's he began to investigate optics; he discovered the sine law and measured the refractive indices of 13 different substances. He investigated free motion and motion resisted in air, and ballistic curves. He measured the specific gravities of a number of different substances. In the period 1599-1600 he experimented very assiduously in chemistry, or perhaps alchemy. Natural history could also be listed, because Harriot did investigate the natural history of Virginia during his year there in Raleigh's colony.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; There is no solid evidence of what Harriot did immediately after taking his degree, but there are several good hints (see Batho) that he gave lessons in London. Shirley talks about students throughout his life. At least by 1584 he was part of the household of Sir Walter Raleigh to whom he acted as a tutor and then steward. At this time at least he had an annual pension from Raleigh. Raleigh apparently gave Harriot a property which he held until 1597. After he returned from Virginia he helped manage Raleigh's vast estate in Ireland; he also received a property there. He continued in Raleigh's service for the rest of Raleigh's life. In the early 90's he also entered the service of the Earl of Northumberland. Northumberland was Raleigh's friend, and there is no suggestion of conflict between the two services. The first payment to Harriot is recorded in the Northumberland accounts in 1593, and by 1598 at the latest he began to receive an annual pension of ?80 (later increased to ?100), much the largest pension on the Earl's rolls, and the pension continued until Harriot's death. Apparently Northumberland set him up with a property in Durham in 1595 (held by Harriot until 1515), and he assigned a house to him on the estate at Syon, just west of London along the Thames. Harriot's relations with Sir William Lower, a member of the Welsh genty and of Parliament, are unclear. I certainly suspect patronage, but I saw no evidence of specific benefits from Lower.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Aristocratic Patronage; See above on Raleigh. Harriot's Brief and True Report (on the Roanoke expedition) was published to defend Raleigh's plans. In his will of 1597 Raleigh left a grant of ?100 per annum to Harriot-though I think this was not the will in effect when Raleigh was executed some twenty years later. Harriot began to receive an annual pension from the Earl of Northumberland in 1598 at the latest. See the other favors above.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Hydraulics; Harriot was always concerned with navigation. He instructed Raleigh's captains in the science and composed a book, Arcticon. Statistical survey in Virginia, 1585. It included technical details, and a survey of the coast line and maps. He helped to map Raleigh's Irish estate, and later he drew a map of the Guiana expedition. In his will he left maps (by implication, manuscript maps that he had drawn) to the Earl of Northumberland. He drew a map of the moon. Harriot constructed a twelve foot radius astronomicus for observations, especially of the sun for the determination of latitude. Apparently he developed the astronomical telescope independedntly at about the same time as Galileo. He suggested several improved navigational instruments, including what may have been the first backstaff. His manuscripts seem to show that he worked on the water supply for Syon House and for the residence of the Lord Chamberlain. Harriot studied ballistic trajectories with the intent of improving artillery performance. Batho speaks of his interest, shared with the Earl of Northumberland, in fortification. However, I found no evidence that any of this went outside his study, and I am not going to list military engineering.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Acquainted with John Dee and Thomas Allen. There is not much documented knowledge of correspondence or personal contact with scientists of his own rank, though he did correspond briefly with Kepler. Mathematicians in his circle: Nathaniel Torporley, Walter Warner, Robert Hughes, Thomas Aylesburg, and William Lower. A number of Lower's letters to Harriot survive.

SOURCES:
John Aubrey, Brief Lives; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 1321-2. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2539-43. Muriel Rukeyser, The Traces of Thomas Harriot, (New York, 1971). Henry Stevens, Thomas Harriot, the Mathematician, the Philosopher, and the Scholar, (London, 1900). John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography, (Oxford, 1983). _____, ed., Thomas Harriot. Renaissance Scientist, (Oxford, 1974). _____, ed., A Source Book for the Study of Thomas Harriot, (New York, 1981). Johannes A. Lohne, 'Dokumente zur Revalidierung von Thomas Harriot als Algebraiker,' Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 3 (1966), 185-205. _____, 'Harriot on Ballistic Parabolas,' ibid., 20 (1979), 230-64. _____, Harriot's Scientific Writings,' ibid., 20 (1979), 265-312. Jean Jacquot, 'Thomas Harriot's Reputation for Impiety,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 9 (1952), 164-87. G.R. Batho, Thomas Harriot and the Northumberland Household, (London, 1983).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: John J. Roche, 'Harriot's Regiment of the Sun and its Background in 16th-Century Navigation,' British Journal for the History of Science, 14 (1981), 245-61. David Beers Quinn, The Roanoke Voyages, 2 vols. (Hakluyt Society Publications, 2nd ser., 104) (London, 1952). J.V. Pepper, 'Harriot's Work on the True Sea-Chart,' Acts of the XII Congress of the History of Science, 1968, (1971), 4, 135-8. Suzanne S. Webb, 'Raleigh and Atheism in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England,' Albion, 1 (1969), 10-18.


Harris, John



1. Dates: Born: Shropshire (?), c.1666; Died: Norton Court, Kent, 7 September 1719; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 53
2. Father: Unknown; The Oxford record of Harris' admission lists the father as Edward Harris of London, Gent. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Oxford University, Trinity College, 1683-6; B.A., 1686; Hart Hall, 1686-9; M.A., 1689. There is a report of a B.D. at Cambridge, 1699; there is no record of this in Cambridge, however, and I am not listing it. D.D. at Lambeth, 1706. (I'm not sure what this means, and I am not listing it.)
5. Religion: Anglican; Harris was ordained and made his career as a cleric.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Harris delivered the Boyle lectures in 1698, on the consonance of science and religion, and he defended Woodward against asserttions that he was an atheist. He published Astronomical Dialogues, 1719, an imitation of Fontenelle's Entretiens. His best known and most important work was the Lexicon technicum, 1704-10, the first scientific dictionary. Harris was not a prominent contributor to any science; I think that 'Natural Philosophy' best represents his effort. In so far as he had a science, it was mathematics. A translation of Pardies Short . . .Elements of Geometry, 1701; A New Short History of Algebra, 1702. He also published a collection of voyages, Navigantium atque itinerantium bibliotheca, 2 vols., 1705.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Schoolmaster; Pub; Vicar of Icklesham, Sussex, 1690. Rector of Winchelsea St. Thomas, 1690. A prebend in the Cathedral of Rochester, 1707. Perpetual Curate of Stood, Kent, 1711 (apparently an aspect of the prebend). Rector of St. Mildred, Bread Street, and St. Margaret (London), 1708. Rector of Landwei Velfrey, Pembroke, 1711-19. Rector of East Barming, Kent, 1715. It is not clear how many of these were plural appointments, but clearly quite a few were. Harris was Chaplain to Sir William Cowper, later Lord Cowper, Keeper of the Great Seal; Cowper was responsible at least for the benefice of St. Mildred and St. Margaret and for the prebendary stall at Rochester, and I suspect much else. Harris gave lectures on mathematics at the Marine Coffee House and taught mathematics in his home, 1698-1704. The lectures at the coffee house were free, but they were established by Charles Cox, M.P., and we may be sure that Harris' services were not offered gratis. In the first age when it was seriously possible, Harris also published for profit. His Lexicon was published by subscription (then a new device); in vol. 2, 1200 subscribers were listed.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Gentry; Dedicated vol. 1 of the Lexicon, 1704, to Prince George. Sir William Cowper, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, presented him to the united parishes of St. Mildred, Bread Street, and St. Margaret, London. Cowper also arranged the prebend in the Cathedral of Rochester for him in 1607. To him Harris dedicated the second volume of the Lexicon. From what I have seen, it appears proper to list Cowper in his role as aristocrat rather than governmental official. Entered on the cure of the parish of Winchelsea, adjacent to Icklesham, by the special order of Bishop of Chichester. He dedicated Astronomical Dialogues, 1719, to Lady Cairnes. Harris was improvident. Despite all that patronage, he was destitute in his final years and was helped by the benefaction of John Godfrey, Esq. of Norton Court, Kent, in whose home he died. (Note that Godfrey later patronized Stephen Gray.)
9. Technological Connections: None Known; Harris' History of Kent contained maps, and at one point I had listed Cartography. Gough is quite explicit that the book is wholly derivative and not very good at that. Certainly I never saw any reference to his doing any cartography.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Relationship with Stephen Hunt, 1680s. Became a scientific controversialist defending John Woodward against the attack of a certain L.P. Royal Society, 1696-1719; Council (though I do not have the years); Second Secretary, 1709; Vice-President, a short time.

SOURCES:
Thomas Hearne, Remarks and Collections, 7, (Oxford, 1906), p. 46. H.E.D. Blakiston, Trinity College (Oxford), (London, 1898), p. 172. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 13-14. Joseph Foster, Alumni oxonienses, 2, 657. Douglas McKie, 'John Harris and his Lexicon technicum,' Endeavour, 4, 53-7. Richard Gough, British Topography, 4 vols. (London, 1780), 2, 445.


Hartlib, Samuel



1. Dates: Born: Elbing, Prussia, c. 1600. Died: London, 10 March 1662. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 62
2. Father: Merchant; He is described as a prominent merchant and dye manufacturer. By Hartlib's own description, in a letter, the father was wealthy. Two sisters of his mother married highly placed and wealthy Englishmen (although one of them, mentioned by Hartlib in the same letter, cannot be identified). Perhaps Hartlib's own testimony is suspect, but the evidence that he had some personal means seems overwhelming to me. I am putting the rather down as affluent; wealthy is not impossible.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; Cambridge University, c.1621-6 (Webster makes the dates c. 1625-6); never matriculated, and no degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization; Com; Hartlib attempted to establish an Office of Public Address, partly to serve as a channel of intellectual communication. He was active in promoting useful inventions and information, especially those related to agriculture and medicine. Hartlib published A Description of the Famous Kingdome of Maccaria, 1641, a utopian scientific state. The Comenian circle he headed was what Boyle called the 'Invisible College.'
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Publishing; Schoolmaster; After his period at Cambridge, Hartlib returned to Elbing in 1627. He then came back to England in 1628 and remained there for the rest of his life. He established a school in Chicester in 1630. It lasted less than a year, and it appears that he lost money rather than gained. Thereafter he lived in London and was supported largely by patronage. However, he did apparently give private lessons. Various grants from Parliament for his public service between 1645 and 1649, including a pension of ?100 a year after 1649 (though it was not always paid). Also supported by private benefactors, especially for his service to education. In the 40s, Puritan aristocrats and gentry were his patrons. In the final years of his life there was a Swedish noble, Lord Skyte. Stimson has no doubt that Hartlib started with some personal means. Webster denies it, but I find it impossible to comprehend his life unless there were some means, at least at the beginning. The conclusion is supported, though certainly not demonstrated by Hartlib's testimony in a letter to Worthington in 1660, that he had spent ?300-400 'of my own' per year on his projects in England. Received money by publishing many books-I question that he earned serious money from this, but apparently he got some. He is sometimes called a merchant, but there is no evidence that he actually worked at this or that he made money from trade.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Webster is convincing that the wealthy Puritan families, such as the Fiennes, Riches, and Grevilles, became Hartlib's patrons. Webster speaks of him subsisting primarily on irregular private contributions from the families above and others like them. John Pym became a patron; also Lord Brooke. In Samuel Hartlib and the Advancement of Learning, pp. 25-6, Webster mentions a range of Puritan aristocrats and gentry who were Hartlib's patrons. Again according to Webster, Francis Rous, a prominent figure in the Protectorate, was Hartlib's patron in the 50s. Add Lord Skyte, the Swedish nobleman. I list the patronage from Parliament under Governmental officials. Hartlib did not dedicate much as far as I have found. However, he did dedicate A Discourse of Husbandry, 1650, to the Council of State, and Clavis apocalyptica, 1651, to Oliver St. John, the Lord Chief Justice.
9. Technological Connections: Agriculture; Hartlib was energetic in promoting useful knowledge of all kinds, but especially on husbandry (or agriculture), on which he published a extensive number of works, most of them not by himself. Husbandry was for him an analogue of spiritual cultivation.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: His wide correspondence included Pell, Dury, Hevelius, Winthrop, Starkey, Oldenburg, and Wren. He had many young protégés, including Petty, Boyle, the two Boates, Dymock, and Platte, who made up the 'Invisible College.' He knew virtually all of the men who organized the Royal Society in 1660, though he himself was not a member.

