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Gagliardi, Domenico


1. Dates: Born: Rome, c. 1660; Died: Rome, c. 1725. These are Olagüe's dates; they differ from those in DSB. His work is more recent, and it appears authoritative. Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 65
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Sapienza (Rome); M.D. This is not really known; it is the assumption of the authorities on Gagliardi. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Mcr; His name is especially connected with anatomy, particularly the skeletal system, which he summarized in Anatomes ossium novis inventis illustrata (1689). The book contains the first description of a case of what was presumably tuberculosis of the bone. He carried out morphological and microscopic investigations on human bones, using chemical reagents in order to bring out the fine structure. In 1720 he did a close study of the pneumonia epidemic raging in Rome. His study was anatomicopathological in approach and based on carefully conducted autopsies. The study led to his Relazione de' male di petto, 1720. He also published other medical works.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Government Position; There is little or no information on his life. The scanty information provided by biographers indicates that he was a professor at the University of Rome, but his name did not appear in the rotoli. He was also the protomedico of the Papal States, and of Rome in particular, a function in some measure similar to that of a chief provincial doctor. Gagliardi was also the dean of the physicians at the hosptial of Santo Spirito.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Medical Practioner; The entry 'Ecc' assumes that someone moved his appointment as protomedico. Gagliardi dedicated his Relazione to Sinibaldo Doria, Supervisor of the Hospital of Santo Spirito in Rome. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He was a member of the Medical College of Rome. 

SOURCES
Guillermo Olagüe de University of Rostock; 'La Relazione de' Male di Petto di Domenico Gagliardi (Ca. 1660 - Ca. 1735) en el ambiente anatomoclinico romano,' Dynamis 3 (1983), 289-302. Mario Radelli, 'La Anatome ossium di Domenico Gaglirdi,' Physis, 2 (1960), 223-31. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la medecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39), 2, 426-7. The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes. 
Not a great deal is known about Gagliardi apart from his publications. 


Galilei, Vincenzio



1. Dates: Born: Firenze, c. 1520; Died: Firenze; buried on 2 July 1591; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Aristocrat; Michelangelo Galilei was from a Florentine patrician family. Vincenzio himself married into a Pisan patrician family. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; He began his study in music at Florence about 1540. After establishing his reputation as a lutenist, he studied at Venice under Gioseffo Zarlino probably about 1561-1562. There is no mention of a university or of a degree, either of which would have been irrelevant to one of his position and calling.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Music; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; His principal theoretical work, Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna, published at Florence in 1581, attacked the prevailing basis of musical theory. In his Discorso (1589) he employed experimental results to show that the traditional association of numbers with particular musical intervals was capricious. The qualities of intervals had to be determined by the ear. He stated the law that a given musical interval between similar strings is produced either by different lengths proportional to the interval, or by tensions that vary as the squares of the intervals when the length stays constant. This was probably the first mathematical law of physics to have been derived by systemetic experimentation.
7. Means of Support: Music; Patronage; Schoolmaster; Before 1561, he had established himself as a lutenist. It is clear that he gave lessons throughout his life-to the patricians in Bardi's circle (the Camerata), then to people of similar class in Pisa between 1562 and 1570, and again in Florence after that. In the latter period he composed a Compendio della theorica della musica. In 1578 or 79 he visited the court of the Duke of Bavaria, but I found no further information about this trip. It seems clear that he was the client of Count Giovanni Bardi, who was deeply interested in music, and at whose home a sort of academy, the Camerata, gathered.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; His patron, Count Giovanni Bardi, sent Galilei to Venice to study musical harmony under Zarlino, and then to Rome to learn about Greek music from Girolamo Mei, and at some time Bardi also sent him to Messina and Marseille, again in pursuit of musical learning.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Galilei was part of the circle, or academy, the Camerata, that gathered in Bardi's home. Galilei corresponded with the humanist Girolamo Mei, whom he also visited in Rome, on questions of musical theory. (See C. Palisca, ed., Girolamo Mei, Letters on Ancient and Modern Music, 1960). Galilei carried on a polemic, which lasted from 1578 until nearly his death, on the rules of harmony.

SOURCES:
Claude Palisca, 'Vincenzo Galilei', in F. Blume, ed., Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 4, (Kassel-Basel, 1955), cols. 1265-70. ML100 .B67. Music Library. _____, 'Scientific Empiricism in Musical thought', in H.H. Rhys, ed., Seventeeth Century Science and the Arts, (Princeton, 1961), pp.91-137. S. Drake, 'Vincenzio Galilei and Galileo', in Galileo Studies, (Ann Arbor., Mich., 1970), pp.43-62. _____, 'Renaissance Music and Experimental Science,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 31 (1970), 483-500.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: F. Fano, 'La camerata fiorentina,' Istitutioni e monumenti dell'arte musicale italiani, 4, (Milano, 1934). H. Martin, 'La 'Camerata' du Comte Bardi et la musique florentine du XVIe siècle,' Revue de musicologie, 13 and 14 (1932 and 33). A Favaro, 'Ascendenti e collaterali di Galileo Galilei,' Archivio storico italiana, ser. 5, 47 (1971).


Galilei, Galileo



1. Dates: Born: Pisa, 15 February 1564; Died: Arcetri, immediately outside of Florence, 8 January 1642; Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Musician; Merchant; Vincenzio Galilei was descended from a Florentine patrician family. He himself was a distinguished musician. He was not an economic success. He died leaving his oldest son (Galileo) with heavy financial responsibilities but no assets. Financial stringency forced the father into commerce and made him move to Pisa, where Galileo was born. Everything is relative. I cannot see that Galileo grew up impoverished for all the talk of his father's lack of success. I list the financial position as unknown.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Pisa; As a boy he was tutored in Pisa. The family returned to Florence about 1575, and Galileo went to the school of the monastery at Vallombrosa. He entered the order as a novice in 1578, but did not pursue the clerical life. He enrolled in Pisa in 1581 as a medical student, but left without a degree. Galileo was attracted to mathematics and studied it under Ostillio Ricci in 1583. After he left Pisa, he studied mathematics privately.
5. Religion: Catholic. It is known to everyone that Galileo was denounced to the Inquisition in 1615 and that he was tried and condemned by the Inquisition in 1633, living the rest of his life under house arrest. All of this was for Copernicanism, not for any heretical theological views.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mechanics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Natural Philosophy; I won't try to list many details of a scientific career that is very well known. De motu while at Pisa; Le mechaniche in the early 90's; work on motion during the first decade of the 17th century, with the composition of a treatise; the Discorsi in 1638. Telescopic observations, together with some thought on light and sight beginning in 1609. Il saggiatore, a work of many dimensions, including method and natural philosophy in general. The Dialogo, far and away the leading polemic for the Copernican system, in 1632. The dispute on floating bodies, 1611-12.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: Instruments; During 1585-9 Galileo gave lessons in mathematics in Florence and Siena. 1588, applied unsuccessfully for the chair in mathematics at Bologna. 1589, appointed to the chair in mathematics at Pisa; there until 1592. 1592, appointed to the chair in mathematics at Padua; there until 1610. In Padua he gave private instruction in military engineering, mechanics, and astronomy, and made his home into a hostel for his students. While in Florence he continued to give private lessons-e.g., Guiducci and the two Arrighetti; there is no reason to think those three exhaust the number. While in Padua he produced his geometric and military compass and other instruments for sale. Before he returned permanently to Florence, Galileo came back during several summers to instruct the crown prince in mathematics. 1610, appointed Mathematician and Philosopher to the Grand Duke Cosimo II, with a stipend of 1000 scudi. He was also professor of mathematics at Pisa, without obligation to teach or to reside in Pisa, and in fact his annual stipend came from the budget of the university. Nevertheless I treat this as patronage rather than an academic appointment. Galileo remained in this position for the rest of his life.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Magistrate; 1588, Guidobaldo del Monte supported his application to the University of Bologna. 1589, the same to Pisa. 1592, the same to Padua. I could categorize Guidobaldo as an aristocrat, but it seems more correct to categorize him here as a scientist. In Padua he formed friendships with Sagredo and with other Venetian patricians, including Aproino who also got into one of Galileo's dialogues. He mobilized his patrician friends to lobby for his reappointments in 1598 and 1604. In 1604 Galileo instructed the Duke of Mantua in the use of the geometric and military compass, presented him with one, and received in return gifts worth more than his annual salary. In Florence he spent much of his early years (after the return) in the villa of Salviati, who also got into the dialogues. Galileo dedicated his geometric and military compass to the crown prince Cosimo (after asking if he could do so). See above for his relationship to the Tuscan court. In 1610, with consumate flattery, he dedicated the Sidereus nuncius to the Grand Duke, naming the satellites of Jupiter the Medicean Stars. He had earlier informed the court that he would only publish his discoveries under the auspices of the Grand Duke. After the publication, he came to Florence specifically to instruct the Grand Duke in the use of the instrument he had given him. For the dedication Galileo received a gold chain and a gold medal worth 400 scudi, and not long thereafter he received the appointment at the court. Later Galileo dedicated the Dialogo to Cosimo's sucesssor as Grand Duke. Just before his return to Florence, when he first perfected the telescope beyond the Dutch model into a nine power device, Galileo gave it to the Venetian Senate without asking for any return. He got a life appointment with a virtual doubling of his salary to 1000 florins. In the immediate aftermath of the Sidereus nuncius Galileo received requests for telescopes from a large number of cardinals, and from the French Queen, the Holy Roman Emperor, German Princes, and Italian Dukes. Card. Scipione Borghese, the powerful Papal nephew, made one of the requests, and he rewarded Galileo (who refused to accept money for the telescopes) with a gold chain. He received the suggestion from the French court that he should name the next celestial body he found for 'the star of France,' and that in doing so he would make himself and his family wealthy forever. In 1612, through the Florentine court, he attempted to pedal his method for determining longitude at sea to the Spanish monarchy. 1611-12, he met Card. Maffeo Barberini who became his patron and made one of his poems a hymn in praise of Galileo. When Barberini was elected Pope Urban VIII, Galileo dedicated Il saggiatore to him. In 1611 Federigo Cesi inducted him into the Accademia dei Lincei, published several of Galileo's books, and in general acted as his patron. In Rome Galileo formed the friendship of Marsili, a Bolognese patrician whom he contrived to mention in the Dialogo. Galileo dedicated the Discorsi to the Duke de Noailles, the French ambassador to Rome.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Hydraulics; Military Engineer; Cartography; Navigation; He improved the hydrostatic balance and the proportional compass. He described a crude clock to use with his method of determining longitude. He perfected the crude telescope into an astronomical instrument, and he developed a device, sort of a protomicrometer, to measure diameters of stars and planets. He developmed a microscope. He developed a thermoscope. He patented a pump to lift water, and in 1631 he consulted for the Bisenzio flood control project. In Padua he gave instruction in military engineering. His method of determining longitude was, as he insisted, useful for cartography and well as for navigation.
10. Scientific Societies: Acad dei Lincei Leopoldina; Cesi inducted Galileo into the Accademia dei Lincei, and Galileo called himself the academician in his major works. His frienship and correspondence with Sarpi and Castelli. He developed a circle of young followers mostly in Florence-which included such as Viviani and Torricelli. See the correspondence for rich details about this.

SOURCES
M.L. Righini Bonelli, Vita di Galileo, (Firenze, 1974). A. Favaro, Galileo Galilei e lo studio di Padova, 2 vols. (Firenze, 1883). L. Geymonat, Galileo Galilei, 4th ed. (Torino, 1965).
P. Paschini, Vita e opere di Galileo Galilei, 2nd ed. (Roma, 1965). Le opere di Galileo Galilei, ed. A. Favaro, 20 vols. (Firenze, 1890-1909). Especially the correspondence, found in vols. 10-18. I drew up this sketch after consulting some of my notes and articles from a number of years devoted to Galileo. I have not tried to list every work I have read.


Gallois [Galloys], Jean



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 11 June 1632; Died: Paris, 19 April 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Law; Ambroise Gallois was a counsellor to the Parlement of Paris. Fontennelle calls him 'Avocat au Parlement.'; No explicit information on his financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He studied theology, languages, and mathematics. He knew both living and classical languages, and was interested in sciences. There is no mention of university education.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was ordained as a priest in 1657.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Com; His name is associated with the famous Journal des scavans. He made the periodical a success, publishing forty-two issues as sole editor, after he took over in 1666. As an active member of the Académie, he was involved in a number of its publications. 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Academic January 1665-Apr. 1665, associate editor of Journal des scavans. 1666-1675, editor of Journal des scavans. At some point in here Colbert, who was responsible for his position as editor and for his membership in the Académie, obtained a pension for him of 1500 livres from the king. Colbert also arranged for his appointment to the small priory of St. Martin de Cuers in the diocese of Fréjus, from which Gallois received an income of 600 livres. 1667-1707, member of Académie royale des sciences (Paris); . 1699-1707, pensionary geomenter of Académie royale des sciences (Paris); . 1673, entered the Académie Francaise. He was also perpetual secretary of the Académie des Inscriptions. 1683- , custodian of the Royal Library, and professor of Greek at the Collège Royale. 
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Gallois owed his editorship to Colbert, minister of finance, who was his principal patron. After the death of Colbert, the Marquis de Seignelai got him the positions at the Bibliotheque royale and the Collège royale, and the Marquis obtained a further pension from the king for him.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1667-1707. He temporarily assumed the duties of the perpetual secretary when the secretary was on a diplomatic mission to England in 1667. With the reoganization of the Académie royale des sciences (Paris); in 1699 he was made pensionary geometer. 