SOURCES:
G.H. Turnbull, Samuel Hartlib: A Sketch of his Life and his Relations to J.A. Comenius, (Oxford, 1920). _____, Hartlib, Dury and Comenius: Gleanings from Hartlib's Papers, (Liverpool, 1947). _____, 'Samuel Hartlib's Influence on the Early History of the Royal Society,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 10 (1952-3), 101-30. R.H. Syfret, 'The Origins of the Royal Society,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 5 (1947-8), 75-137. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 72-3. Dorothy Stimson, 'Hartlib, Haak, and Oldenburg: Intelligencers,' Isis, 31 (1940), 309-26. Charles Webster, The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine and Reform, 1626-1660, (London, 1974). _____, 'Introduction,' in Webster, ed., Samuel Hartlib and the Advancement of Learning, (London, 1970).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: H. Dircks, Biographical Memoire of Samuel Hartlib, 1865. H.R. Trevor-Roper, 'Three Foreigners: The Philosophers of the Puritan Revolution,' in The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Religion, the Reformation and Social Change, (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), pp. 237-93.


Hartmann, Georg



1. Dates: Born: Eggolsheim, near Forchheim, Germany, 9 February 1489; Died: Noremberg, 9 April 1564 Datecode: - Lifespan: 75
2. Father: unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Eggolsheim, near Forchheim, Germany. Career: Nuremberg, Germany. Death: Nuremberg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Cologne; 1510, university of Cologne, studying theology, and mathematics under Heinrich Glareanus. Afterwards he went to Italy, particularly Rome, to study. He was there as late as the summer of 1518. I find no mention of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. The N.d.B. lists him as 'evangelisch.' Obviously he had first to be Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Magnetism; Mathematics. 
7. Means of Support: Scientific Instruments; Church Living; He settled in Nuremberg in 1518, where he designed and produced timepieces, astrolabes, globes, quadrants, armillary spheres, a star altimeter, and a calibre gauge. 1518-1544, he was also vicar of St. Sebaldus, Nuremberg. From 1522, he had the prebend of the Walburgkapelle. 1527, he became chaplain of St. Moritz.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He corresponded with Duke Albrecht of Prussia (1541-1544) and made instruments for him. Albrecht overpaid him 60 gulden for an instrument, Hartmann promised to make him a sundial for the 60 gulden surplus, and this initiated their correspondence. In their correspondence, Hartmann mentioned visits from King Ferdinand, and the apostolic envoy and the Venetian orarier, who commissioned various pieces. He also had commissions from King Ferdinand of Bohemia and Hungary, who invited him to visit three times. Ferdinand gave him a cup worth 43 gulden once, and another cup worth 60 gulden six years later. Hartmann also received commissions from Ferdinand's consort. He corresponded with, and received commissions from, Duke Ottheinrich, who sent him a 1517 box wood sundial and a commission for two ivory sundials, a brass astrolabe, and a brass armillary sphere. He also corresponded with, and received commissions from Melanchton. With a goldsmith, probably Hans or Elias Lenker, he produced a 'Instrumentenkaestchin' for Duke Emanuel Philibert of Savoy, the cousin of Emperor Charles V.
9. Technological Connections: int; Of course, he supported himself as an instrument maker.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Ernst Zinner, Deutsch und niederlaendische astronomische Instrumente des 11.-18. Jahrhunderts (Munich: C.H. Beck, 1956), 357-368. J.G. Doppelmayr, Historisches Nachricht von den Nuernbergischen Mathematicis und Kunstlern (Nuremberg, 1730), 56-58. Adolf Wibner, N.d.B., 7:742b. Note: Zinner contains good patronage details.


Hartmann, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Germany, 1568; Died: Germany, 1631 Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Artisan; A weaver; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Germany; German; Birth: Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Germany
4. Education: University of Jena; University of Wittenburg; University of Marburg; M.A., M.D. Studied the arts, especially math, at Jena and Wittenberg. I assume B.A. From 1591, studied at Marburg, received a master's degree. He may also have attended Altdorf, Helmstedt, Leipzig. Later studied medicine, received a doctorate from Marburg in 1606.
5. Religion: Lutheran. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Med; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; 1592-1609, professor of mathematics, Philipps University, Marburg. 1594, became adviser to Landgrave Moritz of Hesse in Kassel, and taught at the court school, the Collegium Mauritanum, until 1601. 1609, appointed professor of medical and pharmeceutical chemistry, Philipps University, Marburg. Was several times dean (e.g. 1602) and rector (e.g. 1603) of the Philipps University, Marburg. 1621, moved to Kassel - nominally retaining his professorship - and became court physician, until Moritz abdicated in 1631. 1629-1631, professor of natural science and medicine at the University of Kassel (which did not open officially until 1633).
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; The Landgrave of Hesse had control over appointments and appointed Hartmann in 1592, at the urging of his son, Moritz, who was particularly interested in Hartman because of his interest in alchemical metalurgy. Moritz assumed patronage of Hartmann, but lived in Kassel, and had to borrow him periodically from his uncle Ludwig, who now had control over the university in Marburg and refused to allow Hartmann to resign.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; Hartmann was in charge of the large alchemical and pharmeceutical laboratory at Marburg.
10. Scientific Societies: None known.

SOURCES
Rudolf Schmitz, Die Naturwissenschaften an der Philpps-Universitaet Marburg, 1527-1977 (Marburg, N.G. Elwert Verlag, 1978), pp. 10-15, 193-202, 338-42. [QH51.S35] The Schmitz book gives good patronage details. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Adolf Winkelmann, 'Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631) Doctor, Medicus et Chymiatriae Professor Publicus,' Pharmazeutische Zeitung, 111 (1966), 1233-41. Bruce T. Moran, 'Court Authority and Chemical Medicine: Moritz of Hessen, Johannes Hartmann, and the Origin of Academic Chemiatria,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 63 (1989), 225-46.


Hartsoeker, Nicolaas



1. Dates: Born: Gouda, 26 March 1656; Died: Utrecht, 10 December 1725; Datecode: Lifespan: 69; 
2. Father: Church Living; Christiaan Hartsoeker, a Remonstrant minister. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; France; German; Death: Du
4. Education: University of Leiden; Although some dissent, most of the few authorities say that he studied for a time at Leiden. No one suggests a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. His father was a remonstrant minister. In France he converted to Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Instruments; Optics; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Embryology; He published Essai de dioptrique in 1694 plus a number of papers. The Essai also contains the exposition of a general natural philosophy. He published a number of books on physics, which contain more on the philosophy of nature than on physics. His observations in embryology culminated in the homunculus.
7. Means of Support: Scientific Instruments; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Government Position; In 1679 he set up as an instrument maker and wine merchant. The venture was unsuccessful, but he continued with instruments the rest of his life. In France, from 1684-96, he was an instrument maker, primarily optical instruments. It has recently been revealed that he was a spy for the French government in its war against the Netherlands. When he returned to the Netherlands in 1696, he gave instruction to Peter the Great in physics and refused an offer of a chair in physics in St.Petersburg. In Amsterdam he taught physics to the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (the lessons were published as Conjectures physiques and Suite de conjectures physiques). He also won the favor of the Elector Palatine, whose court mathematician Hartsoeker became in 1704. He lived in Dusseldorf from 1704-16, and was at the same time Honorary Prof. of Philosophy at the University of Heidelberg (the Landgrave). After the Elector Johan Willem died in 1716, Hartsoeker returned to the Netherlands.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Magistrate; Hartsoeker went to Paris in 1678 with Christiaan Huygens, who introduced him to scientific circles there. Hartsoeker's naiveté in regard to the politics of the scientific circle led to a break with Huygens. Later, in the 1684-96 period, Hartsoeker gained the support of Cassini who liked the quality of his lenses. The patronage of two German courts is manifest in the details above. It is of interest that after the death of the Elector, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel tried to attract Hartsoeker to his court, but Hartsoeker, tired of court life, declined and returned to the Netherlands. Niceron says that the magistrates of Amsterdam recommended Hartsoeker to Peter the Great, and that to defray Hartsoeker's expenses in that foray they established a small observatory for him. Others say that the observatory was set up for Peter and that the magistrates let Hartsoeker use it after Peter departed.
9. Technological Connections: Instrumentation; Hartsoeker was always interested in optical instruments. He claimed to have developed a method of making small glass globules for microscopes, though his priority in this is doubted. He definitely made lenses of different focal lengths, some of which survive; one lens is said to have had a focal length of 600 feet. He made a number of instruments, not just optical instruments, for the Paris observatory. He constructed a burning glass of great size. 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); BA; In 1699 a foreign member of the Academy Royale. Later a member of the Berlin Academy.

SOURCES:
Considering the considerable prominence of Hartsoeker, there is a surprising paucity of biographical information about him. J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s), 8. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. M. Daumas, Les instruments scientifiques, (Paris, 1953). Levensbeschryving van eenige voorname meest nederlandsche mannen en vrouwen, 3rd ed., 10 vols., (Haarlem, 1794), 2, 167-86.


Harvey, William



1. Dates: Born: Folkestone, Kent, 1 April 1578; Died: London or Roehampton, Surrey, 3 June 1657; Datecode: Lifespan: 79
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Merchant; Thomas Harvey was a yeoman farmer and small landowner who also engaged in commerce and ultimately rose into the gentry. It is clear that he was prosperous. Among other things, Harvey attended Oxford as a Pensioner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cmb; University of Padua; M.D. The King's School, Canterbury, 1588-93. Cambridge University, Gonville and Caius College, 1593-9. B.A., 1597. University of Padua, 1599-1602; M.D., 1602. Incorporated M.D. at Oxford, 1642, by royal mandate (not listed).
5. Religion: Anglican; Harvey conformed to the established church, but there is no evidence of serious religious commitment and more than one suggestion (though only on the level of gossip) of considerable free thought.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Embryology; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Entomology; De motu cordis et sanguinis, 1628, the physiological classic of the 17th century. Harvey planned a vast program of publication on respiration, the functions of the brain and spleen, animal locomotion, and comparative and pathological anatomy. All he actually published were De motu and De generatione, plus his essay defending De motu against Riolan. Many of his manuscripts were destroyed when his chambers in Whitehall were sacked in 1642, and then later in the great fire which consumed the library of the Royal College of Physicians. The manuscripts of his lecture notes (on anatomy, in the Royal College) and of 'De musculis' and 'De motu locali animalium' survive.He completed his second great work, De generatione, in about 1638, and ultimately published it in 1651. It was a fundamentally new view of generation in which oviparous generation, rather than viviparous, became the general model. His lecture notes show that he had dissected more than eighty different species of animals. His planned book on morbid anatomy was to have been based on post-mortem examinations. He also planned one on the effect that the concept of the circulation of the blood would have on the practice of medicine. The final section of De generatione is virtually a textbook on midwifery. He also composed a work on the generation of insects, which was among the manuscripts destroyed in 1642. There is testimony, especially from his continental tour with Arundel in 1636, that Harvey was interested in natural history. However, I do not find enough evidence to list it as one of his scientific disciplines.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Org; Medical practice: 1602-57, including many of the prominent families of England. Harvey married the daughter of a prominent London physician, who had been the personal physician to Elizabeth and was then to James. In addition to the dowry, about which we know nothing, he inherited an estate from his father; late in his life, when he bestowed it on the Royal College of Physicians, this estate was worth ?56 per annum. He also gave the house in Folkestone, in which he was born, to Caius. Late in his life he inherited sums of money from brothers who predeceased him. Physician to St. Batholomew's Hospital, 1609-43. This was not a governmental institution; I include it under medical practice. The post carried an annual stipend of ?25, later increased to ?33/6/8. Appointed physician extraordinary to James I, 1618-25. Appointed physician extraordinary to Charles I, 1625-31. Physician in ordinary to Charles I, 1631-9. Senior physician in ordinary to Charles I, 1639-47. Harvey's service to Charles increasingly dominated his time and attention, especially after 1631. By royal mandated appointed Warden of Merton College, Oxford, 1645. He held the post only about a year, until Charles' defeat in the Civil War. Harvey was appointed Lumleian Lecturer on Anatomy and Surgery to the Royal College of Physicians in 1615 and held the position until 1656. A stipend went with the position. However, in 1640 Harvey had to sue the heirs of Lord Lumley (who had originally endowed to lectureship) to get the stipend, and the suit was still in process when he died. Munk states that he spent a great deal on the suit, so perhaps his net gain, over his lifetime, from the Lumleian lectureship was negative. He lived with his rich merchant brothers after 1647. Harvey died quite a wealthy man.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Medical Practioner; From a very early time in his career he had the patronage of James I and then (and most importantly) of Charles I. The position in St. Batholomew's Hospital came via the court. Charles I was interested in his scientific work and provided him with deer from the royal parks for his investigations of embriology.. To Charles he dedicated De motu. He accompanied the King on his visit to Scotland in 1633 and on his Scottish compaigns of 1639, 1640 and 1641. During the Civil War he remained with the King at Oxford from 1642 to 1646 and followed the captive King to Newcastle in 1646. By royal mandate he became Warden of the Merton College and got his M.D. at Oxford. By royal command Harvey accompanied the Duke of Lennox in travel on the continent in 1630-1. In 1636 he traveled in the retinue of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, on a special royal embassy to Emperor Ferdinand II at Regensburg. While the royal order was undoubtedly necessary for this trip, it was Arundel himself who wanted Harvey to accompany him. Aubrey, who knew Harvey well, says that he was a great favorite of the Earl and his personal physician. Early in his career, he owed his position in the hospital partly to Dr. Atkins (President of the Royal College of Physicians), and later the lectureship at the College to Dr. Mayerne and Dr. Clement.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; We know from a law suit that Harvey had (and administered) a secret medicine (by implication of his own making) for the stone. He was also a member of the committee of the Royal College that prepared the Pharmacopoeia londinensis, 1618.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal connections: Friendship with George Entomology; Dr. Edward Smith, Charles Scarburgh, and in his late days with Aubrey, Selden, Hobbes and Boyle. While he was in Oxford there was a whole circle of scientific associates and disciples. Royal College of Physicians, 1607-57; Lumleian lecturer on anatomy, 1615-56; Censor, 1613 and threee subsequent years; Treasurer, 1628, Elect, 1627 continuing; elected president (declined) 1654. Harvey financed the construction of the College's new library in 1652-4. (It was destroyed in the great fire.) He bequeathed to the College the patrimonial estate that he had inherited.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 94-9. Sir Geoffrey Keynes, The Life of William Harvey, (Oxford, 1966). _____, A Bibliography of the Writings of Dr. William Harvey, 1578-1657, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1953). Kenneth D. Keele, William Harvey, the Man, the Physician, and the Scientist, (London, 1965). Walter Pagel, William Harvey's Biological Ideas, (New York, 1967). Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2547-55.  William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 6, 2547-55. John Aubrey, Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. O.L. Dick, (London, 1949), pp. 128-33.  A.M. Cooke, 'William Harvey at Oxford,' Journal of the Royal College of Physicians, 9 (1975), 181-8. A.T.H. Robb-Smith, 'Harvey at Oxford,' Oxford Medical School Gazette, 9 (1957), 70-6. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 283-325. Robert G. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists: A Study ofScientific Ideas, (Berkeley, 1980).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 1-50. There is an immense literature about Harvey, most of it concerned with various aspects of his science. I have made no attempt to exhaust it; the effort would have been futile in any case.


Hauksbee, Francis



1. Dates: Born: Colchester (?), c.1666; Died: London, May or June 1713; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Merchant; Richard Hausbee was a draper in Colchester. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No university education
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Elc; Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects, 1709. Sustained experimentation of electricity began with Hauksbee. He also performed important experiments on capillary phenomena. Also on the propagation of sound in compressed and rarified air, on freezing of water, and on elastic rebound. He measured specific gravities and refractive indices. He investigated the law of magnetic attraction and the time of fall through air.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Artisan; Org  Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Pub; Apprenticed in the trade to his older brother, 1678-87. Ran his own shop, 1687-1703-this appears to mean a retail shop. He was a small merchant. Guerlac speculates (on the basis of fragmentary evidence) that Hauksbee may have been Boyle's assistant. Hauksbee emerged out of obscurity at the meeting of the Royal Society on 15 December 1703. He became the Royal Society's paid performer of experiments from that time until his death, though he was never formally the Curator of Experiments. Apparently he had already made himself known to some people as an experimenter. We know that he was giving demonstrations in his shop in 1704 and in 1710 was offering public lectures. He also made and sold instruments-e.g., cupping glasses used in surgery, air pumps, and barometers. Hauksbee published Physico-Mechanical Experiments himself and sold the copies from his home.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; The Royal Society-or better, Newton, who stood behind his appointment to the society. Hauksbee dedicated Physico-Mechanical Experiments to Lord Somers, former President of the Royal Society.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Scientific instruments for physical experiments-an improved air pump (though no one seems able to define precisely what Hauksbee's improvements were), and what was, in effect, the first static electric or frictional electric machine, a glass globe mounted on an axle, and also a primitive electroscope to detect electric charges.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); He collaborated with Newton on experiments at the Royal Society, and influenced some of Newton's ideas, both with his capillary and with his electrical experiments. Royal Society, 1705-13.

SOURCES
Duane Roller and Duane H.D. Roller, The Development of the Concept of Electrical Charge (a volume in J.B. Conant, Case Histories in Experimental Science), (Cambridge, Mass., 1957), pp. 17-29. Duane H.D. Roller, 'Introduction,' to Hauksbee, Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects, (New York, 1970). pp. ix-xxix. W.B. Hardy, 'Historical Notes upon Surface Energy and Forces of Short Range,' Nature, 109 (1922), 375-8. E.C. Millington, 'Studies in Capillarity and Cohesion in the Eighteenth Century,' Annals of Science, 5 (1945), 352-69. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50) 9, 171. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 296-7. Henry Guerlac, 'Francis Hauksbee: Expérimentateur au profit de Newton,' Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 16 (1963), 113-28. _____, 'Sir Isaac and the Ingenious Mr. Hauksbee,' in Mélanges Alexandre Koyré, ed. I.B. Cohen and René Taton, (Paris, 1964), 1, 228-53. _____, 'Newton's Optical Aether,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 22 (1967), 45-57.


Havers, Clopton



1. Dates: Born: Stambourne, Essex, c.1655. Dobson says 1657, but this seems impossible to reconcile with Havers' Cambridge career. Died: England, 1702; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Church Living; Henry Havers was Rector of Stambourne. He was a nonconformist, who was ejected with the Act of Uniformity in 1662. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cmb; University of Utrecht; M.D. Cambridge University, Catharine Hall (St Catharine's College), 1668-71; left without degree. The University of Utrecht; M.D., 1685. Although I usually assume the equivalent of a B.A., the facts seem otherwise in his case.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Anglican; Havers' father was a non-conformist ejected in 1662. He himself studied medicine under another ejected minister. However, he must have made his peace with the established church. His father-in-law was Rector of Willingale, and Havers was buried in the church there.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; His thesis at Utrecht was De respiratione, 1685. Osteologia nova, 1691 (a collection of five papers delivered earlier to the Royal Society), with the first description of the microscopic structure of bones, and a discussion of the physiology of bones. He revised the text that accompanied Remmelin's anatomical plates in 1695 and was composing the text to other anatomical plates when he died. He contributed a medical paper to the Philosophical Transactions.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Org; Medical practice, 1684-1702, and though it is not documented surely during the years 1681-84 also. His practice was in London after 1687. Havers was the Gale lecturer on anatomy to the Company of Surgeons beginning in 1698. This involved a modest stipend of 30s (I think this must be for each lecture).
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; He dedicated Osteologia nova to the Earl of Pembroke, President of the Royal Society.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Revised John Ireton's English text for John Remmelin's anatomical plates in 1695. Contracted to write an English text for Stephan Blankaart's anatomical plates. Royal Society, 1686-1702. Granted an extra license in 1684 and a full license in 1687 by the Royal College of Physicians.

SOURCES:
Jones Quain, Elements of Anatomy, 5th ed. (London 1848), p. cxxxii. A review of Osteologia nova, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 17, No. 194 (1693), 544-54. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 182. Jesse Dobson, 'Pioneers of Osteogeny: Clopton Havers,' Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 34B (1952), 702-7. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 477.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C.B. Reed, on Havers, Bulletin of the Society of Medical History, 2 no.5 (1922), 371-88. DSB lists this article, but I cannot find such a journal.


Helmont, Johannes Baptista Van



1. Dates: Born: Brussels, 12 January 1579; Died: Vilvorde (Belgium), 30 December 1644; Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Gentry; Government Position; Helmont was from the Flemish landed gentry. His father, who died in 1580, was state counselor of Brabant. His mother, Marie de Stassart, was from a particularly illustrious Belgian family. Various indications in his biography make it clear that he grew up in circumstances that were affluent at the least.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium; Career: Belgium; Death: Belgium
4. Education: University of Louvan; M.D. His first course in the classics and philosophy was followed from 1594 by studies in a variety of subjects from geography to law. Upon the completion of his initial studies (astronomy, logic, geometry, algebra), Helmont refused to accept an M.A. because he felt that he had not learned anything. He studied under some Jesuits after refusing the M.A., but felt he did not learn anything from them either. He did, however, return to Louvian to earn an M.D. in 1599.
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1625 the General inquisition of Spain condemned 27 of Helmont's 'propositions' for heresy, impudent arrogance, and association with Lutheran and Calvinist doctrine. His treatise, De magnetica vulnerum, was impounded the following year. He was condemned by the Louvain Faculty in 1622-34 for adhering to Paracelsus. He was placed in ecclesiastical custody for 4 days in 1634, then transferred to the Minorite convent at Brussels. After several interrogations he was released but placed under house arrest. This was finally lifted in 1636, but church proceedings against him were not formally ended until 1642. Also in 1642 he obtained the ecclesiastic imprimatur for his treatise on fever, and in 1646 his widow received his official rehabilitation from the archbishop of Malines. Because of this pressure, Helmont published nothing from 1624-42.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Natural Philosophy; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; His published works include De magnetica vulnerum (Paris, 1621), Supplementum de spadanis fontibus (Liege, 1624), Opuscula medica inaudita (Cologne, 1644) and Ortus medicinae (Amsterdam, 1648).
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Helmont's mother was well endowed. However, around the age of twenty he turned over his personal holdings to his sister and formally renounced the privileges of his rank. Upon graduation Helmont was offered a well-endowed canonry, but he refused it. 1596, he lectured on surgery at the medical college of Louvain. 1599-1605, he toured Switzerland, Italy, France, and England. 1605, he practiced medicine during the plague in Antwerp. Although he was a physician, Helmont practiced for only a short time. After 1605 he refused on principle to practice medicine and profit from the suffering of others. He did treat people, but free of charge. In 1609, Helmont married Margarita Van Ranst, who was also from the Flemish landed gentry. This marriage made Helmont the manorial lord of Merode, Royenborch, Oorschot, and Pellines. The income from the estates supported his years of private research.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Helmont's life was virtually free of patronage, undoubtedly because of his personal means. He declined the offers from Ernst of Bavaria, the Archbishop of Cologne, and Emperors Rudolf II, Matthias, and Ferdinand II. In 1604 he was presented to the Queen of England, but there is no sign of patronage. Marie de' Medici appears to have intervened in the church proceedings again him. This is most assuredly one dimension of the system of patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: According to the Biographie nationale de Belgique Helmont was a Rosicrucian. Neither Yates nor other sources confirms this. 