SOURCES
Bernard de Fontenelle, 'Éloge de M. l'abbé Gallois', in Histoire et memoires de l'Académie royale des sciences pour l'année 1707, Pt. 1, pp. 218-26. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 15, 257-8.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Denis-Francois Camusat, Histoire critique des journaux, (Amsterdam, 1734), pp.214-310. 'Bibliographie de Jean Galloys', in Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences depuis 1666 jusqu'à son renouvellement en 1699, 2, (Paris, 1733), p.360. 


Gascoigne, William



1. Dates: Born: Middleton, Yorkshire, c. 1612. There is no record of Gascoigne's birth. His mother died in 1617, and he had a younger brother who was born about 1615. Died: battle of Marston Moor, Yorkshire, 2 July 1644; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 32
2. Father: Gentry; Henry Gascoigne was a member of the gentry. Clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University; Although there is no record of higher education, Gascoigne himself testified to study at Oxford. Like Horrocks at Cambridge, he found Oxford 'destitute of mathematical learning.'
5. Religion: Catholic. There does not seem to be any explicit record. However, his father was apparently Catholic. One story about him related him to Jesuits. And his papers passed into the hands of the prominent Yorkshire Catholic family, the Towneleys. I don't feel any serious doubt that Gascoigne was Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; Instruments; As an observer, Gascoigne found Lansberg's tables in error, and this led him to give serious attention to issues of observational accuracy. In keeping with his interest in observational instruments, he was said to have a treatise of optics ready for the press, and an essay on optics did survive to be printed by Rigaud. He contributed greatly to instrumentation. He is asserted to have been the first to make a telescope with two convex lenses. (A telescope, which survives, that he did make in late 1640 was a Galilean type.) He invented methods of grinding glasses. Most important, he developed the first micrometer. He applied the telescope to the quadrant.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; He inherited wealth.
8. Patronage: None Known; I have not found any indications of it, though the details on his life are few.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; The invention of eyepiece micrometer, using a screw to measure the distance between two wires or plates inside the eyepiece, in order to measure small angles with precision. The application of the telescope to the quadrant. A lens grinding machine.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Correspondence with J. Horrocks, W. Crabtree, W. Oughtred, and Christopher Towneley.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 7, 926.
Philosophical Transactions, 27, 270-90, 30, 603-10, 48, 190-2. Robert McKeon, 'Les débuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 256-69 and 14, 227-8. Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982). S.B. Gaythorpe, 'A Galilean Telescope Made about 1640 by William Gascoigne,' Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 39 (l929), 238-41.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Allan Chapman, Dividing the Circle, (New York, 1990).


Gassendi [Gassend], Pierre



1. Dates: Born: Champtercier (southeastern France), 22 January 1592; Died: Paris, 24 October 1655; Datecode: Lifespan: 63 
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Gassendi was the son of Antoine Gassend and Francoise Fabry. His father was, by one account, a farmer on his own land, and by another (which is not necessarily inconsistent) a peasant. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Aix; Univeristy of Avignon; D.D. His uncle, Thomas Fabry the village priest was in charge of the early education of Gassendi. He then attended school at Digne from 1599 to 1606 (except for one year at Ruez). After a two year stay at home he returned to his formal schooling at the University at Aix. He studied philosophy under P. Philibert Fesaye and two years later studied theology under Professor Raphaelis. He returned to Digne in 1612 to become Principal of the College of Digne. He held this position for two years after which he received his doctorate in theology at Avignon. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1612 he took four minor orders of the Church. He was appointed canon at the Church in Digne in 1614. Two years later he celebrated his first mass. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; From as early as 1625 until his death Gassendi occupied himself with rehabilitation of the philosophy of Epicurus. He began his research as part of a plan to dislodge Aristoteleanism as the source of authority and to replace it with Epicurean philosophy. In 1649 he published his Animadversiones containing a portion of his work on Epicurus. His years of research would appear again in 1653 as a revision of the earlier work and again in his Opera omnia. Gassendi was careful not to make Epicurean philosophy fall into the same trap as Aristotelian philosophy. He maintained a healthy skepticism that cautioned against equating information of the world with certain and complete knowledge of the true nature of things. His first work, which made him well-known in scientific circles, Exercitationes paradoxicae (1624) was based on his lectures at Aix and aimed against the scholastics. In addition to his Epicurean research, Gassendi wrote about the elements of astronomy and his own observations, falling bodies, and Descartes' Meditations
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic. From 1612-1614 he was the Principal at the College of Digne. He was also appointed canon of the church in Digne. He held the canonry until 1634 when he became Dean of the chapter. This was an important benefice, which he held for the rest of his life; it insured Gassendi against need. Gassendi was ordained a priest in 1616 or 17. In 1617 he won the chairs of theology and philosophy at Aix. He accepted the chair of philosophy but ceded the chair of theology to his former professor, Fesaye. Despite his dissatisfaction with Aristotelian doctrines he gave his students a thorough exposition of the scholastic teachings. He held this position for six years. When the Jesuits took over Aix, forcing him out, Gassendi returned to Digne where he attended to his ecclesiastical duties. In 1623-4 he was in Grenoble on a mission for the Digne chapter. In 1624-5 he went to Paris on another excursion for the chapter. He returned to Digne. He spent some of his time in Aix (as for example the winter of 1627-8) with Peiresc. In 1628 he made a trip to the Netherlands with Francois Luillier, and then stayed on in Paris until 1632, living for the most part with Luillier. He returned to Digne in 1632, where he continued to have duties. During the following years he was frequently in Aix with Peiresc until Peiresc died in 1637. Gassendi stayed in Provence until the mission to Paris in 1641. He travelled to Paris in 1641 to attend to ecclesiastical duties stemming from his nomination to the Agence du Clerge in 1639. I gather that he stayed on in Paris. After several years of research and writing, he returned to an academic post at the College Royale. Cardinal Alphonse Richelieu was influencial in the appointment of Gassendi to the professorship in mathematics in 1645. He did not hold this position long; ill health forced him to leave Paris in 1648 for Digne and Provence. He returned to Paris in 1653 to stay with Montmor until Gassendi's death.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Scientist; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official. From 1628 until his death, Francois Luillier, maitre des comptes, was a friend and patron to Gassendi. Rochot calls him a wealthy financier; Joy calls him a wealthy lawyer. With that title, I'll settle for governmental official. He had purchased the position. In 1628 Gassendi travelled to the Netherlands with Luillier, stayed with him in Paris after they returned, and later lived with him in 1641 when he was in Paris on ecclesiastical business. Gassendi dedicated De vita et moribus Epicuri to him. Gassendi met Mersenne during his first stay in Paris. Mersenne set him on the task of writing against Fludd, and to Mersenne he dedicated the work. Peiresc was a constant source of support to Gassendi. Gassendi lived in the home of Peiresc for the last year of the latter's life. Gassendi was so distraught after Peiresc's death that he stopped writing for about four years. I find it of great interest that Peiresc and Luillier (and later Valois and Luillier) did not appear to think of themselves as being in competition; they even corresponded about their mutual client. One year after Peiresc's death Gassendi met Louis Emmanuel de Valois, Governor of Provence, who showed interest in his work. Gassendi accompanied him on an official tour in 1640. The year previous Valois supported Gassendi's nomination to the Agence du Clerge. Rochot discusses their relation (pp. 84-6). Valois was a man of no particular learning himself who nevertheless, from the moment he arrived in Provence, saw the support of Gassendi as a vital office. As usual, no one gives any real insight into his motives. Nevertheless, Valois and Gassendi corresponded with great frequency. There are 350 letters from Valois, and there would be more had the two not often been living in the same city. They remained in touch until Valois' death. Valois made possible the experiment of dropping an object from the mast of a galley and was present at the experiment. Gassendi dedicated his Institutio astronomica to Cardinal Richelieu in appreciation for his position at the College Royale obtained by Richelieu's influence. On his last trip to Paris Gassendi took up residence in the home of Montmor where he (Gassendi) died in 1655. 
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Gassendi corrected the geographical coordinates of the Mediterranean Sea.
10. Scientific Societies: He was introduced into the circle of the brothers DuPuy who met at the library of President du Thou. Undoubtedly he was among the corresponding members of Mersenne's group. Towards the end of his life he belonged to the Montmor academy. Among his many friends or correspondents were Beeckman, Galileo, Snel, Mydorge, Patin, Bouchard, Naudé, Sorbière, du Perier of Aix, Diodati, and Gautier. 

SOURCES
Howard Jones, Pierre Gassendi, 1592-1655: An Intellectual Biography, (1981). Lillian U. Pancheri, 'Pierre Gassendi, a forgotten but important man in history of physics,' American Journal of Physics, 46, 5, (May 1978), 455-464. Bernard Rochot, Les travaux de Gassendi sur Epicure et sur l'atomisme, 1619-1658, (Paris, 1944). Dictionnaire de biographie francaise 15, 617-19. Lynn Joy, Gassendi the Atomist, (Cambridge, 1987). Centre international de synthèse, Pierre Gassendi, sa vie et son oeuvre, (Paris, 1955).


Gayant, Louis



1. Dates: fl. 1667-1673 Died: Maestricht (Netherlands), 1673; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: It appears to be known that he was born in Clermont en Beauvais, France, although the year is not known. Career: French; Death: Although, strictly speaking, Gayant died in the Netherlands, it was at the seige of Maestricht, as part of the French army. For my purposes, he died in a French context.
4. Education: None Known; He was trained in medicine. It is not clear that he did in fact have an M.D. 
5. Religion: Unknown; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; He was one of the most able anatomists of his time. His name seems to be associated firmly with the demonstration of a number of venous valves which were already known but not universally accepted in 1667, and with the operation of blood transfusion performed in 1667. He was an important member of the group working in comparative anatomy in the Academy and he contributed substantially to their series of publications.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Position; He was serving as a military physician at the time of his death. He appears to have been a surgeon. By 1667 he became a important member of the group working in comparative anatomy in the Academy.
8. Patronage: Unknown; His various appointments, including that with the military, are inconceivable without patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1667-1673; Medical College (Any One); Provost of the Company of Surgeons in Paris. Collaboration with Jean Pecquet, Claude Perrault, and others on anatomical dissections.

SOURCES:
'Louis Gayant', in Biographie medicine, 2, 125. F.J.Cole, A History of Comparative Anatomy, (London, 1944), pp. 393-442.  Joseph Schiller, 'Les laboratoires d'anatomie et botanique à l'Académie des sciences au XVIIe siècle', Revue d'histoire des sciences et de leurs applications, 17 (1964), pp. 97-114. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 15, 907. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 2, 701-2. Antoine L.J. Bayle ands _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Paris, 1855). 


Gellibrand, Henry



1. Dates: Born: London, 17 November 1597; Died: London, 16 February 1636; Datecode: Lifespan: 39
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Henry Gellibrand was a graduate of Oxford and for a time a fellow of All Souls. After 1602 he was a physician in Maidstone, Kent. The father died in 1615. I always assume that physicians were affluent at least. In fact the father left a considerable estate; our Henry was his sole heir. However, a reference below to Henry's small patrimony (which could have been in error, to be sure) leads me to list the family circumstances merely as affluent. It is surely relevant that Gellibrand entered Oxford as a commoner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Oxford University, Trinity College, 1615-23. B.A., 1619. M.A., 1623. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; Gellibrand was in holy orders; he held a curacy in Kent before 1623. In 1631, when he published an almanac with definite Puritan hues, Laud attempted to prosecute him.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation; Magnetism; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Gellibrand discovered the secular change in magnetic declination. He attempted to solve the problem of longitude. His 'Appendix concerning Longitude' in Thomas James, Strange and Dangerous Voyage, 1633, attempted to draw on observable celestial events as a means to establish longitude. His Epitome of Navigation appeared in 1698, long after his death. Gellibrand completed Briggs' Trigonometria britannica, 1633; Institution Trigonometrical, 1638, a text. In 1652 (posthumous) a longer work of tthe same name in Latin, with applications to navigation and astronomy, a work much used in its English translation. He composed 'Astronomia lunaris,' which survived in manuscript. He is reported to have written a Treatise of Building of Ships.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Temporary curacy at Chiddingstone, Kent, 1620s. It is said that Gellibrand settled in Oxford as a young man (by inference after his M.A.) and became there a friend of Henry Briggs. There is no information on how he supported himself in this period. However, the letter from Trinity College, supporting his nomination to be Gresham Professor, spoke of his being satisfied with his small patrimony (I now have doubt that the patrimony was small) in order that the pursuit of preferment not interefere with his studies. Professor of astronomy at Gresham College, 1626-36. 
8. Patronage: Sci; Owed the professorship to Henry Briggs.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Applied mathematics in navigation
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: A close friend of Henry Briggs; he completed Briggs' unfinished Trigonometria Britannica and published it in 1633.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 7, 996-7. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2188-91. John Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, facsimile ed. (New York, 1967), pp. 81-5, 336. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 2, 622-3. John H. Raach, 'Five Early 17th-Century English Country Physicians,' Journal of Medical History, 20 (1965), 213-25.