SOURCES
Walter Pagel, 'The Life of Van Helmont in the Light of his Endeavor,' Chapter 1 of Johan Baptista Van Helmont: Reformer of Science and Medicine, (Cambridge, 1982). Biographie nationale . . . de Belgique, 8, 902-24. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 11, 703-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Paul Neve de Mevergnies, Jean-Baptiste van Helmont, philosophe par le feu, (Paris, 1935). G. des Marez, 'L'état civil de J.-B. van Helmont,' Annales de la Société d'archéologie de Bruxelles, 21 (1907), pp.107-123. H. de Waele, J.-B.van Helmont, (Brussels, 1947). A.-J. Mandon, 'J.B. van Helmont . . .' Mémoire médaillé par l'Académie Royale de Médicine de Balgique, (1886?), pp. 553-729. H. Stanley Redgrove, Joannes Baptista van Helmont: Alchemist, Physician and Philosopher, (London, 1922).


Henckel, Johann Friedrich



1. Dates: Born: Merseburg, Germany, 1 August 1678; Died: Freiberg, 26 January 1744 Datecode: - Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Physician; Government Position; His father was the town physician of Merseburg (from 1674). I assume prosperous.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Merseburg, Germany. Career: Freiberg, Germany. Death: Freiberg, Germany.
4. Education: Jen; University of Halle; M.D. 1685-1694, attended the Domschule, Merseburg. 1698, enrolled at the University of Jena to study theology, but switched to medicine. By 1709/1710, he was in Dresden, where he worked under the supervision of a physician involved in chemical research and opened his own practice. 1711, University of Halle, studying under G.E. Stahl. Received an M.D. (1711). I assume a B.A. or its equivalent along the line.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mineralogy; Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Medical Practioner; c. 1710, opened his own medical practice in Dresden before receiving his M.D. 1712-1730, practiced medicine in Freiberg, becoming district physician (1718), town physician (1721), and mine physician (1723). 1730, moved to Dresden. In 1732, he was appointed councilor of mines (Bergrat) at a handsome salary and with a substantial budget for investigating Saxony's mineral resources. c. 1732, he returned to Freiberg, where, with state help, he established a large laboratory for conducting his official duties, and also published and taught metallurgical chemistry. In 1737, he was appointed assessor at the chief mining office.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; He was favored by an influential noble (who is unnamed in the literature), when he resigned his posts in Freiberg and moved to Dresden. I assume this entailed getting Henckel the appointment as councilor. In recognition for his contributions to porcelain fabrication, he was named mining councilor to the elector of Saxony ('kurfuerstlich saechsischen Bergrath') by King August II.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Medical Practioner; He discovered useful processes in the fabrication of porcelain.
10. Scientific Societies: Berlin Academy; Lp. 1726, member of the Prussian academy of sciences. 1728, member of the Leopoldina. He used the leverage of a foreign offer, possibly from the St. Petersburg academy, to influence his appointment as a councilor.

SOURCES
Walther Fischer, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 8, 515a-16a. Guembel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 11, 760-1. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Walther Herrmann, 'Bergrath Henckel. Ein Wegbereiter der Bergakademie,' Freiberger Forschungshefte: Kultur und Technik, 37D (1962).


Henrion, Denis



1. Dates: Born: France, c. 1580; Died: France, c. 1640 (this is the DBF year; DSB gives c. 1632); Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 60
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Non 
5. Religion: Calvinist; (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His scientific activity was devoted mainly to private instruction and the translation into French of Latin mathematical texts. His first work, Mémoires mathematiques (1613), is a course in elementary mathematics for the use of the nobility. He translated Euclid's Elements and Data, and many other classical texts.
7. Means of Support: Engineer; Schoolmaster; He was an engineer in the army of prince of Orange before settling in Paris in 1607. According to one source (DBF) he was a professor of mathematics in Paris. NBG says merely that he taught mathematics in Paris and that there were many young nobles in his classes. This sounds more like it; I suspect that DBF was using 'professor' in a generic sense. If he had a university appointment, there would be records of it.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; He was an engineer in the army of the prince of Orange. While this could be patronage, without more information I choose not to list it. Those classes in mathematics for young aristocrats reek of patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Instruments; He was greatly interested in mathematical instruments and wrote a couple of treatises on such topics.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 24, 169-70.
Dictionnaire de biographie française, 17, 963-4. 


Herigone, Pierre



1. Dates: Born: apparently in France; date unknown; Died: France, c. 1643; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Non 
5. Religion: Unknown; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His only published work of any consequence is the Cursus mathematicus, a six-volume compendium of elementary and intermediate mathematics in French and Latin.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; He spent most of his life in Paris as a teacher of mathematics. He also served on a number of official committees dealing with mathematical subjects, notably the one appointed by Richelieu in 1634 for determining longitude from the moon's motion.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; This is the only reasonable interpretation of his membership on those committees.
9. Technological Connections: Nav. His work on the longitude committee.
10. Scientific Societies: He was no doubt a full member of the community of French mathematicians of the first half of the seventeenth century. With the other members of his committee for determining longitude from the moon's motion, Etienne Pascal, Mydorge, Beaugrand, J.C. Boulenger, and L. de la Parte, he became embroiled in the ensuing controversy with Morin. 

SOURCES:
B. Boncompagni's article in Bullettino di bibliografia e di storia delle sceinze matematiche e fisiche, 2 (1869), pp. 472-6. P. Tannery's article in Mémoires scientifiques, 10, (Paris, 1930), 287-9. Poggendorf, 1, 1076-7. Not in Nouvelle biographie générale or Dictionnaire de biographie française.
There is very little known about Herigone. 


Hermann, Jakob



1. Dates: Born: Basel, 16 July 1678; Died: Basel, 11 July 1733 Datecode: - Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Schoolmaster; His father was Germannus Hermann, rector of a school in Basel. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Germany; Italy; Ru, & Swiss; Swiss; Birth: Basel, Switzerland. Career: mostly in Germany, though he also spent a significant number of years in Italy and Russia, until he returned to Switzerland near the end of his career. Death: Basel, Switzerland. 
4. Education: University of Basel; M.A., D.D. Studied theology at Basel, receiving his B.A. (1695), his M.A. (1696), and passing his theological examination (1701). (This is ambiguous; I interpret it to mean a degree in theology.) He studied mathematics contemporaneously under Jakob I Bernoulli.
5. Religion: Calvinst (assumed); He was not comfortable living in Catholic Italy.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Mch
7. Means of Support: Academic; 1707-1713, occupied the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua. 1713-1724, he had a position (I am not certain what kind) at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder. 1724-1731, he was connected with the St. Petersburg academy, some sources call him the 'professor of higher mathematics.' He left finally with a pension of 200 Rubels. 1722, he received-by lottery-the professorship of ethics and natural law at Basel. He was bound to remain in St. Petersburg, so he arranged a substitute until he was able to return in 1731. 1731, assumed his chair at Basel.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; His most important patron was Leibnitz, who arranged his membership in the Berlin academy (1701), and his appointments at Padua (1707) and Frankfurt.a.d.O. While at St. Petersburg, Hermann gave instruction in mathematics to Peter the Great's grandson, the future Peter II.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Berlin Academy; Instit. Bologna; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1701, Berlin academy. 1708, Bologna academy. 1724, St. Petersburg academy. c. 1733, Paris academy.

SOURCES
Cantor, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 12, 181-2.

Not Consulted: Mercure suisse (Oct., 1733), 77-85; and (February 1734) - contain a eulogy and a list of publications.


Hernandez, Francisco



1. Dates: Born: near Toledo, c. 1517; Died: Madrid, 1587; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: University of Alcala; M.D. Studied medicine at University of Alcala. All things considered, I assume a B.A. Although there is no explicit reference or evidence, I cannot see how the rest of the career could have followed without an M.D.
5. Religion: Catholic by assumption; Jew; The family may have been Marranos
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Gog; He was a friend of Vesalius and followed his lead in dissecting. One of the early defenders of the lesser circulation. In Mexico City he experimented on the medicinal properties of the local drugs. He did his best to establish a Mexican pharmacology based on local plants. His translation of Pliny contains extensive geographical commentaries. During his final year in Mexico, he was in charge of the battle against the terrible epidemic, cocoliztle, that wiped out half of Mexico. He left an important clinical study of the disease.
7. Means of Support: medical practice, patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; Apparently began his career as physican to the Duke of Maqueda (near Toledo) for a brief time, then practiced several years in Seville. He occupied the most important medical position in Spain at that time, physician of the hospitals of the Monastery of Guadalupe. He was probably there in the late 60's. This position was virtually the antechamber to the royal chamber. He directed the botanical garden, and botanized in the area. Here also his anatomical studies. When he returned to Toledo apparently about 1567, he was in contact with the court; by about 1568 he became physician to the Chamber of the King. By order of Philip II, went to Mexico to study the flora and fauna, with particular attention to medicinal properties, 1570-77. While in Mexico he was protomedico for the colony.
8. Patronage: Court; The two pinnacles of Spanish medicine were the royal chamber and the office of protomedico, both of which he held (the latter for Mexico). Both positions salaried. The expedition to Mexico carried a salary of 2,000 ducats. He dedicated the translation (with commentary) of Pliny to Philip II; this work was not published during his life. When Hernandez returned to Spain, his friends at court were no longer in such influence, and Hernandez was rewarded for his herculean endeavors largely by indifference. His great natural history was not published as, of course, he had hoped. He left behind a revealing memorial to the court and a Latin poem to his friend Arias Montano. During his final years he was appointed physician to the young prince who became Philip III.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice and pharmacology; Hernandez learned the indian language and translated some of his materials into it because he was convinced the pharmacological information would be useful to them.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). German Somolinos d'Ardois, 'Vida y obra de Francisco Hernandez,' Obras completas, 1, (Mexico City, 1959-66). This is far and away the best source.


Heuraet, Hendrik van



1. Dates: Born: Haarlem, 1633; Died: c. 1660; Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 27; 
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Saumur; One of the few secure facts about Heuraet is that he enrolled in Leiden in March 1653 to study medicine. He also studied mathematics under Schooten with Huygens and Hudde. In 1658 we know that he was at the Protestant university in Saumur for a time. Although one seems probable, there is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist assumed
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; His only published work concerned the rectification of curves, in a letter to Schooten that was published in the second edition of Descartes's Geometria. The last mention of Heuraet is found in a letter of Huygens of December 1659.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; 
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. There is precious little information about Heuraet.


Heurne, Jan van



1. Dates: Born: Utrecht, 4 February 1543; Died: Leiden, 11 August 1601; Datecode: Lifespan: 58; 
2. Father: Aristocrat; Otto van Heurne. Some works say it was a prominent family; Lindeboom says a noble family. Note that Heurne married the daughter of a patrician. I think I am justified to list the father as an aristocrat. No explicit indication whatever of his financial situation, although it is suggestive that Heurne was able to spend ten years abroad as a student.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: Lou; Par; University of Padua; M.D. Beginning in 1561, he studied medicine in Louvain for two years. After three more years of study in Paris, he moved on to Padua in 1567. M.D. there in 1571. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic. Calvinist; He converted to Calvinism about the time when the Netherlands became Calvinist. He had to be Calvinist to hold a chair in Leiden.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; In the history of medicine he is known primarily for his advocacy of bedside teaching, which was rare then and unknown in the Netherlands. It was introduced in Leiden (under his son) half a century later.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Immediately after completing his medical education, he was for two years the personal physician to Francois Perrenot, the nephew (Lindeboom says brother) of Cardinal Granvelle. When Heurne converted to Calvinism, he left to return to the Netherlands. He practiced medicine in Utrecht from 1573 until 1581. I gather that he continued his practice after his move to Utrecht; he was known as one of the most prominent physicians in the Netherlands, whose patients included William and Maurice of Orange. In 1581 he was appointed professor of medicine at Leiden, a position he held until his death. He was Rector of the university during six separate years between 1583 and 1600.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; See the entries above. Recall as well that someone stood behind the appointment at Leiden.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
G.A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medical Biography. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 3, 205. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek.


Hevelius, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Danzig, 1611; Died: Danzig, 1687 Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: Merchant. Described as prosperous brewer and property owner. Clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German (as Danzig was); Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Leiden; no known degree; 1618-1624, Danzig Gymnasium. Then sent to a school at Gondeltsch, near Bromberg, to acquire fluency in Polish. In 1627, returned to Danzig Gymnasium and had private lessons from Peter Krueger, teacher of mathematics and astronomy, who saw to it that he got instruction in instrument making and engraving. 1630, went to Leiden to study jurisprudence.
5. Religion: Lutheran. An evangelische protestant-i.e., Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Int
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Personal Means; After a prolonged tour, visiting London (1631) and Paris (1632-1634), he was called home (1634) by his family. He worked at his father's brewery for a couple of years while studying the Danzig constitution with an eye toward public service. 1635, married Katharina Rebeschke, daughter of a wealthy citizen of Danzig. 1641, named an honorary magistrate. 1651, named ratsherr (city councillor). 1649, inherited father's brewery. 1663, married Catherina Elisabetha Koopman, daughter of a rich merchant.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Magistrate. The Danzig senate paid for one at least one of his larger instruments. The Machina Coelestis (1673) is dedicated to Louis XIV, who sent him a yearly grant (starting in 1663?). Jan III Sobieski, King of Poland, was probably his major patron. He gave Hevelius a yearly stipend of 1000 gulden (starting in 1667?).
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Hevelius was an accomplished instrument maker and engraver. He made several large telescopes and some of the last large open sighted instruments after designs by Tycho Brahe, for his observatory which he called 'Sternenburg' or 'Stellaeburg'. He also introduced the use of the vernier scale. He wrote a major two volume book on instruments, the Machina Coelestis (1673).
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Member of the Royal Society (1664). Was in contact with Usher, Wallis, Hartlib, Gassendi, and Boulliau.

SOURCES
Felix Schmeidler, 'Hevelius,' in Neue Deutche Biographie, 9 (Berlin, 1971), 59-61.   Brigham Young University Library, Johannes Hevelius and his Catalogue of Stars, (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1971).

Not Available and Not Consulted: A Seidemann, Johannes Hevelius. E.F. MacPike, Hevelius, Flamsteed, Halley.


Hiaerne [Hjarne], Urban



1. Dates: Born: Ingria (Sweden), 20 December 1641; Died: Stockholm, 10 March 1724; Datecode: Lifespan: 83
2. Father: Church Living; Hiaerne's father was a Lutheran minister in Ingria. He died when Hiaerne was twelve (1653). It is said that the family was poor and that Hiaerne had a hard childhood with seven siblings. Note however that Hiaerne is a name denoting nobility in Sweden and that Hiaerne had private tutors, at least before the death of his father. The evidence does not seem definite enough to conclude anything about the family's financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sweden; Career: Sweden; Death: Sweden
4. Education: University of Uppsala; Ang, M.D. At the age of five Hiaerne began to have private tutors. He went to Nyen (Leningrad) for what was called trivial school, where he studied logic, rhetoric, poetry and grammar, Swedish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian, and music. In 1655 he attended the high school (gymnasium) in Dorpat but had to leave after a few months because of financial problems. He went to Arva, where he studied until 1657, at which point he decided to go to the mainland (of Sweden) to study. He obtained a grant to attend the High School of Strangnas, one of the finest in Sweden. The Principal of the school, Gottschalk Traenus, patronised his studies. In the fall of 1658 he left for Uppsala. In the summer of 1659 he moved to Stockholm, where he worked as a teacher. At this point he decided to go into botany, chemistry and medicine. He began his medical education at the University of Uppsala in 1661, receiving private lessons from Z. Wattrang in medicine and from Olaus Bromelius in botany. He was trained in medicine by Rudbeck and Petrus Hoffwenius. He taught himself chemistry. He completed his studies in Uppsala before 1666. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. Having becoming personal physician to the governor-general of Livland, he was able to study abroad in Holland (where he came to know the prominent anatomist, Johannes van Horne), England, and France. Around 1669 he was in England. He took his degree in medicine at Angers in 1670. He also practiced surgery under Duverney. During three years of study in Paris with the famous Christopher Glaser, he learned a good deal of analytical and experimental chemistry. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. Lutheran/Pietist. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Iatrochemistry; Mineralogy; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Chemistry; Natural History; His contribution in applied chemistry included work on improved methods for producing alum and vitriols, and on rust preventatives. In the field of pure chemistry he worked on the problems concerning the formation of materials and the composition of bodies and ultimate particles. He is best known for his work on acid, which he produced through the distillation of ant specimens. He invented a varnish that kept wood from rotting. Hiaerne was nevertheless a convinced Paracelsian, and his work in chemistry was directed primarily toward vindicating Paracelsianism. He was a geologist and made an inventory of Sweden's minerals and natural resources (1702, 1706). This was his most interesting scientific accomplishment. He superintended the methods of mining and melting minerals. In 1682 he made a trip in Germany to study mines and melting-pots. For a long period Hiaerne was Sweden's leading authority in medicine. He developed some medicines, some of which he distributed among the poor in Stockholm.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Mis; He supported himself for a time, when he was young, by teaching. To support his university education, Hiaerne painted portraits; he also wrote numerous poems and plays, some of which were performed. In 1665 he became acquainted with Count Claes Tott, a military leader, at a performance of one of Hiaerne's tragedies. The literary impression, rather than his knowledge in medicine, led to his appointment as personal physician to Tott, when he went to Riga in 1666 as the governor-general of Livland. In Riga he apparently also had a private practice. In 1669 followed Tott on an embassy in Poland. Supported by Tott, he was able to go on the medical excursion through Europe: London, Paris, Angers (where he took the degree), Copenhagen. At some point he was an army physician for about a year. In 1674 he settled as a physician in Stockholm. His practice was very profitable; he primarily served the aristocracy. He was appointed Assessor of the Board of Mines on 17 October 1675. He was a member of the Commission Board in Stockholm that oversaw witch trials; Hiaerne was one of the most important agents in stopping the burning of witches in Sweden. He was physician at the spa in Medevi from 1678-82. He was appointed head of the Laboratorium Chemicum on 11 October 1683, and named ordinary assessor at the Board of Mines. He became the board's vice-president in 1713. He was appointed first physician to the King in 1684, and in 1696 he was given the title of archiater. In 1720 he resigned from the Board of Mines and became the governor of one of the provinces of Sweden. Hiaerne married three times and fathered no less than 26 children. He died a very wealthy man. His private library contained more than 3600 volumes, and he also owned a valuable mineral cabinet and several paintings.
8. Patronage: Academic; Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Court Patronage; He learned early how to get patrons, the first being the High School Principal, Gottschalk Traenus (whom I categorize here under Academic). Claes Tott and Jacob Stael (or Stahl, an important military figure associated with Tott) were important in Hiaerne's career. Stael had severe back troubles, and with him Hiaerne toured German spas in 1667, examining them to see if spas could be introduced into Sweden); He was enobled on 3 January 1689. He was appointed first physicain to the King in 1684, and was given the title of archiater.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Chemistry; Metallurgy; Hiaerne developed the first spas in Sweden. He was responsible for developing several medicines, and he practiced medicine. The Laboratorium chemicum was more involved in the production of medicines than anything else. He developed a varnish. He was on the Board of Mines (Assessor in 1683, Vice Preses, 1713) and made a trip into Germany to observe methods. See under Scientific Disciplines.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); 1675-1724; Royal Society (London); 1669-1724. He knew Borrichius in Copenhagen and Denis in Paris. See also the connections above. He was elected to the Collegium Medicum in 1675, and became president of the Collegium in 1696-1712.

SOURCES:
Olof Strandberg, Urban Hjarnes ungdom och diktning, (Stockholm, 1942). Svensk Uppslagsbok
Ake Akerstrom, 'Urban Hiärne's resa till Tyskland och Holland 1667,' Lychnos: (1937), pp. 187-211. Sten Lindroth, 'Hiärne, Block och Paracelsus. En redogorelse för Paracelsusstriden, 1708-1709,' Lychnos, (1941), pp. 191-229. Sten Lindroth, 'Urban Hiärne och Laboratorium Chymicum,' Lychnos, (1947), pp. 51-116. Olof Strandberg, [Contributions to the Biography of Urban Hiärne] in Swedish, Lychnos, 1 (1936), 208-15.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Tore Frängsmyr, Geologi och skapelsetro. Förställningar om jordens historia frän Hiärne till Bergman, (Uppsala, 1969).


Highmore [Heighmore], Nathaniel



1. Dates: Born: Fordingbridge, Hampshire, 6 February 1613; Died: Sherborne, Dorset, 21 March 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 72
2. Father: Church Living; Also Nathaniel Highmore, the father was (from the time his son was one year old) Rector of Purse Caundle, Dorset. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., M.D. Sherborne School. Oxford University; initially Queen's College, but Trinity after 1632; 1631-43; B.A., 1635; M.A., 1638; M.B., 1641; M.D., 1643 by royal mandate (though Highmore was actively studying toward that degree).
5. Religion: Anglican; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Embryology; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Medical Practioner; Corporis humani disquisitio anatomica, 1651, Highmore's most important work, was the first anatomical textbook to accept the circulation of the blood. In it he described the antrum of Highmore, which (obviously) still bears his name. The History of Generation, 1651, was the result of Highmore's collaboration with Harvey in Oxford. It contains references to a microscope, which he (in contrast to Harvey) may have used in embryology. This work also has important observations of plants. Both of his masjor works in 1651 contain a great amount of physiology. The Disquisitio clothes anatomy in the physiology of circulation. Highmore wrote a number of medical works-Discourse of the Cure of Wounds by Sympathy, 1651 (printed with History of Generation); De passione hysterica et de affectionae hypochondriaca, 1660 (a work which engaged Highmore in a controversy with Willis); Short Treatise . . . of Dysenteria, 1658; papers in the Philosophical Transcations (though Harvey was not a fellow), including one on the medicinal springs in East Somerset.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Medical practice, Sherborne, possibly beginning in 1643 but certainly by 1651, extending until his death in 1685.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He may have attended the young prince Charles during a bout of measles in 1642; he was certainly mandated to receive the M.D. in 1643. Highmore dediccated his Disquisitio, 1651 to Harvey (and apparently also to Boyle). I cannot find any favors those two men bestowed on him, and in this case I think the dedications should be regarded as expressions of admiration.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Harvey beginning in 1642. They had an agreement to publish the conclusions derived from their joint experiments in embryology, and they did. He knew many of the men who organized the Royal Society, but isolated in Dorset, he was not himself a member.