Gemma Frisius, Reiner [Regner, Regnier]



1. Dates: Born: Dokkum Netherlands, 8 December 1508; Died: Louvain, Belgium, 25 May 1555; Datecode: - Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Unknown; He lost his parents young. He was of humble origins; not even his surname is known. It is clear that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Dutch; Belgium Area; Belgium Area; Birth: Dokkum, Netherlands. Career: Louvain, Belgium. Death: Louvain, Belgium.
4. Education: Lou, M.D. He began his studies in Groningen, nearby to Dokkum. 1525, University of Louvain, where he was a member of the Dutch nation. He received his licentiate degree in 1528. 1536, he received his M.D. from Louvain.
5. Religion: undoubtedly Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy, geography, cartography. Subordinate Disciplines: mathematics. His first original work, Gemma phrysius de principiis astronomiae & cosmographiae, was translated into several languages and reprinted numerous times. He made two significant contributions to the earth sciences. In a chapter added to the 1533 Antwerp edition of the Cosmographicus, he was first to propose the principle of triangulation as a means of carefully locating places and accurately mapping areas. 20 years later, in the 1553 Antwerp edition of De princinpiis astronomiae, he was the first suggest in explicit terms the use of portable timepieces to measure longitude by lapsed time. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; He supported himself publishing his books (1529, 1530) and globes (1531, 1535, 1536) while a student in Louvain. Evidently this was lucrative enough that he married before he recieved his degree. 1536, practiced medicine for a living in Louvain. Between 1536-1539 he was appointed to the medical faculty at Louvain, a post he retained until his death.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; John Flaxbinder (Johannes de Curiis Dantiscus), ambassador of the King of Poland, who held a bishop's see in Poland but spent many years in Brussels, was a patron of Gemma's. He was well informed of the recent voyages reported to the court, and Gemma presumably made use of this information in his geography. He is said to have been favored by Charles V. Charles noted an error in Gemma Frisius's Charta sive mappa mundi and brought it to his attention, after which he brought out a new addition dedicated to the Emperor. Gemma Frisius dedicated his globe of 1537 and his world map of 1540 to Charles.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; He did practice medicine for a living for a time. He received a patent with Caspar Vander Heyden [Caspar de Myrica] for a globe in 1531. He produced other globes in 1535 and 1536. Gemma designed astronomical instruments, mostly sophisticated variations on the astrolabe, such as the 'astronomical ring.' He also improved the Jacob's staff. Kish credits Gemma as the first to suggest the use of an accurate timekeeping instrument as a solution to the problem of longitude, and as among the first to propose triangulation for surveying and mapmaking. Gemma Frisius did a world map with lines of latitude and longitude in 1540.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Connections: He taught Gerard Mercator, and in 1535 employed him as a draftsman for his terrestial globe. Connections: John Dee visited Gemma in 1547. He reports returning to England with 'the first Astronomer's staff in brass, that was made of Gemma Frisius' devising' and 'the Astronomer's ring of brass, as Gemma Frisius had newly framed it.' Dee returned to Louvain and stayed, presumably studying under Gemma, from 1548-1550.

SOURCES:
Cantor, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie8, 555-6. J. Fruytier, Nieuw nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek, 6, (Leiden, 1924), cols. 556-557. [ref. CT1143.M72 v.6]; George Kish, Medicine-Mensura-Mathematica; The Life and Works of Gemma Frisius, 1508-1555, James Ford Bell lecture no. 4 (1962) (Published by the Associates of the James Ford Bell Collection, University of Minnesota Library). Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 198. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 1 (Nr. 199), 97-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Fernand van Ostroy, 'Biobibliographie de Gemma Frisius, fondateur de l'école belge de géographie...', Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences... de Belgique, Classe de lettres, 2nd ser., 11 (1920).


Geoffroy, Étienne-François



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 13 February 1672; Died: Paris, 6 January 1731; Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Magistrate; Matthieu-François Geoffroy (who has an entry in the DBF), was a wealthy and prominent pharmacist, who had been a Paris alderman (1685) and a consul (whatever that was). Although he was not the royal apothecary, he was once summoned to Versailles by Louis XIV and the Dauphin. The father was the fourth generation of a prominent family of Parisian pharmacists that went back to 1584. I accept the report-wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; University of Paris; M.D. He learned from his father, the fourth in a respected dynasty of pharmacists. Such scientists as Wilhelm Homberg, Joblot, Verney, and J.D.Cassini visited his home, giving demonstrations and lectures that suplemented his education. In 1692 he went to Montpellier for a year as a journeyman to learn pharmacy from Pierre Sanche. Apparently the apothecaries Jeoffroy and Sanche traded sons as assistants. When he was in Montpellier he began to attend courses at the medical school without matriculating. After he retured to Paris in 1694, he became a master apothecary. He later turned to the study of medicine. He earned the bachelor's degree in Paris in 1702, and eventually graduated M.D. at Paris in 1704. 
5. Religion: Catholic. His father attended a Jesuit school. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Pharmacology; Codex medicamentarium seu pharmacopoeia parisiensis, published by the Faculty of Medicine in 1732, was largely his work. it contained many chemical remedies, in addition to the traditional galenicals. He read 17 papers to the Académie des Sciences. Many of them are treatises in experimental chemistry. All of his major books are on materia medica. It does not appear that he made any contributions to medical science as distinct from pharmacology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Pharmacology; Medicine; Patronage; 1694, Master Apothecary and ran the family busines for a few years. He practiced medicine for a few years after his degree. In 1698 he travelled to England as physician to Count de Tallart, Marshal of France. 1699, associate chemist at the Académie, replacing Lémery. 1700, travelled to Italy as 'physician' to Abbé de Louvois. 1704, after receiving his M.D., his personal wealth enabled him not to search for rich patients but to treat rich and poor alike. It it not clear that Geoffroy ever really practiced medicine much, though he may have for a few years abter he graduated. When his father died in 1708, he left Geoffroy a considerable amount of money, further asugmenting his personal means. 1707, demonstrator at the Jardin du Roi. 1709-1731, professor of medicine at the Collège Royal. 1712, lecturer in chemistry at the Jardin du Roi. 1712-1730, professor of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi. 1715, pensionnaire chemist the the Académie. 1726/7-1728/9, dean of the Paris Faculty of Medicine.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; While still a student he was chosen as medical adviser by the Comte de Tallart, French ambassador extraordinary to England. He became friendly with Hans Sloane in 1698, and was made a fellow of the Royal Society (London); of which Sloane was secretary. I'll leave this information in, but it seems too tenuous to count as patronage. He accompanied the Abbé de Louvois as personal physician.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; It is not clear that he ever practiced much, but there do seem to be definite references to some practice.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); 1698-1731. Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1731. He was elected to the Académie royale des sciences (Paris); as the student of Homberg in 1699, became an associate later in 1699, and pensionaire in 1715. 

SOURCES:
Bernard de Fontenelle, 'Éloge de M. Geoffroy', in Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences for 1731, 1733, pp.93-100. P.Dorveaux, 'Étienne-François Geoffroy', Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie, 2, (1931), pp.118-126. J.P.Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au jardin royal des plants de Paris, (Paris, 1952). J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus célèbres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 198-201. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 15, 1134-5.


Gerard, John



1. Dates: Born: at or near Nantwich, Cheshire, 1545. Jeffers says c.1545, but others give 1545 neat. Died: London, February 1612; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Unknown; Gerard was apparently connected with the Gerards of Ince, who were armigerous. Nothing is known about his father. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; A grammar school at Willaston, Cheshire; No university education. Apprenticed to Alexander Mason, a London barber-surgeon with a large practice, 1561-8.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Pharmacology; He published a catalogue of the plants in his garden in 1596, and a second enlarged edition of 1599. Gerard published his famous Herball, 1597, (much of which was plagiarized, according to some accounts, from an unpublished translation of Dodoens Pemptades of 1583), the best known English herbal. Though obviously concerned with medicinal plants, it was not confined to them.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Org; Surgeon of a merchant ship, 1568-70s. All that is know is that Gerard recorded that he had been in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, Poland, and Moscow, and it appears likely that he went there with a ship of the Merchant Adventurers. By 1577 he was married and settled in London with a surgical practice there. In 1577 he was already in the service of Burghley. Superintendent of the gardens belonging to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, at the Strand, London, and at Theobalds, Hertfordshire, 1577-97.
Curator of the physic garden belonging to the College of Physicians, 1586-1603.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; He was granted a lease of a garden adjoining Somerset House by the queen-consort of James I and became surgeon and herbarist to James I. See the relation with Burleigh above. Gerard dedicated his first book, the catalogue, and the Herball to Burleigh. He dedicated the second edition of his catalogue, 1599, to Sir Walter Raleigh. Note also that he owed his position in Barber-Surgeon's Company to Alexander Mason to whom he was apprenticed for seven years. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Frienship with Lancelot Browne, Guillaume Delaune, Anthony Hunton, Francis Herring and many others. He was acquainted with L'Obel, and he corresponded with Dodoens. Barber-Surgeon's Company, 1569-1612. Court of Assistants, 1595. Junior Warden, 1597-1608. Examiner of candidates for the company, 1598, 1607. Master of the Barber-Surgeon's Company, 1608-1612.

SOURCES:
C.E. Raven, English Naturalists from Neckam to Ray, pp. 204-7. QH26.R25; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 7, 1100-1. Agnes Arber, Herbals: Their Origin and Evolution. A Chapter in the History of Botany, (3rd ed. (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 129-32. R.H. Jeffers, The Friends of John Gerard (1545-1612), Surgeon and Botanist, Falls Village, Conn., 1967). The book is dedicated primarily to defending Gerard from the charge of plariary mentioned above.

Not Available and Not Consulted: B.D. Jackson, a life of Gerard in his edition of Gerard, A Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Garden of John Gerard, (London, 1876).


Gerbezius, Marcus [Marko Gerbec]



1. Dates: Born: St. Vid, near Sticna, Slovenia, 24 October 1658; Died: Ljubljana, Slovenia, 9 March 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 60
2. Father: No Information. Said to have been of modest means (which I translate as poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Slovene (which I list as Jugoslav); Career: Slovene; Death: Slovene
4. Education: University of Vienna; University of Padua; University of Bologna; M.D., Ph.D. A government scholarship enabled him to study philosophy at Ljubljana, then medicine in Vienna, Padua, and Bologna. I assume B.A. MD and PhD Bologna 1684.
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: medicine, chemistry; In chemistry, he was concerned with fermentation.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Was city physician in Krain, near Ljubljana and physician to some monasteries. Named chief physician of province of Carniola (in Slovenia). Became most sought-after practitioner in Ljubljana.
8. Patronage: Unknown; The scholarship from the government and those appointments were not gained without patronage.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Lp; formal: 1688 admitted to Academia Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum. 1701, founding member of Academia Operosorum in Ljubljana (president 1712 -1713).

SOURCES
H. Tartalja, 'Der slowenische Arzt Dr. Marko Gerbec als Vorgänger der Fermentationslehre,' in Vorträge der Hauptversammulng der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Pharmazie (Rotterdam, 1963), (Stuttgart, 1965), pp 173 -180; Medicinska enciklopedija

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: I. Pintar, 'Dr. Marko Gerbec,' Razprave. Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti, classis IV, pars medica, 3 (1963), 1 - 40 - contains a review of biographical literature. N. Flaxman, 'The History of Heart-Block,' Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine, 5 (1937), 115-30.


Gesner [Gessner], Konrad



1. Dates: Born: Zürich, 26 March 1516; Died: Zürich, 13 December 1565 Datecode: - Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Artisan; Church Living; His father was Ursus Gessner, whom one source lists as a furrier. He fell at the battle at Kappel (1531). Because his parents had an abundance of children and could not afford to rear him, he was brought up by his great uncle, Hans Frick, chaplain in Zuerich, who himself was of very modest means. Around 1527 he came to stay at the house of Johann Jakob Ammann, Chorherr of the Stift. Ammann could not support Gesner either after 1531. In a word, he grew up in poor financial circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Zuerich, Switzerland. Career: Zuerich, Switzerland. Death: Zuerich, Switzerland.
4. Education: University of Zurich; University of Bourges; University of Paris; University of Montpellier; University of Basel; M.D. Fraumuensterschule, Zuerich. Carolinum, Zuerich. 1533, University of Bourges, studying theology and ancient languages. (This is the only reference I have had to a university at Bourges, but for the time I will list it.); 1534, University of Paris, reading eclectically. He left because of rising anti-Protestant feelings. 1536, University of Basel, studying medicine. 1540, went to Monpellier to study, but left after a few months. 1541, took his exams and received his M.D. at Basel. No record of a B.A. nevertheless, with the M.D. and all the rest, I assume it. 
5. Religion: Calvinist (which is how I list Zwinglians); He was a dedicated follower of Zwingli.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Zoology; Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; natural history, botany, zoology. Subordinate Disciplines: pharmacology, medicine.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Official; Pub; 1532, he worked for Wolfgang Capito in Strasbourg as a famulus, a kind of servant. 1533, though he had a stipend, he tutored Melchior Volmar's sons to make ends meet. 1535-1536, taught the lowest class at the elementary school in Zuerich. 1536, to keep his head above water in Basel, he worked for the publisher Heinrich Petri compiling a Greek-Latin dictionary. His success at this job brought him his next position. 1537-1540, first professor of Greek at the Lausanne Academy in Basel. He received the use of a house, an income of 200 gulden, 2 'Mutt.'(?) of grain, and two flagons of wine. This was the most lucrative position he ever held. 1541, he returned to Zuerich. Because all of the chairs at the Carolinum were already filled, he held the position of lecturer in natural philosophy and ethics there. He was overworked and paid a pittance, and as a result he had to work at night writing books to make ends meet. 1546, he was made a professor at the Carolinum, but was still underpaid. 1552, named Poliater, assistant town physician. 1554, named Archiater, chief town physician, with a great responsibilty, but still scant income. 1558, named Chorherr (canonicus). This position finally lifted his financial burden.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; One of his earliest patrons was Johann Jakob Ammann, a teacher of Gesner's at the Carolinum with whom he lived for a few years. Gesner dedicated his first major work, the Catalogus plantarum (1542) to him. Another early patron was Zwingli himself, to whom Gesner appealed for a stipend at the age of fourteen. Zwingli granted the request, but the stipend was lost in the confusion after Zwingli's death at the battle at Kappel (1531). A third patron from this period was Oswald Myconius, head of the Grossmuensterschule. He recommended Gesner to Capito (see 7a). Gesner continued to correspond with him after Myconius moved to Basel, and Myconius was instrumental in delivering Gesner from his first teaching position by writing to Ammann and Bullinger. Thereafter, Gesner received a stipend to study medicine in Basel. Heinrich Bullinger, Zwingli's successor, was a lifelong patron of Genser. With Conrad Pellican, a professor at Zuerich, he arranged a travel grant to support Gesner's trip to Bourges and Paris. Gesner appealed to Bullinger throughout his life at various time for help (e.g. 1536, 1558), and Bullinger eventually arranged for his appointment as canonicus. The school, church, and city in Zuerich held sway over Gesner in a way I do not fully understand. His first teaching position is seen as a punishment by the city for marrying a woman without any means without its permission. During the summer of 1544, Gesner stayed at the house of his friend Diego Hurtado di Mendoza, a Spanish count, and had access to his exceptional libray. Gesner dedicated the second edition of his dictionary (1544) to him. Though Gesner was a prolific writer, not all of his dedications are to patrons. However, one that defininitely was fishing for support was the dedication of Ambrosii Calepini dictionarium linguae latinae (1544) to the leading citizen of Zurich Wilhelm Meyer von Knonau. If anything came of this, I did not run across it. Made famous by his pioneering bibliography, Bibliotheca universalis, Gesner was sought by the Catholic Count Johann Jakob Fugger in Augsburg (1545) to be a teacher to his sons and grandsons and to help set up his library. The position promised to be well-paid and to enable Gesner to do his own work, but after visiting Fugger he turned the job down out of love for Zuerich, gratitude to Bullinger, and religious differences. At the suggestion of the Royal physicians Julius Alexandrinus and Stephan Laurenz Amerfort Gesner dedicated his work on fish and water animals (1558) to Emperor Ferdinand I, who had just been elected. Ferdinand had expressed to his physicians the desire to meet Gesner. After the dedication, Gesner was invited to a meeting of the Reichstag in 1559, where he met privately with the Emperor for over an hour. At the instigation of Alexandrinus, Amerfort, and Crato von Krafftheim, Gesner was granted a coat of arms in 1564. Gesner tried to get in contact with King Maximilian (1527-1576), who seemed more sympathetic to Protestantism, but he tried to do this through the conman and adventurer Paul Skalic and was not successful. Andreas Szadkowski, a Polish writer on salt mines, was a small time patron. He gave Gesner an amount of money, and dedicated his De rerum fossilium (1565) to Gesner.
9. Technological Connections: med; Gesner held a position as town physician, but the extent to which he actually treated individual patients is not clear.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Because of his pioneering bibliographic work and his collection of descriptions of animals and plants, Gesner was at the center of a circle of correspondents that included most of the learned men of Europe. The scholars who contributed to the Catalogus plantarum and the Historia animalium are listed at the beginning of those volumes.

SOURCES
Eduard K. Feuter, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 6, 342b-345b. Hans Fischer, Conrad Gesner 1516-1565. Leben und Werk (Zuerich: Leemann, 1966).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted:  W. University of Leiden; K. Gesner, Leben und Werk, (Munich, 1929). K. Müller, Der polyhistor Konrad Gesner als Freund und Forderer erdkundlicher Studien, (doct. diss., Munich, 1912). H. Günther, 'K. Gesner als Tierarzt', (thesis, Leipzig, 1933). H. Hanhart, Konrad Gessner, (Winterthur, 1824). Robert Lauterborn, 'Konrad Gessner und die Tierkunde,' in Der Rhein, (Freiburg, 1930), 1, 136-8. One source called this perhaps the best exposition of Gesner as zoologist. Alfredo Serrai, Conrad Gesner, ed. Maria Cochetti, (Rome, 1990). NDB mentions many other sources.


Ghetaldi [Ghettaldi], Marino



1. Dates: Born: Ragusa (Dubrovnik), c. 1566; Died: Ragusa, 11 April 1627 (I follow Favaro; DSB and Wieleitner say 1626); Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Aristocrat; Matteo Ghetaldi was from a patrician family originally from Taranto, Italy. On all of his books of which I have seen the full title cited, Ghetaldi styled himself a patrician of Ragusa. From the pattern of Ghetaldi's life, the family had to have been affluent at the least.
3. Nationality: Birth: Yu (I leave this designation, but it does seem misleading to me. The family was Italian, and I gather that the city, or at least its ruling class, was essentially Italian at that time.); Career: Yu; Death: Yu
4. Education: None Known; As a young man, after his education in Ragusa, he moved to Rome and then traveled extensively (six years) through Europe. In Rome he came under the influence of Christopher Clavius. He then went to Antwerp to study with Michel Coignet. Thence he moved to Paris, where he associated with Viète. He was in England for two years. There is no mention of a degree, nor would one have been relevant to a patrician.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Optics; He produced a pamphlet with the solutions of 42 geometrical problems, Variorum problematum colletio, in 1607. The method used in some of the solutions suggests that he was alreasy applying methods of algebra to geometry. His other publications were studies on Archimedes and on Apollonius. He did experimental work on the specific gravity of solids and liquids. He apparently experimented with burning glasses.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Magistrate; For a number of years he lived the peripatetic life of a scholar, obviously in no need to concern himself with earning a living. During this time he was offered a chair at the University of Louvain, but he did not accept. From 1603 he held various public and legal positions in Ragusa. I am assuming that some of these positions carried salaries.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Ghetaldi dedicated his first work to Clavius and another to Marino Gozze, his companion on his youthful wandering. Frankly neither of these sound like patronage given the realities of Ghetaldi's station. Viète permitted Ghetaldi to oversee the publication of De potestatum resolutione, c. 1600. Ghetaldi was then aspiring to a name in mathematics, and this relation does sound like patronage, though of course not monetary. He dedicated a work on Apollonius to Paolo Emilio Cesi, a distant cousin (also an aristocrat) of Federico Cesi. He dedicated other mathematical works to Card. Serafino Olivier and to Pope Paul V.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: He was friendly with Sarpi in Padua, and he knew Galileo. In 1621 his name was included in a list of scientists proposed for membership in the Accademia dei Lincei. He was not nominated because he returned to Ragusa, and the Academy did not know his whereabouts. 

SOURCES
A. Favaro, 'Marino Ghetaldi,' Amici e corrisponsdenti di Galileo, 3 vols. (Firenze, 1983), 2, 911-34. H. Wieleitner, 'Marino Ghetaldi und die Anfänge der Koordinatengeometrie,' Bibliotheca mathematica, 3rd ser., 13, pp. 242-247. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 2, 74. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Barbieri, 'Marino Ghetaldi,' in Pietro F. Martecchini, Galleria di Ragusei illustri, (Ragusa, 1840). Ab. Simeone Gliubich [Sime Ljubie], Dizionaria biografico degli uomini illustri della Dalmatia, (Vienna, 1856), pp. 142-3. E. Gelcich, 'Eine Studie über die Entstehung der Analytischen Geometrie mit Berücksichtigung eines Werkes des Marino Ghetaldi Patrizier Ragusaer. Aus dem Jahre 1630,' Abhandlungen zur Geschichte des Mathematick, 4 (1882), 191-231.


Ghini, Luca



1. Dates: Born: Imola, c. 1490; Died: Bologna, 4 May 1556; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Law; His father was a notary in Imola. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Bologna; M.D. He studied medicine at Bologna, earning an M.D. in 1527. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Natural History; The pioneer in the creation of the first botanical gardens (in Pisa in 1543 and, after a second was created in Padua, in Florence in 1545) in the 16th century and in the collection of the earliest herbaria (both of which explicitly served the ends of pharmacology), Ghini exerted his influence primarily through correspondence and teaching. His only published works-and those long after his death-were minor medical tracts. Much more important is the letter to Mattioli, published as I placiti di Luca Ghini intorno a piante descritte nei commentarii al Dioscoride di P.A.Mattioli. Ghini also collected in natural history in general-minerals and animals.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; He was appointed to read 'medicina practica' at the University of Bologna in 1527, became lecturer on Simples in 1535. In 1537 he began to hold an associate chair on simples, and a professorial chair in 1539. From 1544 to 1554 he was professor of simples at Pisa, and he returned to lecture at Bologna in 1554. Ghini founded the Botanical Garden (Orta dei semplici) in Pisa in 1544-the first academic botanical garden and the first establishment of an institution for research and teaching. He is described as a highly regarded physician. Around 1536 he was a municipal physician in Fano with a stipend of 225 florins-a position held contemporaneously with his chair at Bologna. It is not known how long this appointment lasted. While Ghini was in Pisa, Cosimo, who presumably had this partly in mind when he sought out Ghini and appointed him, utilized him as his physician.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Medicine; Pharmacology; He was actively involved in the creation of botanical gardens at Pisa and at Florence. He introduced, probably for the first time, the herbarium or hortus siccus, the technique of pressing and drying plants. Although there is obvious ambiguity, the technique of drying seems essentially identical to the creation of a new instrument.
10. Scientific Societies: Ghini was the teacher of Cesalpino, Aldrovandi, Mattioli, Anguillara, Merini, Odoni, Calzolari, Michiel, and Maranta. The botanical garden that he created in Pisa can be properly regarded as the first institution for scientific research and teaching. He corresponded with Aldrovandi. De Toni published five of his letters to Aldrovandi (Padua 1905).

SOURCES:
G.B. De Toni, 'Luca Ghini', in A. Mieli, ed., Gli scienziati italiani, 1, (Rome, 1921). Z7407 .I8S4.
A. Chiarugi, 'Nel quarto centenario della morte di Luca Ghini,' Webbia, 13 (1957), 1-14. L. Sabbatani, 'Alcuni documenti di la vita di Luca Ghini,' Atti e memorie della R. Accademia di scienze, lettere ed arti, (Padua), n.s. 39 (1923), 243-248. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 81, and 27 (1901), 54. 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted:  R. Savelli, 'A l'occasione du 4e centenaire de la mort de Luca Ghini,' in VIIIe congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, (Florence, 1956). G.B. De Toni, 'I placiti di Luca Ghini (primo lettore di semplici in Bologna) intorno a piante descritte nei commentiarii al Dioscoride di P.A. Mattioli,' Memorie de R. Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 27 (1907).  O. Mattirolo, 'Luca Ghini,' in Encl. italiani, 16 (1952), 916.