SOURCES
J. Elise Gordon, 'The Highmore family of Dorset,' Journal of the Sherborne History Society, 3 (1966), 2ff. _____, 'Nathaniel Highmore, Physician and Anatomist, 1614-1685,' The Practitioner, 196 (1966), 851-7. Alumni Oxonienses, 2, 708. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 829-30. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 165.  Geoffrey Keynes, Life of William Harvey, (Oxford, 1966). A.T.H. Robb-Smith, 'Harvey at Oxford,' Oxford Medical School Gazette, 9 (1957), 70-6. Robert G. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists: A Study of Scientific Ideas, (Berkeley, 1980), pp. 97-101.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J. Elise Gordon, 'Nathaniel Highmore,' Midwife and Health Visitor, 5 (1969), 364ff.


Hobbes, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Malmesbury, Wiltshire, 5 April 1588; Died: Hardwick, Derbyshire, 4 December 1679; Datecode: Lifespan: 91
2. Father: Church Living; Merchant; His father, also Thomas Hobbes, was Vicar of Westport (a part of Malmesbury). As a result of a quarrel and fight the father was forced to flee when Hobbes was seven, and he was really reared by an uncle who was a glover, i.e., a merchant. The father was clearly poor. The uncle was prosperous; since the uncle reared him, I list this.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; French; Death: English 
4. Education: Oxford University; A school at the house of Richard Latimer. Oxford University, Magdalen Hall (later Hertford College), 1603-8; B.A., 1608.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; Hobbes advanced a secular philosophy which insisted, inter alia, on the subjection of church to state. He was vigorously anti-clerical, and he was skeptical about the plenary truth of Scripture. Nevertheless, Hobbes remained within the Anglican Church and took its sacraments. Despite the label of atheist, which was freely applied to him, the exact extent of his heterodoxy is impossible to determine.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Hobbes composed De corpore, one of the early mechanistic natural philosophies, in the late 30s; it was ultimately published in 1655. His famous Leviathan put his political philosophy, which he saw as all of one piece with his natural philosophy, into English. At the very beginning of his philosophic career (which commenced rather late) Hobbes became fascinated with geometry. He made no contribution to mathematics, but he did gain notoriety for his claims to have squared the circle and duplicated the cube. The last twenty-five years of his life were filled with controversies, mostly with Wallis, over these claims. Optics was his deepest scientific interest. He early adopted a corpuscular theory of light, which he then changed to one that treated light as motion transmitted through a medium. He composed three treatises on optics, one of which Mersenne published in his Tractatus opticus. Much of De homine, 1658, was devoted to optics.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Hobbes' uncle left him a property worth ?16-18 per annum. Immediately after his B.A., he became a member of the household of the Cavendish family, as tutor and then secretary to the son of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, 1608-26, and then to his charge, the second Earl, 1626-8. With the death of the second Earl in 1628 there was a brief break, but he became tutor to the heir, the third Earl of Devonshire, grandson of William Cavendish, 1631-42. In 1653 he rejoined the household and remained a part of it, first in London and then in Derbyshire, until his death. Secretary to Bacon at his estate in St. Albans, exact dates uncertain, but undoubtedly in the 20s, probably for a brief time. Tutor and cicerone to the son of Sir Gervase Clinton of Nottinghamshire, 1628-31. This relation ended when the Cavendish family summoned him again. Lived in Paris, supported by Cavendish family and Godolphin, 1640-6. Hobbes' support in Paris is not wholly clear; he remained there until 1651, when he returned to England. Mathematics tutor to the Prince of Wales (Charles II), 1646-8. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Patronage of Government Official; He was the tutor of the Prince of Wales between 1646 and 1648. Charles was delighted with Hobbes' company, and after the Restoration he protected him and bestowed on him a pension of ?100 (which was not always paid). Hobbes dedicated Problematica physica, 1662, to Charles. In 1669 the Grand Duke of Tuscany visited Hobbes when he was in England; Hobbes dedicated Quadratura circuli to him. The family of Cavendish, Earls of Devonshire, were the main patrons of Hobbes. There is a story illustrative of patronage from his relations with the second Earl. Hobbes wrote a poem as a New Year's gift to him, and received ?5 in return. He dedicated his translation of Thucydides to the young heir in 1628, and later dedicated De cive, 1642, and De corpore, 1655, (and I suspect other works) to the same man, how his patron. In his old age Hobbes was receiving (in addition to his full keep) ?50 per annum from Cavendish, plus special gifts on such occasions as dedications. Sidney Godolphin bequeathed ?200 to Hobbes in 1643, and Hobbes dedicated Leviathan to his brother, Francis Godolphin. Sir Gervase Clinton (see above). Sir Henry Bennet (Lord Arlington after 1665), the Secretary of State, stood as Hobbes' protector against the numerous attacks on him during the Restoration.
9. Technological Connections: None 
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Mixed scientific circles in Paris and London: in his third journey to France and Italy in 1630s he met Galileo, Mersenne, Gassendi and Roberval and began his correspondence with them. In 1640-1 he frequented the circle presided over by Mersenne and through Mersenne he proposed his objections (the 6th) to Descartes' Meditations. Friendship with Harvey, Digby, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Ben Jonson, Lord Falkland, Gassendi, Sorbière, Waller, Edward Hyde (Clarendon), Selden, Petty, Sir Jonas Moore, Aubrey, Cowley, Scarborough, et al. Several sources indicate that Hobbes wanted very much to be part of the Royal Society, but he was excluded, undoubtedly for religious reasons.

SOURCES:
G. Croom Robertson, Hobbes, (Edinburgh, 1886). Ralph Ross, Herbert Schneider, and Theodore Waldman, eds., Thomas Hobbes in his Time, (Minneapolis, 1974). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 931-9. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2599-2622. Leslie Stephen, Hobbes, reprint ed. (Bristol, 1991). Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, cxxxvi; 3, 44-5, 1206-18. John Aubrey, Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. O.L. Dick, (London, 1949), pp. 147-59.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Keith C. Brown, ed., Hobbes Studies, (Cambridge, MA, 1965). William Sacksteder, Hobbes Studies (1879-1979): a Bibliography, (Bowling Green, OH, 1982). The extensive literature on Hobbes is devoted almost entirely to his thought; there is not all that much about his biography.


Hoffmann, Friedrich



1. Dates: Born: Halle, 19 February 1660; Died: Halle, 12 November 1742 Datecode: - Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Physician; Government Position; He was the son of Friedrich Hoffmann (1626-1675), a well-known municipal physician of Halle. In 1675, he lost his parents and a sister within a few days. By assumption prosperous.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Halle, Germany. Career: Halle, Germany. Death: Halle, Germany.
4. Education: University of Erfuhrt; University of Jena; M.D. He was taught at home, including anatomy and pharmacology, and from 1673, he attended the gymnasium. 1678-1680, University of Jena, studying medicine under Georg Wolfgang Wedel. 1680, University of Erfurt, studying chemistry. I assume the equivalent of a B.A. somewhere. 1680, returned to Jena, received his M.D. (1681). 1684, he embarked on an extended tour of Belgium, Holland, and England, studying medical methods.
5. Religion: Lutheran assumed
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Academic; 1681, he taught at Jena, but jealousy from the senior faculty led to his departure. 1681-1683, he was in Minden, where he had an 'official salaried position.' I presume this was related to medicine. 1684-1688, after returning from his European tour, he resumed his sucessful medical career. He was named garrison physician (1685), then councilor and provincial physician for Minden (1686). 1683-1693, provincial physician for Halberstadt. 1693, first professor of medicine at the University of Halle, charged with organizing the medical school. 1709-1712, court physician to Frederick I in Berlin. 1712-1734, back in Halle. 1734, summonded to treat Frederick William I for about 8 months. 1734, returned to Halle.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; His brother-in-law (whose name and occupation I have not discovered) was reportedly responsible for his first position in Minden (above). Frederick II, elector of Brandenburg, chose Hoffmann for the position at Halle (1693). Later, as King Frederick I of Prussia, he named Hoffmann a councilor (1703), and called him to be court physician in Berlin (1709). [Reverse Patronage] Hoffmann himself was given the honor of appointing the second professor of medicine at Halle. He chose his former fellow student, Georg Stahl. Owing to the recommendation of Boerhave, Frederick William I also summonded Hoffmann to the Prussian court for treatment (1734); after seeing him through his illness, Hoffmann departed, handsomely rewarded. Emperor Charles VI called Hoffmann to Carlsbad for a consultation.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine off and on through his career was quite successful at it.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Berlin Academy; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Lp; Member of the Leopoldina (1696), the Berlin Academy (1701), the Academy of Sciences of the Palatinate ('Ak. d. Wiss. Hopfalzgraf') (1727), the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg (1731 or 1735), and the Royal Society (1720).

SOURCES
A. Hirsch, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie?, 584-8. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte allerZeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). 3, 256-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: The best biography is evidently Johann H. Schulze, in Hoffmann's Opera Omnia, 1, i-xiv.


Homberg, Wilhelm



1. Dates: Born: Batavia, Indonesia, 3 January 1652; Died: Paris, 24 September 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Soldier; His father, from a noble family of Saxony, upon the loss of his property in the Thirty Years' War, entered the service of the Dutch East India Company as a soldier. Jaeger makes is clear that he was considerably more than a common soldier. He was in fact commander of the arsenal in Batavia. When Wilhelm was still a boy, his father returned to Amsterdam. No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: Indonesia-i.e., Dutch; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Jena, Leipzig, Padua, Wittemberg; M.D. His education was neglected before the family settled at Amsterdam. Later he studied law at Jena and Leipzig and was accepted as a practicing lawyer at Magdeburg in 1674. He was introduced to experimental physics by Otto von Guericke, and abandoned law for science. He studied medicine at Padua, worked with Boyle in England, studied anatomy under de Graaf in Holland, and took his M.D. at Wittenberg. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. He was from a protestant family (which I assume was Calvinist). In 1682 he was converted to Catholicism to please Colbert, and was promptly disinherited.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Botany; All Homberg's work was published in the form of Mémoires of the Académie royale des sciences (1692-1714), mainly on chemical subjects. He also published on pneumatics and botany.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Medical Practioner; After taking his M.D, he worked with Hiaerne in the chemical laboratory established in Stockholm by the king of Sweden. He then went to Paris, (no date is given, but from other evidence it had to be about 1681-2) where he was supported by Colbert. Upon the death of Colbert in 1683, he went to Rome to practice as a chemist and physician. He was appointed a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1691, and settled in Paris. In 1702 the Duke of Orleans gave him a pension and a laboratory. 1704, premier médecin to the Duke d'Orleans.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Colbert, French stateman, controller general of finances, supported Homberg from c. 1681-2 until his death in 1683. After the death of Colbert, he became linked to the Abbé de Chalucet, later Bishop of Toulon, who was interested in chemistry. In Rome he was particularly linked to Marc-Antoine Celeo, a Roman gentleman. Abbé Bignon engineered his appointment to the Académie in 1691. Abbé du Bois was responsible for Homberg's position with the Duke of Orleans. Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, in 1702 gave him a pension and a laboratory, and bought him a burning mirror made by Tschirnhausen. In 1704 Homberg was wooed by the Elector of the Palatinate, but he chose to remain the the Duke d'Orleans. In 1704 he was named primary physician to the Duke but could not accept the position because it was incompatible with the rules of the Académie. Louis XIV granted him an exception so that he was able to hold both position.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; Pharmacology; Medicine; Instruments; In addition to his work of chemistry, part of which had a practical bent, he developed a new sedative. Homberg made his own microscopes and his own pneumatic machine. Apprently he developed the split ring socket tripod support for the microscope. More importantly, he made an instrument to measure the specific gravity of fluids.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1691-1715. 