Gilbert [Gilberd], William



1. Dates: Born: Colchester, 1544. Until this century, Gilbert's birth was universally placed in 1540. 1544 has now been established on good evidence. Died: probably London, 30 November 1603; Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Magistrate; Jerome Gilbert was the recorder of Colchester. One source listed him as a merchant. Clearly his own forebears were merchants and made a fortune at it. None of the good sources says a word about Jerome Gilbert being a merchant. Evidently prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: Englsih
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A., M.D. St. John College, Cambridge, 1558-69 or 70; B.A., 1561; M.A., 1564; M.D., 1569.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption. He was buried in an Anglican church in Colchester.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Magnetism; Subordinate Disciplines: Electricity; Natural Philosophy; De magnete, 1600, is the enduring basis of Gilbert's fame. Posthumously, De mundo nostro sublunari philosophia nova was published in 1651. This is really two works put together as one from Gilbert's manuscripts by Gilbert's half brother; he himself never intended them as parts of one book. More than De magnete, the two treatises that make up De mundo strove toward a general natural philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Personal Means; Patronage; At Cambridge he became a Junior Fellow of St. Johns in 1561. He was the mathematics examiner in the college, 1565-6 and bursar, 1569-70. He became a Senior Fellow in 1569. Nothing is known about his activities from 1569 (or 70) until the mid or late 70s. There is good evidence that De magnete was completed quite a few years before it was published, and possibly Gilbert devoted these unknown years to his magnetical research. Something would have had to support him. He is known to have inherited property from his father, and it is possible that he inherited Wingfield House, his residence in London, from his step-mother (a Wingfield), sometime before 1583. Medical practice, from perhaps 1577 to 1603. He was one of the prominent physicians in London, consulted among others by the aristocracy. One of the personal physicians to Elizabeth I, 1600-03. He received a persion of L100 (which is hard to distinguish from a salary) from the Queen. Note that this relation to the court came only near the end of Gilbert's life. Physician to James I, 1603. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He obtained his grant of arms from Elizabeth in 1577. He was appointed physician to Elizabeth in 1600 and kept the position until Elizabeth died. After the death of Elizabeth he became James I's physician and held the position until his own death. Note that Gilbert, a promient and probably wealthy physician, did not dedicate De magnete to anyone. On the contrary, it is dedicated to Gilbert by Edward Wright, who wrote the dedicatory epistle. 
9. Technological Connnections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Navigation; Instruments; He participated in the compilation of the College of Physicians' Pharmacopoeia. He specifically proposed the use of magnetic declination and dip to determine longitude and latitude. Thomas Blundevelle describes the two instruments of Gilbert's invention intended for these purposes. The Versorium for magnetic investigations, and a similar device for electrical. I considered briefly adding Cartography to this list because Gilbert did prepare a map of the moon (in De mundo). However, recall that this was before the telescope. I have seen the map. It is more a sketch than a map, and does not involve any of the skills of cartography.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: He knew Thomas Wright and William Barlowe. The older literature on Gilbert abounds in stories of a proto-society that met in his home, Wingfield House. This has been shown to rest on no solid evidence whatever. The older literature also credits him with correspondence with Giovanfrancesco Sagredo (Galileo's friend and patron) and Paolo Sarpi. These correspondences are likewise figments of the imagination. Royal College of Physicians, before 1581; Censor, 1581, 1582, 1584-87, 1589-90; Treasurer, 1587-94, 1597-99; Elector, 1596-97; Consilarius, 1597-9; President, 1600.

SOURCES
Duane H.D. Roller, The DE MAGNETE of William Gilbert, (Amsterdam, 1959), pp. 50-91. This is far and away the best source on Gilbert that I have found. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 7, 1217. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2202-3. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 77-80. Suzanne Kelly, The De mundo of William Gilbert, (Amsterdam, 1965). Silvanus P. Thompson, Gilbert of Colchester; an Elizabethan Magnetizer, (London, 1891). Bern Dibner, Doctor William Gilbert, (New York, 1947). Rufus Suter, 'A Biographical Sketch of Dr. William Gilbert of Colchester,' Osiris, 10 (1952), 368-84. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 175-81.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Charles Singer, 'Dr. William Gilbert,' Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service, October 1916. Richard H. Jarrell, 'The Latest Date of Composition of Gilbert's De mundo,' Isis, 63 (1972), 94-5. There is a surprising dearth of information about this prominent scientist.


Girard, Albert



1. Dates: Born: St. Mihiel, France, c. 1595; Died: 's Gravenhage, 8 December 1632 (Bosmans and Vosterman make it 1633); Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 37; 
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch; The first solid information about him shows him settled in the Netherlands
4. Education: Leiden; De Waard states that he inscribed himself in Leiden on 28 April 1617 as a student of mathematics. No. B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist. It appears that he fled to the Netherlands as a religious refugee.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Engineering. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics, Music; He published extensively on mathematics. He translated a treatise on fortification from Flemish into French, and Marolois's treatise on fortification from French into Flemish. He worked on the law of refraction. He mentioned a completed work on music, although it was never published.
7. Means of Support: Music; Engineer; Originally he was a musician, specifically a lute player. Gassendi mentioned him, in a letter, as an engineer with the Dutch army. De Waard ways that this could not have been before about 1626. His grave marker called him an engineer. De Waard cites a passage from Girard's edition of Stevin in which he complained of being in a foreign country without a maecenas and burdened with a family. He said that he had to postpone the publication of his mathematics until a time when the pursuit of the sciences would be more highly esteemed than it was at that time.
8. Patronage: Court; Despite his complaint of living in a foreign country without a patron, he dedicated his edition of Stevin's Arithmetic (I have 1625) to Prince Maurice and his translation of Marolois's Fortification (1627) to Prince Frederik Hendrik.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; 
10. Scientific Societies: He appears to have had informal contact with the circle of Dutch mathematical scientists. Thus his edition of Stevin. He was a friend of Snel.

SOURCES
H. Bosmans, an article divided into six short sections in Mathesis, 40 (1926).  Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. Paul Tannery, 'Albert Girard di Saint-Mihiel,' Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et astronomiques, 2nd ser. 7 (1883), 358-60. (Also in Tannery's Mémoires scientifiques, 6, (Paris, 1926), 19-22. G.A. Vosterman van Oijen, 'Quelques arpenteurs hollandais de la fin du XVIe et du commencement du XVIIe siecle et leur instruments,' Bullettino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze methematiche de fisiche, 3 (1870), 323-76 (esp. 359-62). 


Glanvill, Joseph



1. Dates: Born: Plymouth, 1636; Died: Bath, 4 November 1680; Datecode: Lifespan: 44
2. Father: Merchant; Glanvill was the third son of Nicholas Glanvill, a merchant in Plymouth. No clear information on financial status. Glanvill went to Oxford as a battelar, a status above that of servitor, but I do not find this sufficient information for any judgment.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: Englsih
4. Educaton: Oxford University, M.A. Oxford University, Exeter College, 1652-6; B.A., 1655. Lincoln College, 1656-8; M.A., 1658.
5. Religion: Anglican; Glanville was reared in a strict Puritan household. Apparently student years at Oxford freed him from this. It is hard to be sure just how far Glanvill operated from principle and how far from expediency. At any rate, he was ordained in 1660 and became an articulate defender of Latitudinarian Anglicanism. It appears that he was an Anglican throughout his whole adult life; I do not list the Puritan phase.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Glanville made a couple of minor contributions to natural history, about the mines and medicinal springs near Bath, in response to general enquiries about natural history published in the Philosophical Transactions. His major work was in such books as Vanity of Dogmatizing, 1660, Scepsis scientifica (a later version of Vanity), 1664, and Plus Ultra, 1668, all defenses of the new natural philosophy, especially of experimental philosophy, against its detractors. Apparently all of his works are vocally hostile toward Scholastic philosophy. Scepsis closes with a 'Letter to a Friend, concerning Aristotle,' an articulate expression of the age's turning away from Aristotle. Philosophia pia; or, A Discourse of the Religious Temper and Tendencies of the Experimental Philosophy, 1671.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Glanvill was chaplain to Francis Rous, one of Cromwell's lords, 1658-9 (when Rouse died). Rector of Wimbish, Essex, 1660-2. Vicar of Frome Selwood, Somerstershire, 1662-72. Rector of the Abbey Church at Bath, 1666-80. After 1666 Bath appears to have been Glanvill's seat. But note that he always held a second benefice at the same time. Rector of the Streat and Walton, 1672-80. In 1672 he exchanged Frome Selwood for Streat and Walton. Chaplain in ordinary to Charles II, 1672-80. Received a prebend at Worcester, 1678.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Glanvill came from fairly modest beginnings, and he was clearly on the make. He was forward in introducing himself to prominent people such as Richard Baxter, Robert Boyle, and the Duchess of Newcastle. He was profuse in the use of dedications. When he died, he left a goodly inheritance. Invited by Francis Rous, one of Cromwell's lords and provost of Eton College, to live with him as his chaplain, from 1658 until Rous' death in 1659. His brother, a prosperous merchant purchased the rectory of Wimbish for him in 1660. Despite the obvious analogies with patronage, I will not list this. He dedicated Vanity of Dogmatizing to Joseph Maynard, Fellow and later Rector of Exeter College. Their connection is unknown, and Maynard did not reappear in Glanvill's later life. Presented to the vicarage of Frome Selwood in 1662 by Sir James Thynne, and later to Streat and Walton. I am not aware that he dedicated anything to Thynne. He dedicated Lux orientalis, 1662, to Francis Willughby, Esq. I am pretty sure this is John Ray's patron. He dedicated Scepsis scientifica to the Royal Society. Lord Breneton read the dedication to the society at the meeting of 7 December 1664 and proposed Glanville for membership at that time,; Dedicated Plus ultra, 1668, to William Pierce, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Dedicated 'An Account of the Nature of a Spirit' (part of A Blow at Modern Sadducism) to Charles, Duke of Richmond and Lennox. Dedicated A Prefatory Anser to Mr. Henry Stubbe, 1671, to Francis Godolphin. Dedicated Philosophia pia, 1671, to Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury. Appointed chaplain in ordinary by Charles II, 1672. Through the influence of the Marquis of Worcestor, to whom he was related by marraige, he received the prebend in Worcester. Glanville had dedicated books (Essays on Several Important Subjects, 1676, and a set of four sermons, 1678) to both the Marquis and the Marchioness shortly before this.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Frequent correspondence with Richard Baxter, Boyle and Henry More from 1661. With Henry More he formed a virtual association for psychical research. Successfully traced the important missing manuscripts of Samuel Foster. Royal Society, 1664-80. Secretary of a Somerset affiliate established in 1669 (and I think stillborn almost immediately).

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 7, 1287-8.
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2203-15. Jackson Cope, Joseph Glanvill, Anglican Apologist, (St. Louis, 1956). Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 1244-5. Richard Popkin, 'Joseph Glanvill: a Precursor of David Hume,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 14 (1953), 292-303. _____, 'The Development of the Philosophical Reputation of Joseph Glanville,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 15 (1954), 305-11. Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society, 4, 58-60. Stephen Medcalf, 'Introduction' to Glanvill, The Vanity ofDogmatizing: The Three Versions, (Hove, Sussex, 1970), pp. xiii-xlvi. Sascha Talmor, Glanvill: The Uses and Abuses of Scepticism, (Oxford, 1987).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Moody E. Prior, 'Joseph Glanvill, Witchcraft, and Seventeenth-Century Science,' Modern Philology, 30 (1932), 167-93.


Glaser, Christopher



1. Dates: Born: Basel ca. 1615 (Contant say he was born on 27 January 1628.); Died: Paris (possibly Basel), 1672 [or 1678] (Contant summarily rejects the story that he survived 1672 and died later back in Basel.); Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 57 (I have accepted Contant on the death because it sounds reasonable; I have stuck with the earlier birth because Contant offers nothing but the assertion.)
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; France; Swiss; Birth: Basel, Switzerland. Career: Paris, France. Death: Paris, France, (or Basel, Switzerland)
4. Education: None Known; He seems to have been trained in Basel as an apothecary. According to Partington, he graduated in medicine at Basel. And according to de Milt and Neville, he took degrees in pharmacy and medicine in about 1643. (But surely no university gave a degree in pharmacy in the 17th century.) Contant says nothing about university education and treats Glaser as an apothecary. The first-hand accounts of mines in his work suggest that he travelled in eastern Europe, as far as Transylvania and Hungary, to observe mining practice.
5. Religion: from his career, I assume Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Iatrochemistry; Pharmacology; . Glaser's work falls between that of LeFevre and Lemery. Whereas LeFevre drew on a Paracelsian-Helmontian tradition and Lemery on on the corpuscularian, Glaser largely eschewed theory, mostly reciting chemical recipes. However, his Traité was extremely popular in iatrochemical circles. Though his approach is very different from alchemists and some iatrochemists, and he was severely pratical, he was plainly an iatrochemist.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; About 1658, he settled in Paris, opened an apothecary's shop in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, and prospered. He was apothecary in ordinary to Louis XIV and his brother the Duke of Orleans. 1660 - c. 1672, demonstrator in chemistry at the Jardin du Roi (suceeding Le Fevre), advancing to professor (year unknown). 1672, he disappeared from public life, hence the uncertainty in the year of his death. According to one source, he returned to Basel, where he practiced medicine and surgery until his death in 1678.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Medical Practioner; De Milt suggests that some official must have protected his shop (see 7 above) because edicts prohibited the operation of furnaces without the permission of the king, verified by civil authorities, but this would have been a formality because the operation of furnaces was, in fact, encouraged. Antoine Vallot, professor of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi, but more importantly an influential court physician in charge of the Jardin, was an important patron. He was responsible for Glaser's appoinments as apothecary-in-ordinary to Louis XIV and the Duke of Orleans. The second edition of Glaser's Traité de la chymie (1667) is dedicated to Vallot. De Milt suggests that Fagon (who became an influential court physician), sent by Vallot to the botanical gardens of Europe in 1658, was responsible for Glaser's settling in Paris. Another patron was Nicolas Fouquet, the ill-fated superintendent of finances. Contant says that one of the customer's in Glaser's apothecary shop was the mother of Fouquet and that through her Glaser gained Fouquet's protection. Fouquet in turn recommended him to Vallot at the Jardin du Roi. With this support he became apothecary to the Duke of Orleans and to the king, and when Le Febvre left he got the post at the Jardin. In 1672, he was implicated in the Brinvilliers poison case. The marquise de Brinvilliers, with her accomplice Gaudin de Sainte-Croix, used a recipe of Glaser's to make the poison with which they killed the marquise's father (1666) and two brothers (1669 & 1670). After a short stay in the Bastille, until it was determined that Glaser did not know how the white arsenic he sold Saint-Croix was to be used, Glaser disappeared from public life. At her interrogation in 1676, the marquise confirmed that Glaser had prepared the poison for Sainte-Croix.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; He supported himself with his apothecary shop.
10. Scientific Societies: None. His most noted pupil was Nicolas Lemery.