SOURCES
F.M. Jaeger, 'Willem Homberg. (1652-1715),' in HistorischeStudin. Bijdragen tot de kennis van de geschiedenis der natuurwetenschappen in de nederlanden gedurende de 16e en 17e eeuw, (Groningen, 1919), pp. 171-97. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, 'Éloge,' in Histoire et mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences, 1715. Hélène Metzger, Les doctrines chemiques en France, (Paris, 1923), passim, see esp. pp.340ff. QD18.F8M58. Nouvelle biographie générale. J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s). [Lilly]
Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Silvio A. Bedini, 'Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes,' Physis, 5, (1963), 383-422.


Hooke, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 18 July 1635; Died: London, 3 March 1703; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Church Living; John Hooke was a minister, curate of Freshwater; he died in 1648. No fully clear information on financial status. I am tempted to guess. Curates were notoriously underpaid, and Hooke was apparently left without much when his father died. However, a dead father is a different affair from a living one, and I see enough uncertainty that I will mark financial status as unknown.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Westminster School, 1648; Oxford University, Christ Church, 1658. He was initially a chorister and then a servitor. Hooke did not take a B.A. He was nominated for the M.A. by Lord Clarendon, the Chancellor of the university, 1663; I am not going to list it. M.D. at Doctors' Commons, 1691-this also by patronage, and not listed.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption more than by evidence.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Microscopy; Mechanics; Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Geology; Pharmacology; Hooke's first publication was a pamphlet on capillary action in 1661. Micrographia, 1665, the first important set of observations with the microscope, included a theory of light. Later Hooke delivered a series of lectures on light to the Royal Society. He was the first one to publish the phenomena of thin films and with the phenomena the suggestion that they were periodic. Lectiones cutlerianae state the law of elasticity that still bears Hooke's name, and the suggestion that a vibrating string is dynamically equivalent to a pendulum. In another of the lectures he proposed the reform in the understanding of circular motion (substituting a force toward the center for one away from it), and with his he also proposed a celestial dynamics based on that principle. He was very important in the development of all sorts of instruments, not only the microscope, and his writings on method stress the importance of instruments as aids to the senses. 'Lectures and Discourses of Earthquakes,' which were spread over a period of thirty years, make Hooke a major figure in early geology, especially in regard to fossils and to crystals. Micrographia also contained a theory of combustion with the analogy to respiration. Hooke performed experiments about respiration on dogs for the Royal Society. Hooke ranged very widely and could be listed as well under a number of other sciences. He did a fair bit of astronomical observation; he was the first to infer the rotation of Jupiter. He tried to observe parallax. He wrote a discourse on comets. Physics (here subsumed under Mechanics), Natural Philosophy, Meteorology (he has been called the founder of meteorological science), and Music (to which he devoted attention, at the theoretical as well as practical level, throughout his life) would also be valid entries.
7. Means of Support: Scientific Organization; Government Official; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Engineer; Miscellaneous; Inherited ?100 from his father in 1648. However, this money apparentlty went for a short-lived apprenticeship. Hooke was in Boyle's employ from 1657-62. His first publication came during this time, and he dedicated it to Boyle. Apparently Boyle continued to pay him until 1664, when he had gained sufficient means of support. Curator of experiments of the Royal Society, 1662-77, ?30/year plus the privilege of lodging at Gresham College. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1677-82. Surveyor to reestablish property lines and to supervise the rebuilding, 1666-76. Keynes asserts that he was Wren's paid deputy during the rebuilding. Professor of geometry at the Gresham College, 1665-, ?50/year. Lecturer on mechanics (Cutlerian Lectures), 1664- , ?50/year-but he had trouble collecting this money and had to take Cutler to court. I list this as patronage. Hooke was employed as an architect by a number of private patrons, including Boyle's sister, Lady Ranelagh. I categorize this under Engineering.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Government Official; Court Patronage; Gentry; Ecc; Boyle especially was Hooke's patron, beginning in the period at Oxford. The relation verges on mere employment, but Hooke's dedication of his first book to Boyle, together with Boyle's continued support of him in London until Hooke had gained sufficient income and Boyle's contribution to his observing turret, all incline me to consider the relation as patronage. Together with Willis, Boyle recommended Hooke to the Royal Society, and from this time Hooke's experimental studies in physics received support from the Royal Society,; Lord Clarendon nominated him for an M.A. in 1663. Hooke dedicated Micrographia to Charles II. He dedicated the first Cutlerian lectures (An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth, 1674) to Sir John Cutler. He dedicated the sixth (Lectures and Collections, 1678) to Sir Joseph Williamson, then President of the Royal Society). He was created a doctor of physic at Doctors' Commons by a warrant from Archbishop Tilloston in 1691. 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Architecture; Navigation; Cartography; Mechanical Devices; Scientific instruments: Modern air pump, wheel barometer, double barometer, the anchor escapement of clocks, spring driven watches, marine barometer, arithmetic machine, the first Gregorian telescope. Optical instruments, especially the microscope. He also developed a micrometer and applied telescopic sights to surveying instruments. His contributions to instrumentation go on and on-suggested the freezing point of water as the zero point on the thermometer; proposed a weather clock to record barometric pressure, temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind velocity on a rotating drum; proposed an equatorial quadrant; a number of different scales; a number of levels; a depth-sounding machine; a refractometer to measure the index of refraction of liquids; surveying instruments, a way-wiser attached to a carriage to measure distances. Some of the instruments shade into mechanical devices-the first dividing engine, the first spiral gear (to adjust the setting of telescopes), the universal joint, the iris diaphragm, a lense grinding machine. In addition there were purely mechanical devices-a variety of carriages, a windmill that would turn itself to the wind, a new type of horizontal sail for windmills, a springy saddle, an air gun. His work on watches always had navigation, the determination of longitude, as its purpose. Involved in the work of rebuilding London city after the Great Fire as a surveyor and architect-list this as architecture and cartography. He was architect of the Royal College of Physicians, Bethlehem (Bedlam) Hospital, the Monument, and a number of private houses including Montague House. He probably did a map of the polar regions for Pitt's English Atlas. He shared in the cartographical schemes of John Ogilby and John Adams.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: close friendship with Christopher Wren, 1666-1702; relationship (usually hostile) with Newton; relationship with Boyle and Willis; friendship with Halley, Christopher Cock and Papin, intimate relationship with Harry Hunt, whom he treated like a son, intimate friendship with Aubrey. Royal Society, 1662-1702; Curator of experiments, 1662-77; Secretary, 1677-82.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 1177-81. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2652-63. John Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, facsimile ed. (New York, 1967), pp. 169-93. Margaret 'Espinasse, Robert Hooke, (London, 1956). John Aubrey, Brief Lives, 1, 409-16. R.S. Westfall, Introduction, Posthumous Works, reprint ed. (New York, 1969). Richard Waller, 'The Life of Dr. Robert Hooke,' Posthumous Works, (London, 1705). E.N. da C. Andrade, 'Robert Hooke,' Procedings of the Royal Society, 201A (1950) 439-73. _____, 'Robert Hooke, F.R.S. (1635-1703),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 137-45. Robert McKeon, 'Le debut de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 244-5 and 14, 229-30. Michael Hunter and Simon Schaffer, eds. Robert Hooke: NewStudies, (Woodbridge, England, 1989). J.A. Bennett, 'Robert Hooke as Mechanic and Natural Philosopher,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 35 (1980-1), 33-48. Geoffrey Keynes, A Bibliography of Dr. Robert Hooke, (Oxford, 1960). Penelope Gouk, 'The Role of Acoustics and Music Theory in the Scientific Work of Robert Hooke,' Annals of Science, 37 (1980), 573-605.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: E.G.R. Taylor, 'Robert Hooke and the Cartographical Projects of the Late Seventeenth Century,' Geographical Journal, 9 (1937), 529-40. W.S. Middleton, 'The Medical Aspect of Robert Hooke,' Annals of Medical History, 9 (1927), 227-43.


Horne, Johannes van



1. Dates: Born: Amsterdam, a few days before 2 September 1621. Died: Leiden, 5 January 1670. Datecode: Lifespan: 49; 
2. Father: Merchant; Jacob van Horne, descended from a rich Flemish family of merchants who moved north with the Reformation. The father was one of the first Directors of the Dutch East India Company, and one of the great merchants of Amsterdam. Clearly the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: University of Leiden; Utr; University of Padua; M.D. Horne matriculated in Leiden in 1636 and there discovered medicine which became his field. He continued his medical education in Utrecht, and went from there to Italy and Padua where he completed his M.D. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent along the way. Horne was a student abroad for six years; he visited quite a string of universities (Naples, Montpelier, Basel, et al.) before he returned home. The implication is that he was not a student, but solely a visitor, at these other universities.
5. Religion: Calvinist; He could not have held that position in Leiden otherwise.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy. Subordinate Disciplines: Surgery; Although primarily interested in anatomy, Horne later lectured and published on surgery. He was the first to describe the ductus chyliferus in man. He prepared a anatomical atlas which was never published. He investigated the ovaries with Swammerdam. His introduction to anatomy was translated from its original Latin into Dutch, German, and French.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Academic; The limited biographical literature on Horne does not explicitly mention his personal wealth (from his father), but his support of Swammerdam for at least a year cannot have come from his academic salary. Upon his return to the Netherlands, Horne asked permission to give anatomical demonstrations at Leiden. (Note the premise of sufficient personal means in this request.) Soon thereafter he was appointed extraordinary professor of anatomy in 1651, and upon the death of the ordinary professor he was appointed professor of anatomy and surgery in 1653. His salary with his first appointment was 400 guilders; it rose over the years to 1000. I did not find reference to medical practice.
8. Patronage: Unknown; Someone had to stand behind the appointments in Leiden. Given his family connections, one can readily imagine the influence, but no name is mentioned explicitly.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
G.A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medicald Biography. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 3, 300.