SOURCES
Clara de Milt, 'Christopher Glaser,' Journal of Chemical Education, 19 (1942), 53-60. Hélène Metzger, Les doctrines chemiques en France du début du XVIIe à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, pp. 82-6. J.R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 3 (London: MacMillan, 1962), 24-26. R.G. Neville, 'Christopher Glaser and the Traite de la Chymie, 1663,' Chymia, 10 (1965), 25-52. J.P.Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au jardin royal des plants de Paris, Paris, 1952.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Christopher Glaser, Neu-eröffnete chymische Artzney- und Werck-Schul, ed. Hans-Joachim Poeckern, (Weinheim: VCH, 1988).


Glaser, Johann Heinrich



1. Dates: Born: Basel, 6 October 1629; Died: Basel, 5 February 1679 Datecode: - Lifespan: 50
2. Father: artisan; His father had acquired a sound reputation as a painter and engraver in Basel. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Swiss; Sw. Birth: Basel, Switzerland. Career: Basel, Switzerland. Death: Basel, Switzerland.
4. Education: University of Basel; M.D. University of Geneva. He began his studies in Basel. He seems in 1645 to have been committed to philosophy. I take the fact that he wrote a dissertaion in philosophy in 1648 as evidence for a B.A. 1648, he went to Geneva to study medicine. He wrote a dissertaion in 1650. 1661, he presented Disputatio de rheumatismo as his doctoral dissertation in Basel.
5. Religion: Calvinist (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medical Practioner; 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; He practiced medicine for a time in Heidelberg. Afterward, he moved to Paris. 1661, he returned to Basel. 1662, he established a medical practice that soon brought him international fame. 1665, he became full professor of Greek. 1667, he was named professor of anatomy and botany at the Faculté de Médecine at Basel. He was named doctor-in-chief at a large municipal hospital in Basel.
8. Patronage: unknown, but academic appointment indicates it.
9. Technological Connections: med; He was a successful physician.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES
A. Hirsch, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ), 9, 216.

Not Consulted: H. Buess, Recherches, découveries et inventions de médecins suisses, E. Kaech, trans. (Basel 1946). A. Burckhardt, Geschichte des medizinischen Fakultät zu Basel (Basel, 1917). F. Husner, Verzeichnis der Basler medizinischen Universitätsschriften von 1575 - 1829 (Basel, 1942). Franciscus Pariz, Sancta merx viri nobilissimi J. Henrici Glaseri (Basel, 1675).


Glauber, Johann Rudolf



1. Dates: Born: Karlstadt, 1604; Died: Amsterdam, 10 March 1670 Datecode: - Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Miscellaneous; He was the son of a barber, Rudolf Glauber of Hundsbach. I list this under Miscellaneous. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Germany; Dutch;and Germany; Dutch; Birth: Karlstadt, Germany. Career: Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Germany. Death: Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
4. Education: None Known; He began his education at the Latin school in Karlstadt, but did not finish. He probably also worked at the Mohren-Apotheke. 1626-1632: He did not attend a university, but set out in quest of spagyric wisdom, visiting laboratories in Paris, Basel, Salzburg (1626), and Vienna (1625/26).
5. Religion: Catholic. He was born a Catholic, but argued that men would be judged by their deeds rather than by the idiosyncracies of a particular sect. He was more at ease in religiously tolerant Amsterdam.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Alchemy; Iatrochemstry. Pharmacology; Metallurgy; chemistry, alchemy, Iatrochemistry. Subordinate Disciplines: pharmacology, metallurgy
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Pharmacology; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; 1632, he earned his living by casting metallic mirrors. 1635, worked at the court apothecary in Giessen. He received 9 gulden for the work he did for the Prince's apothecary in 1635, and he received a salary for 3/4 for the year 1636. This and most other court connections seem too low level to be considered patronage; I list it under artisan. However, he did have one relation with Ferdinand II which sounds like patronage. 1636-1639, after leaving Giessen, he went to Frankfurt, and then probably went to work for the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt in Bonn. 1640, he left Germany to settle in Amsterdam. 1644, back in Giessen, again as the court apothecary, where some sources say he was now in charge. Gubel is of the opinion that he only worked there. 1645, the upheaval of the thirty-years war forced him to leave. 1646, he returned to Amsterdam and bought a large house for which he had to pay annual property tax of 1000 gulden (which seems an enormous amount). He produced and sold drugs, which inspires some to call him the world's first industrial chemist. Nevertheless, in 1650 he experienced bankruptcy, and, facing a suit of 10,000 gulden, fled to Germany. 1651, he settled in Wertheim and began experiments in wine improvement, probably also continuing other alchemical experiments. 1652, after being evicted (the house was needed by the new owner), he moved to Kitzingen, where, surprisingly, he bought a large house with cash. He maintained a medical practice of sorts, dispensing primarily antimony-containing medicines free of charge. He received some income by 'licensing' his alchemical secrets to other practioners. For example, he sold a Dr. Otto Sperling his method of wine preparation for 400 Reichstaler for the regions of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. If Sperling were to use the technique in France, England, or Germany, he was subject to a fine of 1000 Reichstaler. He also entered into a partnership with Christoph Farner of Loechgau (1652/3) which disolved with much acrimony (1655). 1654, he left Kitzingen. Thereafter he travelled to Frankfurt, Rothenberg o.T., and Nuremberg. He also planned to travel to Regensburg where, he writes, he was to be enobled by Ferdinand III, but he did not make this trip. His travelling household at this time numbered 15 (I believe this consisted of his wife, 8 children, and 6 assistants). 1656, he left Germany to return to Amsterdam, where he outfitted 'surely the most impressive laboratory in Europe' (D.S.B.). He settled in a large house on the Keysersgracht, which cost 400-500 taler yearly rent. There he lodged his 8 children and 5-6 assistants. In 1660, he was hit by a paralysis which confined to bed for 2 months. 1666, a fall from a wagon kept him bedridden for the rest of his life. Gradually, he had to let his assistants go and sold off the bulk of his equipment and books in 1668.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; 1625/26: Glauber was in the imperial court in Vienna-Neustadt. Ferdinand II supported alchemists, and Glauber entered this circle through his acquaintance with Sendivogius. One can see a direct indication of favor towards Glauber in that he was allowed to remain in Vienna-Neustadt in violation of the anti-plague laws enacted in 1625 which prohibited foreigners from staying there, even though he was very ill at the time. Glauber claimed that he was to have been enobled by Ferdinand's son in 1654. It should be noted that some patronage was possibly involved in his position as court apothecary in Giessen. 1654, he presented his lord, Wuertzberg Princebishop Johann Philipp von Schoenborn, elector and archbishop of Mainz, with his method of Tartar fabrication in return for a privilege granted him in 1652. There seems little justification for the view that Glauber refused patronage. He clearly had several patrons in Germany. In Amsterdam, however, he does not seem to have had one and thus perhaps one can conclude that by the end of his life he had wearied of them. It may be the case that he did not depend on his patrons for financial support, as he lived primarily from the income generated by his chemical production.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Agriculture; Chemistry; He made medications, and even set aside an hour each day to administer free medicines. These medications were evidently antimony-based and, as far as I can tell, did constitute a new and different direction in pharmacology. He made his living in the wine industry for a time, and later, in his Dess Teutschlands-Wohlfahrt (1656-1661), he advocated the export of wine and beer, giving recipes for concentrates that are stable and easily exported. This is only one in series of improvements in cottage industries that Glauber thought would improve German trade and aid in the recovery from the thirty-years war. He also wrote a tract in the interest of the Dutch East India Company called 'Trost der Seefahrenden oder Consolatio Navigantium' which contains methods for concentrating and preserving rations, medicines against scurvy, and preparation of fresh from salt water. He did experiments growing crops with artificial fertilizer (tartar chemically derived from wine) in soil brought from the most infertile part of the beach, and he had several experimental plots at his laboratory at Amsterdam where he studied the effects on crops of various treatments. In Amsterdam, he supported himself with the sale of his chemical products. I do not know how many of these were non-pharmaceutical, but I thought it ought to be put down as useful application of scientific knowledge. Spronsen insists on the importance of Glauber as an industrial chemist, who was able to produce a range of chemicals in commercial quantities, and in fact did so. (I need to say that I am skeptical of this, but I need to record it.) Spronsen includes explosives among the chemicals he produced.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES
Kurt F. Gugel, Johann Rudolf Glauber, 1604-1670. Leben und Werk, (Wuerzberg, 1955). Erich Pietsch, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ) 6:437a-438a. J. W. van Spronsen, 'Glauber grondlegger van chemische industrie,' Nederlandse chemische industrie, Nr. 5, 3 March 1970, pp. 3-11.


Glisson, Francis



1. Dates: Born: apparently Rampisham, Dorset, c.1597. I will note that the entry record at Gonville and Caius lists his age as 18 when he was enrolled on 28 June 1617. This one piece of evidence would indicate 1598 or 99. Died: London, 16 October 1677; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Unknown; All we know is that William Glisson was called a 'Gentleman' on Glisson's matriculation record at Cambridge. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Educaton: Cambridge University, M.A., M.D. Cambridge University, Gonville and Caius College, 1617-34; B.A., 1621; M.A., 1624; incorporated M.A. at Oxford, 1627; M.D., 1634.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Embryology; Natural Philosophy; De rachitide, 1650, was a classic on rickets. Anatomia hepatis, 1654, contains, inter alia, the description of Glisson's capsule. Tractatus de natura substantiae energetica, 1672, expounds a theory of natural philosophy that all bodies have life. Tractatis de ventriculo et intestines, 1677, contains a physiological theory based on a succus nutritus distributed by the nerves, and psychic spirits that the succus carries. It asserts the existence of a general property of irritability in all living parts of the body. It is also a general work on the anatomy and pysiology of digestion. This work also discusses embryogenesis.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Org; Junior Fellow of Caius, 1624-9; Greek lecturer, 1625-6; Dean, 1629; Senior Fellow, 1629-34. Regius Professor of Physic, 1636-77. As nearly as I can make out, Glisson ceased to be resident in Cambridge shortly before his appointment to the Regius chair. Only in 1675 did he appoint a deputy. His whereabout and activities during the following fifteen years are uncertain. Older account have him in Cambridge until 1640 and then in a medical practice in Colchester, 1640-50. However, he was Reader in Anatomy at the Royal College of Physicians in 1639 (which I assume was a paid position) and delivered the Gulstonian Lecture before the College in 1640. It appears highly likely that he set up practice in London about 1635 (when he was admitted to the College) and that he remained there. Note that both the account of the origin of the book on rickets and Wallis' recollections of the 'invisible college' place Glisson in London in the mid 40s. Medical practice in London, from 1650 at the latest until 1677 (note that he held on to the chair in Cambridge at the same time-which was not uncommon).
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; He was physician to Anthony Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury, and his family for several years. He dedicated De natura substantiae, 1672, to Ashley for his patronage and asistance in several difficulties Glisson had met with.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Glisson was one of the group in the so-called Invisible College, the original gathering in London during the 40s seen as the beginning of the Royal Society. Friendship with Wharton and George Ent. Association with G. Bate and A. Regemorte. Royal Society, 1660-77. Royal College of Physicians, 1635-77; Reader in Anatomy, 1639; Gulstonian lecturer, 1640; Councilor, 1666; President, 1667-9.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 7, 1316-17. Charles Webster, 'The College of Physicians: 'Solomon's House in Commonwealth England,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 41 (1967), 393-412. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 218-21. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 326-38. John Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1897-1901), 1, 236.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Thomas Birch, The History of Royal Society of London, 3, 356-7. R. Milnes Walker, 'Francis Glisson and his Capsule,' Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons, 38 (1966), 71-91. Charles Gillispie, 'Physick and Philosophy: a Study of the Influence of the College of Physicians of London upon the Foundation of the Royal Society,' Journal of Modern History, 19 (1947), 210-25. T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 50-7.