Horrebow, Peder Nielsen



1. Dates: Born: Loegstoer, Denmark, 14 May 1679; Died: Copenhagen, 15 April 1764 Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Mis; The family were poor fishermen. Poor.
3. Nationality: Denmark; Denmark; Denmark; Birth: Loegstoer, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; M.A., M.D. Being extremely poor, he worked his way through grammar school. 1703, University of Copenhagen. Ole Roemer made him his assistant in astronomy. From the rest I assume B.A. 1716, M.A., University of Copenhagen. 1725, M.D., University of Copenhagen.
5. Religion: Lutheran 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics; Nav 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Patronage; Government Official; In school he repaired mechanical and musical instruments and cut seals. He was quite gifted in these activities and was able to support himself. He was Ole Roemer's assistant for four years (1703-7). He lived in Roemer's home. 1707-11, household tutor to Baron Fredrik Krag at Stensballegaard in Jutland. 1711, took modest governmental position as excise writer (some sort of position with the tax inspector). 1714, professor of mathematics and director of the observatory, University of Copenhagen. Apparently he remained in this position for the rest of his life. Roemer had died in 1710; perhaps he no longer held those positions, for a Lars Schive, who died in 1711, was the incumbent. Horrebow had great trouble obtaining the post because he was the son of a poor fisherman and a minor civil servant who had not travelled abroad and knew very little German. He appealed repeatedly to the king, sending him samples of his work and was finally rewarded. 1720, academic notary (academischer Notarius). 1722, member of the university Consistorium. 1725, M.D. He had been practicing medicine since 1719; the degree made the practice legitimate.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; After having worked for Roemer, Horrebow was extremely loyal, and devoted much of the later part of his life to describing Roemer's scientific acheivements after a fire which destroyed all his papers and observations in 1728. Without the favor of the king, he would not have been appointed professor and director of the observatory. He received a special grant of 300 rdl from the government to repair the observatory and instruments after the fire. Horrebow's own papers and instruments were destroyed in the fire of 1728. A patron, Vincents Lerche, a wealthy government official, gave him books, allowed him access to Lerche's library, and had the planet machine in the observatory repaired.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Scientific Instruments; Medical Practioner; Wrote on navigation. He invented a way to determine a place's latitude from the stars. The method was soon forgotten despite its value until it was reinvented by the American astronomer Andrew Talcott in 1833. The method now bears both names. He learned how to correct inherent flaws in instruments long before Tobias Mayer introduced his theory of correction in 1756. He did in fact practice medicine in order to support his twenty children.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); BA. Member of the Académie (1725), the Berlin academy (date uncertain), and Videnskabernes Selskab (Society of Scientists in Denmark) in 1747.

SOURCES
C.J. Bougine, Handbuch der allgemeine Literatur-Geschichte (Zurich, 1789). Kr.P. Moesgaard, 'Horrebow,' Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 6 (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1979), 573-74 1979 v.6]. V. Ingerslev, Denmarks Laeger og Laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-4), pp. 161-4.


Horrocks [Horrox], Jeremiah



1. Dates: Born: Toxteth, near Liverpool, 1619. Some sources say 1618, on the basis of information (which is not conclusive) that Horrocks had passed his twenty-second birthday. Died: Toxteth, 3 January 1641; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 22
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; The father was a small farmer. Horrocks went to Cambridge as a sizar. He was impoverished all of his brief life. I think we have to say that the father was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University; Cambridge University, Emmanuel College, 1632-5; no degree. By his own testimony Horrocks found no instruction in mathematics at Cambridge, and had to teach himself.
5. Religion: Calvinist; The connection with Emmanuel certainly suggests a Puritan.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Horrocks managed to obtain a small telescope. His observations convinced him that Lansberg's tables were incorrect. He accepted Kepler's elliptical orbits, and in working on the moon he applied an elliptical orbit to it and established that the line of apsides precessed, an effect which he ascribed to the influence of the sun. Horrocks predicted and observed a transit of Venus in 1639, the first one ever observed, and from the observation he corrected the solar parallax, indicating a much greater distance of the sun than anyone before him had admitted. He developed a celestial dynamics, related to Kepler's but not identical to it, which employed concepts from terrestrial dynamics.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Probably he held a curacy in Hoole, 1639-40. This information, itself uncertain, is all we known about his life after he left Cambridge.
8. Patronage: None Known; No evidence has been found. It is probable that the curacy in Hoole involved patronage, but we know nothing about it.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Apparently Horrocks made his own telescope, and he developed projection techniques that enabled him to view the sun.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: intimate friendship and correspondence with William Crabtree. 

SOURCES: S.B. Gaythorpe, 'Horrocks' Observations of the Transit of Venus, 1639 November 24 (O.S.),' Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 47 (1936-7), 60-8; 64 (1953-4), 309-15.  Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the 17th Century, the letters of Wallis, Flamsteed and Newton on Horrocks, 2, 108-20, 338. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 9, 1267-9. Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982). V. Barocas, 'Jeremiah Horrocks (1619-1641),' Journal of the Britian Astronomical Association, 79 (1968-9), 223-6. H.C. Plummer, 'Jeremiah Horrocks and his Opera posthuma,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 3 (1940-1), 39-52. W.F. Spaulding, 'A Country Curate,' Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 12 (1971), 179-82. E.C. Watson, 'An Interesting Tercentenary,' Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 51 (1939), 305-14. Mostly a long quotation from Horrocks' Venus in sole visa.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.B. Whatton, 'Memoir of the Life and Labours of the Reverend Jeremiah Horrocks,' in Horrocks, Transit of Venus across the Sun, tr. Arundell B. Whatton, (London, 1859). S.B. Gaythorpe, 'Jeremiah Horrocks: Date of Birth, Parentage and Family Associations,' Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 106 (1954), 23-33.
There is extremely little information about Horrocks' life, and I wasted my time in reading all of these accounts which repeat the same meager budget from each other. If you can get hold of Chapman it is by far the best. [See the work of Wilbur Applebaum].


Hortensius, Martinus [Ortensius or Van den Hove, Maarten]



1. Dates: Born: Delft, 1605; Died: Leiden, 7 August 1639 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 34
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Dutch; Dutch; Dutch; Birth: Delft, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Leiden, Netherlands
4. Education: University of Leiden; Studied mathematics with Beeckman and Snel. 1625-7, he engaged in astronomical observation at Leiden though he was not enrolled. He received instruction from Snel. 1628-1630, at Leiden and Ghent, inscribed as a student. Beeckman introduced him to Philip van Landsbergen, whose pupil he became. Apparently he never received a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Nav; After Snel's death, Hortensius completed and published his final work. He lectured on optics at Amsterdam in 1635, and he lectured on navigation in 1637.
7. Means of Support: Academic; 1634, lectured on mathematics at Amsterdam Atheneum, an institution just established. He was enclouraged to apply for this position by Gerard Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus. 1635, full professor `in the Copernican theory.'; 1639, nominated professor at Leiden, but died shortly after.
8. Patronage: Governmental official, Aristocracy. He dedicated a work of 1631 to Abraham van der Meer, Senator in the States of Holland. In 1634 he was planning to dedicate a work on the diameter of the sun to Fabri de Peiresc, but it was never finished. He dedicated his lectures on optics in 1635 to a Polish nobleman, Rozdrazewsky.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Instruments; 1638, a member of the commission negotiating with Galileo on the determination of longitude by the method of the satelites of Jupiter. Also lectured on navigation. He developed a method for measuring the diameters of planets based on the measured visual angle that his telescope embraced.
10. Scientific Societies: Collaborated with Philip van Lansberge. Corresponded with Descartes, Mersenne, Gassendi, Huygens, Galileo, and Crueger, Fabri de Peiresc, Schikard.

SOURCES
C. de Waard, 'Hortensius,' Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch Woordenboek, 1, (Leiden, 1911), cols. 1160-4. [ref. CT1143.M72 v.1]; Robert McKeon, 'Le debuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 230.


Hudde, Jan



1. Dates: Born: Amsterdam, April or May 1628. He was baptized on 23 May. Died: Amsterdam, 15 April 1704 Datecode: Lifespan: 76; 
2. Father: Merchant; Aristocrat; Gerrit Hudde, a merchant and patrician. Considering Hudde's career, the father must have been affluent at the very least, and Hudde must have inherited an adequate estate.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: University of Leiden; He studied law in Leiden about 1648. Here he met mathematics through Schooten. There is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist by assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; His contribution to mathematics came entirely during the years 1654-63. There is no evidence that he did any further work in mathematics after 1663. He was also interested in optics. He produced microscopes with spherical lenses and worked with Spinoza on the construction of telescopic lenses. His correspondence with Spinoza indicates that he composed a Dioptrica.
7. Means of Support: Personal means, Magistrate; After 1663 Hudde devoted himself to the service of Amsterdam as a member of the city council, a juror, and chancellor. He was chosen one of four Burgomaters in 1672, and held the office as often as the law allowed (two years out of three) until his death. He was also Chancellor and deputy of the admiralty. Hudde was influential enough to determine academic appointments in Leiden and Amsterdam.
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; See above. He worked on the calculation of the value of annuities, and he composed an essay on the calculation of the burden of a ship.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Karlheinz Haas, 'Die mathematischen Arbeiten von Johann Hudde (1628-1704) Bürgermeister von Amsterdam,' Centaurus, 4 (1956), 235-84. 


Huygens, Christiaan



1. Dates: Born: The Hague, 14 April 1629; Died: The Hague, 8 July 1695 Datecode: Lifespan: 66; 
2. Father: Government Official; the very highest government official in the United Provinces. Manifestly wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: The Hague, Netherlands; Career: France, Netherlands; Death: The Hague, Netherlands
4. Education: University of Leiden; 1637-1643, educated privately at home by father and private tutors. 1644, tuition in mathematics by Stampioen. 1645-1647, studied law and mathematics (privately with Frans Van Shooten), University of Leiden. According to Bell, he finshed the law course (does this imply a B.A.? Until I find otherwise, I think not.); 1647-1649, studied law at Collegium Auriacum, Breda. 1655, bought a doctorate in law in Angers.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mathematics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Official; 1649, member of a diplomatic mission to Denmark. 1650-1666, having trained for diplomatic service, and then facing the fact of no stadholder after 1650, Huygens lived at home with an allowance from his father. 1666-1681, a paid member (from 1667, 6000 livres salary) of the Académie, living at the Bibliotheque Royale. (According to the scheme I have established, correctly I think, I call this a governmental position.); 1681-1695, after Huygens initially returned home because of illness, political pressures suggested he should stay, and he did for the rest of his life, living off income from family property.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; His family had a long tradition of service to the Orange stadholders. 1650-1672, there were no stadholders. When William III was reinstated in 1672, his father and brother got prominent positions, which caused some uncertainty for Huygens in France. 1664, received his first gratuity (1200 livres) from Louis XIV. In 1665, he recieved a French patent for the longitude clock and another gratuity (1500 livres) from Louis XIV. Though he was initially approached to join the Académie by Thevenot, Colbert emerged as his real protector and sponsor at the Académie. After war broke out in 1672, Huygens stayed at the Académie under his protection, and when he died while Huygens was in Holland in 1683, Huygens did not feel it safe to return to France.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Navigation; 1654-, ground lenses and built telescopes and microscopes. 1655, gave advice to the Dutch States General on measuring longitude at sea. 1655, invented pendulum clock, built several for the purpose of longitude determination, and sent them on sea trials (1662 & 1686). 1664 (Dutch) and 1665 (French), patents for longitude clock. He developed a diaphragm placed inside a telescope near the focus and used it with a pendulum that counted time to measure celestial angles. He also inserted a wedge shaped piece at the focus to cover a planet, in effect a micrometer.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1663, member of Royal Society. 1666, paid member of Académie. Corresponded with Mersenne, Gregory of St. Vincent, Wallis, Van Shooten, Sluse, Leibnitz, Roemer, Pascal, Fermat, Boulliau, and Oldenburg.

SOURCES
H.J.M. Bos, et al., eds., Studies on Christiann Huygens (Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., 1980).  A.E. Bell, Chritiaan Huygens and the Development of Dutch Science in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1947). [Q143.H96 B4]; Robert McKeon, 'Le debuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 236-41.

Not Available Soon Enough to be Consulted: 'Huygens' in Pierre Costabel and Minette Martinet, Quelques savants et amateurs de science au XVIIe siècle, (Paris, 1986). 




Scientific Revolution - Westfall - DSB - Catalogue - RSW-DSB-RAH - Scientific Revolution


Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

BACK - HOME