Goedaert, Joannes



1. Dates: Born: Middleburg, ca. 19 March 1617; Died: Middleburg, February 1668; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 51; 
2. Father: No good information. Meertens says a burger family. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: None Known; Probably not even a secondary education; he did not know Latin. Certainly no university education.
5. Religion: Calvinist assumed.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Entomology; He was the first to write on the insects of the Netherlands, based on first hand observation, following the life cycles of insects. Published in Metamorphosis naturalis, 3 vols. (1662-9). He apparently had some knowledge of chemistry and of pharmacology, but there is no evidence of contributions to these fields.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; After some hesitation, I take artisan as the best category. Goedaert is remembered primarily as a painter, especially in watercolors, of birds and insects. In the absence of other comment, I take this to have been his livelihood.
8. Patronage: Non; No information
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
P.J. Meertens, Letterkundige leven in Zeeland in die zestiende en de eerste helft des seventiende eeuw, (Amsterdam, 1943), pp. 440-1. Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. A. Schierbeek, Schouwburg der dieren, (The Hague, 1943), pp. 122-7. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: F. Nagtglas, Levensberichten van Zeeuwen, (Middleburg, 1890-3), pp. 267-8.


Gohory, Jacques [alias Orlande de Suave or Leo Suavius]



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 20 January 1520; Died: Paris, 15 March 1576; Datecode: Lifespan: 56
2. Father: Government Official; Aristocrat; Pierre Gohory, sieur de la Tour et de Laval, was an advocate to the Parlement of Paris, a member of the noblesse de la robe. His wife was from a similar family. They were clearly wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Par; Unknown; LD; Gohory studied poetry, music, and the like at the Collège de Sainte-Barbe. Apparently he began his higher education in Paris, and then went to some provincial university, which is unknown, to study law. From his status as an avocat to the Parlement I have assumed the legal degree, and I also assume a B.A. or its equivalent. Later on, after his diplomatic career, he pursued the occult arts including alchemy, as well as natural history. 
5. Religion: Catholic. It appears that he took minor orders; he was never ordained and did not live as a priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy; Iatrochemistry; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Org; Gohory is important as an early disseminator of Paracelsian ideas in France. His Compendium (1568) of the philosophy and medicine of Paraclesus contains a summary of Paraclesus'principal doctrines and a commentary on his De vita longa. In his retirement he also devoted himself to alchemy, on which he published. The Lycium philosophal, which he founded in his home in Paris, became a center for the preparation of chemical medicines. The grounds of his home were devoted to an early botanical garden, made up largely of medicinal plants. His short monograph on tobacco, L'instruction sur l'herbe petum (1572), is one of the earliest on the subject. It is concerned primarily with the medicinal uses (as they were then perceived) of tobacco. He also pursued natural history in general. The Lycium approached the status of an early scientific academy where interested men gathered.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; As a young man, in the period 1543-56, he was attached to a succession of men very prominent in France, such as Anne de Montmorency and Odet de Selve, and with them he followed the peripatetic court of Francis I. Even before 1543 he was briefly in the service of Anne d'Alencon, Marquise of Monferrat. He served Gabriel le Veneur, Bishop of Evreux, for several years. None of the sources on him discusses any professional activity (as an avocat of the Parlement, a standing he gained at the beginning of his career) beyond this personal service. During this period he served on various ambassadorial missions, including periods in England, and especially in Rome (1554-1556) as secretary to Odet de Selve. He did retain his title of advocate to the Parlement until his death. It would appear that Gohory was socially clumsy and was considered something of an embarrassment by his family. Though he was the eldest son, the father explicitly bequeathed his title and the bulk of the estate to Gohory's younger brothers. Nevertheless, he inherited enough to live on, and hating the life of the court, he retired to private life in 1556 and devoted himself henceforth to study. In 1573, at the instigation of Christophe de Thou, long a friend of the family, the Parlement of Paris, of which de Thou was president, seized the recent legacy of Pierre Ramus to endow a chair in mathematics at the Collège Royale, and perverted it to a subsidy of 500 livres per annum for Gohory. He was designated royal historiographer and was expected to continue Paolo Emilio's De rebus gestis francorum which had been left incomplete. Gohory received this income until his death three years later.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; Court Patronage; See in part what is said above about Gohory's support. Gohory dedicated some of his books to the aristocrats he served-a translation of Machiavelli's Discourses on Titus Livy and another book to le Veneur, the Bishop of Evreux, a translation of Livy's Decades and another work to Montmorency. He dedicated the manuscript of the history produced on order to de Thou, and an edition of Livy to de Thou's brother, the Bishop of Chartes. Gohory was a prolific dedicator, illustrating the whole intention of dedications. He dedicated separate books of Amandis, which he translated into French, to the Duchess of Nevers, the Countess de Retz, Marguerite of Navarre, and Diane of Poitiers (the mistress of Henry II), and later complained that the last two did not reward him. (I note, incidentally, these dedications to women, and also his service to a woman, the significance of which I do not now understand.); He also dedicated his first long Latin poem to Pierre du Chatel, a prominent aristocrat and the Bishop of Mâcon. He dedicated part of his work on Paracelsus (the volume had three dedications, the other two to peers) to Louis Saint-Gellais de Leusac, who had preceded de Selve as ambassador to Rome and who remained in the city while Gohory was there. He dedicated his translation of Machiavelli's Prince to don Ian Francisque delli Affaytdi [sic], and L'herbe petum to don Ian Francisque Caraffe, duc d'Arian. (I gather that these two don Ian Francisques were not one and the same.); Catherine de' Medici as it were sponsored L'herbe petum, though Gohory did not dedicate it to her. In 1574, together with others, he published a collection of Latin poems welcoming Henry III back from Poland. Gohory is of interest in part because he clearly despised the status of client. Partly this may be his reaction to the family's rejection of him and a feeling that he was not appreciated as much as he deserved. In any case, he retired from the court (though not from dedicating). In 1572, in his dedication of L'herbe petum, and at much the same time, in his dedication of the thirteenth book of Amandis to Catherine de Clermont, Countess de Retz, he complained that the grandees who had utilized his services had shown an abominable ingratitude toward him. Therefore, having observed the ways of the court, he abandoned it was soon as he could. (See Hamy, p. 6, and Bowen, p. 78.)
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; See above.
10. Scientific Societies: From 1572 he maintained a private academy which he called Lycium Philosophal San Marcellin, at his home in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel. The academy was devoted to the encyclopedic cultivation of the arts in the Italian Neoplatonic tradition, emphasizing achemy, botany, and magical arts. The Lycium had a botanical garden and a chemical laboratory, which became a center for the preparation of chemical medicines.

SOURCES:
E.-T. Hamy, 'Un precurseur de Guy de la Brosse. Jacques Gohory et le Lycium Philosophal de Saint Marceau de Paris (1571-1576),' Nouvelles archives du Museum d'histoire naturelle, 4th ser., 1 (1899), pp. 1-26. Thorndike 5, 635-40. Partington, 2, 162-3. D.P. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magaic from Ficino to Campanella, (London, 1958), pp. 96-106. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 21, 83-5. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 16, 501-2. Willis H. Bowen, Jacques Gohory (1520-1576), unpublished dissertation, Harvard, 1935. This dissertation is far and away the leading source on Gohory.

Not Consulted: Willis H. Bowen, 'L'histoire de la Terre-Neuve du Péru. A Translation by Jacques Gohory,' Isis, 28 (1938), 330-40. _____, 'The Earliest Treatise on Tobacco: Jacques Gohory's Instruction sur l'herbe petum,' Isis, 28 (1938), 347-63.


Graaf, Regnier de



1. Dates: Born: Schoonhoven, Netherlands, 30 July 1641; Died: Delft, 21 August 1673; Datecode: Lifespan: 32; 
2. Father: an architect in Schoonhoven (Eng); Barge insists on the father's accomplishments and on the wealth of the mother's family. De Graaf was able to pay for the publication of his 90 page dissertation and to include three plates. I do not see how one can question that the family was at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: Lou, University of Utrecht; University of Leiden; Ang; M.D. As a Catholic, de Graaf went to Louvain, 1658-61. Began medical studies in 1661 at Utrecht, stayed there two years. Moved to Leiden (1663-5), where he was the student of Sylvius and van Horne. M.D. Angers, 1665.
5. Religion: Catholic. This largely explains why de Graaf never held a university position in the Netherlands.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Anatomy; Embryology; He published on pancreatic juice in 1664, a work that was translated into French and much reprinted. He is considered one of the creators of experimental physiology. He identified the Graafian follicle, and also published on male reproductive organs.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice; He supported himself by a medical practice in Delft, beginning in 1666.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Medical Practioner; He dedicated his tract on male organs of reproduction (1668) to Habert de Montmor. He dedicated his tract on female organs of reproduction (1671) to Cosimo III. He dedicated the French translation of his doctoral treatise on pancreatic juice (1664) to Jean Capelain, councillor to Louis XIV, as also its new Latin edition of 1669. He dedicated his brief tract on the use of the syringe in anatomy (1669) to Vopiscus Plempius, Professor of Medicine at Louvain.
9. Technological Connections: Instrumentation, Medical Practice; He used a technique of injecting dye into organs in order to be able to observe them better. It was on this technique that the bitter priority dispute with Swammerdam developed. Beek says that he invented the syringe.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship with Swammerdam until the dispute. In France he attended the weekly assemblies at the home of Bourdelot which appear to have been influential in his career. And here he made the acquaintance of an important part of the French medical community. Friendship with Leeuwenhoek, whom de Graaf introduced to the Royal Society.

SOURCES
Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. J.A.J. Barge, 'Regnier de Graaf, 1641 - 1941,' Mededeeligen der Nederlandsche Akad. der Wetenschappen, Afdeling Letterkunde, 5, #5 (1942), 257-81. C.E. Daniels, 'De Graaf,' in A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Vokler, 3rd ed. (Munich, 1962), 2, 616. J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s). G.A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medical Biography. G. A. Lindeboom, Reinier de Graaf, (Delft: Elmar, 1973).

Not Consulted and Mostly Not Available: A. Portal, Histoire de l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, 3 (Paris, 1770), 214-35. J. Roger, Les sciences de la vie, p. 842. A. Rey, De Sylvius à Regnier de Graaf, (Bordeaux, 1930). A sketch of his life in de Graaf's Verzamelde werken, (Dutch translation). This is not in the Latin edition, I find.


Graham, George



1. Dates: Born: Hethersgill, Cumberland, c. 1674. Hellman says 1673 or 75. Died: London, 16 November 1751. The gravestone 14 November, the Westminster burial record say 16 November, if it matters. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Also George Graham, a husbandman; he died soon after the birth of our George, who was reared by a brother. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No university education. Apprenticed to Henry Aske, a clockmaker in London, 1688-1695.
5. Religion: Anglican; Graham's father was a Quaker, but he was reared by a brother who was not. Although himself conducted his own life in what I might call a Quaker manner, several aspects of it (such as his willingness to take an oath, and his burial in Westminster Abbey) indicate that he was not a Quaker.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Physics; Graham is known as the preeminent instrument maker of his time, a man of major importance in the development of chronometry. He was also very knowledeable in astronomy, as he needed to be in order to perfect astronomical instruments. He made observations and published them in the Philosophical Transactions. Graham was actively involved, intellectually as well as professionally as an instrument maker, in establishing the exact shape of the earth by means of precision clocks. With his measurements (I include measurements in the tropics made with his instruments and instructions) he corrected Newton's figures for the proportional of the earth's axes.
7. Means of Support: Instruments; Employee, and later partner, of Thomas Tompion, 1695-1713, marrying Tompion's niece. Succeeded to the business of Tompion as heir by Tompion's will, 1713.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Aristocratic Patronage; Thomas Tompion treated him with utmost kindness as a virtual member of the family, and he eventually succeeded to Tompion's business as his heir. After waffling for some time, I have decided to include this. Since I have not used the category of Artisan under patronage, I will list this under Merchant; Graham somewhat repeated his own experience with Tompion by giving, in his turn, every encouragement and support to Harrison. With Tompion he made an 'orrery,' the original one from which the name comes, for the Earl of Orrery.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Orrery, with Tompion. Sorrenson says that Graham invented the orrery, but others deny that this one was even the first, though it was one of the first. Deadbeat escapement, about 1715. Mercury compensated pendulum, 1722. The cylinder escapement for watches, 1725. 8-foot quadrant with vernier, attaining a new level of accuracy, for Halley. 24 1/4-foot zenith sector with a micrometer screw. He later made a 12 1/2 foot instrument of the same sort for Bradley, with which he discovered the aberration of light. The apparatus used by the French for the measurement of a degree of the meridian in the far north. Improved micrometer screw for a reflecting telescope, 1727. He invented a beam caliper with a micrometer screw. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: He made an Orrery for Earl of Orrery, a great quadrant for Halley, a transit instrument and a great zenith sector for the Royal Observatary, and the apparatus used for the measurement of a degree of the meridian for Académie des Science of France. Royal Society, 1721-51. Council 1722. Prominent also in the Clockmakers' Company; Master in 1722.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 314-15. J. Bradley, 'An Account of Some Observations Made in London, by Mr. George Graham, F.R.S. . . .,' Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, 38 (1733-4), 302-14. Graham, 'The Description and Use of an Instrument for Taking the Latitude of a Place . . .,' ibid., 38, 450-7. 'An Account of a Comparison Lately Made . . . of the Standard of a Yard . . .,' ibid., 42 (1742-3), 541-56. C. Doris Hellman, 'George Graham, Maker of Horological and Astronomical Instruments,' Vassar Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 5 (1931), 221-51. H. Alan Lloyd, 'George Graham, Horologist and Astronomer,' Horological Journal, 93, no. 1118 (Nov. 1951), 708-17. The article appears to be the best source on Graham's life. Richard Sorrenson, 'Chapter III. George Graham,' a chapter in an uncompleted dissertation (when I read it), Princeton University.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: C. Doris Hellman, 'George Graham, Maker of Horological and Astronomical Instruments,' Popular Astronomy, 39 (1931), 186-99. John B. Penfold, 'The London Background of George Graham,' Antiquarian Horology, 14 (1983), 272-8.


Grandi, Guido



1. Dates: Born: Cremona, 1 October 1671; Died: Pisa, 4 July 1742; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Laborer; The father was a laborer. The word is 'operaio,' workman, and I have no idea what precisely Tenca (who used it) referred to. The father could well have been a minor artisan of some sort. In my view, to say laborer in the late 17th century was to say poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Religious Orders; Grandi studied initally at the Jesuit school in Cremona. In 1687, after joining the Camaldolesan order, he studied philosophy at their monastery in Ferrara. In 1693 he moved on to their monastery in Rome to study theology, and there he also took up an interest in the history of the order. I have come to feel I must count extended education within one of the religious orders as the equivalent of a B.A. I suspect that there was also the equivalent of a D.D., but I did not find mention of such.
5. Religion: Catholic. He enterd the religious order of the Camaldolese at the age of sixteen.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics; Hydraulics; Astronomy; As a collaborator in the publication of the first Florentine edition of the works of Galileo, he contributed to it a 'Note on the Treatise of Galileo Concerning Natural Motion', in which he gave the first definition of a curve he called 'versiera'. His reputation rests especially on the curves that he named 'rodonea' and 'clelia.'; On a more general level, his treatise on quadrature of (1703) marks the introduction of the Leibnizian calculus into Italy. He was also the author of several noteworthy and popular texbooks. He also did successful work in theoretical and pratical mechanics. His studies in hydraulics evoked considerable interest from the governments of central Italy. He published a small amount on astronomy.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Eng; He entered the religious order of the Camaldolese in 1687,and was appointed teacher of philosophy and theology in his order's monastery in Florence in 1694. It was at this point, as he struggled to come to terms with the new philosophy, that Grandi took up serious study of mathematics. In 1700 he was named professor of philosophy at Rome, but the Grand Duke, who was determined to keep Grandi in Tuscany, named him professor of philosophy in Pisa. In Pisa he remained for the rest of his life. In 1707, he became mathematician and theologian to the Grand Duke. In 1714 he became professor of Mathematics at Pisa. After Viviani, Grandi became superintendent of water in Tuscany. He was also appointed Pontifical Mathematician to deal with issues of hydraulics in the Romanga, and he helped to carry out an extensive survey of the Po system. I feel that I need to list Engineering as one aspect of his support. I find it impossible to weigh his various sources of support adequately. Suffice it to say that Grandi also functioned as the Visitor General of his order, and that he bore the title of abbot.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Cosimo III de' Medici. When in 1700 he was called to Rome, Cosimo de' Medici encouraged him to stay in Tuscany, by making him professor of philosophy at Pisa. In 1707 he became mathematician to the Grand Duke. Inevitably he dedicated some of his books to the Grand Duke and to his son and successor, Prince Gian Gastone. He named a curve the clelia after Countess Clelia Borromeo, dedicating to her the work (Flores geometrici, 1728) in which it was published. I certainly treat his service to the Pope on issues of hydraulics in the Po valley as involving a dimension of patronage. 
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Mechanical Devices; He was superintendent of waters for Tuscany and was involved in projects such as the drainage of the Chiana Valley and the Pontine Marshes, and in the whole system of the Po valley, including the perennial issue of diverting the Reno into the Po. He experimented with a steam engine of his own design.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Named to the Royal Society in 1709 on a visit to England. Voluminous scientific correspondence (now in the library of the University of Pisa) with the mathematicians of the day. Tenca has published about his correspondences; see the bibliography to Tenca's Physis article.

SOURCES:
Gino Loria, Storia delle mathematiche, 2nd ed., (Milan, 1950). L. Tenca, 'Guido Grandi matematico e teologo di Granduca di Toscana,' Physis, 2 (1960), 84-9. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 617-27.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Agostini, Padre Guido Grandi matematico, 1671-1742, (Pisa, 1943). L. Tenca, 'Guido Grandi matematico cremonense,' Istituto lombardo di scienze e lettere, (Milano, 1950). _____, 'Epistolario di Guido Grandi,' in Convengo del gruppo italiano di storia delle scienze, (Firenze, 1950). _____, 'La corrispondenza epistolare tra Tommaso Ceva e Guido Grandi,' Istituto lombando di scienze e lettere, (Milano, 1950). _____, 'Corrispondenza tra Guido Grandi e scienziate dello studio padovano,' Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, (Venezia, 1953). F. Palladino and L. Simonutti, eds., Celstino Galiani - Guido Grandi, Carteggio (1714-1729), (Firenze, 1989).


Graunt, John



1. Dates: Born: London, 24 April 1620; Died: London, 18 April 1674; Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Merchant; Henry Graunt was a draper, i.e., merchant; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; Some formal 'English Learning.'; No university education. Apprenticed to a haberdasher of small wares, 1636-41. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; Catholic. Puritan, later (toward the end of his life) converted to Catholic church. There was apparently a period in between when Graunt was a Socinian.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Demography; Graunt is known for his sole published work, his Observations on the bills of mortality, 1662, a work which first established the uniformity and predictability of many important biological phenomena when taken in large numbers-such things as the greater number of female babies, the longer Lifespans of females, the high mortality among infants.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Like his master he became a haberdasher of small wares, 1641-74. He was a member of the Draper's company. Note that Graunt was a prominent and influential man in London. I don't know if he received any remuneration for the offices below, but they indicate his position. He went through various city offices, 1658-74: Common-council-man, two years; Foreman of the Wardmote inquest, 69-70; Captain of the Trained Band, several years. Toward the end of his life he was a governor of the New River Company.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Charles II specially recommended him as an original member of the Royal Society. Graunt dedicated the Observations to John Lord Roberts, Lord Privy Seal. He dedicated the second edition (also 1662) to Sir Robert Moray, and this led to his election into the society. He was employed by Ormond to recruit Walloon weavers living near Canterbury and to settle them in Ireland. He was a trustee for Sir William Backhouse in the New River Company. Petty offered him money to rebuild his house after the fire of London. (This doesn't sound like patronage to me; I don't list it. Petty was his close friend, and Graunt did things for Petty. Thus in 1650 his reputation in the city stood behind Petty's appointment to the Gresham chair of music.)
9. Technological Connections: None Known; Note that he was said to be involved in Petty's proposal for constructing a double-bottomed ship, but I am avoiding this sort of tenuous connection. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Intimate friendship with Petty. They shared many ideas on political statistics, and Petty has been claimed as the real author of the Observations (though that allegation appears not to be accepted now). A friend also of Aubrey and Pepys. Royal Society, 1662-74. Council, 1664-6.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 427-8. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2262-7. O. Dick, ed., Aubrey's Brief Lives, pp. 114-15. D.V. Glass, 'John Graunt and his Natural and Political Observations,' Notes and Records of Royal Society, 19, 63-100. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, 711; 4, 218. By quick perusal I think Wood's account of Graunt is taken word for word from Aubrey. C.H. Hull, a biographical sketch in Economic Writings of . . . Petty, 2 vols. (New York, 1899), 1, xxxiv-viii. Peter Buck, 'Seventeenth Century Political Arithmetic: Civil Strife and Vital Statistics,' Isis, 68 (1977), 67-84. Peter Laslett, 'Introduction' to The Earliest Classics: John Graunt and Gregory King (in the series Pioneers of Demography), (Gregg International Publishers, 1973).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Walter F. Wilcox, introduction to Graunt, Natural and Political Observations, (Baltimore, 1939), pp. iii-xiii. _____, 'The Founder of Statistics,' Revue de l'Institut International de Statistique, 5 (1937), 321-8. Ian Sutherland, 'John Graunt, a Tercentenary Tribute,' Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 126A (1963), 537-56.


Gray, Stephen



1. Dates: Born: Canterbury, 1666; baptized 26 December 1666; Died: London, 7 February 1736; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Artisan; Mathias Gray was a dyer, described (on what evidence I do not know) as a rapidly rising artisan. No adequate information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; No university education. Probably studied in London or perhaps in Greenwich under John Flamsteed. Somewhere he acquired working Latin.
5. Religion: Anglican; Pensioners of the Charterhouse had to be members of the established church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Electricity; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; From the 90s to 1716 Gray devoted his scientific energies to astronomical observations, quantitative and accurate, of eclipses, sunspots, the satellites of Jupiter, and the like. He was in constant correspondence with Flamsteed. It is clear that Gray was an accomplished observer, to the extent that Trinity College, Cambridge, hired him as an assistant in its planned observatory. In the latter years of his life he devoted himself to electricity. In 1729 he discovered that electricity could be conducted. Threads are what he used for this. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1731 (the first award) and again in 1732 for his research on electricity. In his early letters to the Royal Society there is a lot of natural history.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Secondary Means of Support: Miscellaneous; Patronage; Until disabilities made it impossible, he was a dyer like his father. In 1707-8, Gray was resident in Trinity, as an assistant to Cotes in setting up the observatory there. I list this and the following item under Miscellaneous. About 1715-19 (the exact dates are impossible to establish) he appears to have been resident with Desaguliers in Westminster, again serving him as an assistant. Pensioner of the Charterhouse through the patronage of Prince of Wales, 1719 until his death.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Gentry; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; For the most part his long relationship with Flamsteed does not appear as patronage. It is impossible to imagine his appointment at Trinity without Flamsteed's assistance, however. The positions with Cotes and Desaguliers occupy that hazy border between patronage and mere employment. On the nomination of the Prince of Wales, he became pensioner of the Charterhouse in 1719. In his later years Gray was frequently resident with John Godfrey, Esq., (who had also been, note, a patron of John Harris) of Norton Court, Kent, and with the Rev. Granville Wheler, a properous cleric, both of whom aided his experiments in electricity and gave him financial support.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Gray's early letters are filled with talk about instruments of various kinds, mostly involving magnification. He is credited with a microscope in which a drop of water was the lens. He ground lenses. He worked hard at improving sand and water glasses as devices better to measure time. Some small instruments for electrical experiments.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Intimate and lasting friendship (and correspondence) with Flamsteed. Cooperation with Wheler in electrical experiments. Friendship with Henry Hunt. Hunt supplied him with the Philosophical Transactionsand transmitted to their editor the communications they called forth from Canterbury. 63 manuscript letters survive, at the British Library, the Greenwich Observatory, and the Royal Society. Royal Society, 1732-36. First receipient of the Copley medal, 1731, and then again in 1732.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8. W.P. Courtney, 'Stephen Gray, F.R.S.,' Notes and Queries, 6 (1906), 161-3, 354. I.B. Cohen, Franklin and Newton, pp. 368-71. _____, 'Neglected Sources for the Life of Stephen Gray,' Isis, 45 (1954), 41-50. J. Frederick Corrigan, 'Stephen Gray (1696 [sic] - 1726). An Early Electrical Experimenter,' Science Progress, 19 (1924), 102-14. R.A. Chipman, 'An Unpublished Letter of Stephen Gray on Electrical Experiment,' Isis, 45 (1954), 33-40. _____, 'The Manuscript Letters of Stephen Gray,' Isis, 49 (1958), 414-33. David H. Clark and Lesley Murdin, 'The Enigma of Stephen Gray: Astronomer and Scientist (1666-1736),' Vistas in Astronomy, 23 (1979), 351-404. This is at the moment the definitive work on Gray.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Michael Ben-Chaim, 'Social Mobility and Scientific Change: Stephen Gray's Contribution to Electrical Research,' British Journal for the History of Science, 23 (1990), 3-24.


Gregory [Gregorie], David



Gregorie was the Scottish spelling used by his family. He began to use Gregory only when he moved to Oxford.
1. Dates: Born: Aberdeen, 3 June 1659; Died: Maidenhead, Berkshire, 10 October 1708.  Seriously ill with consumption, Gregory collapsed while travelling from Bath to London and died in an inn in Maidenhead. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan 49
2. Father: Gentry; David Gregorie became heir to the considerable family estate, and a member of the gentry, upon the murder of his elder brother. By two wives David Gregorie had twenty-nine children. Our David was the third son by the first wife, but the oldest surviving one, and ultimately the oldest surviving child. It seems clear from the accounts that the family was wealthy after the inheritance, which came while our David was still an infant.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: Scottish & English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Aberdeen; Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1671-5. He left without taking a degree. Gregory was then at home, with an interlude of travel on the continent for an extended period of about eight years. In 1683, as he assumed his appointment at Edinburgh, the university conferred an M.A. on him. He never studied in Edinburgh, and I do not list this degree. M.A. & M.D. at Oxford, 1692. Both of these came soon after Gregory assumed the chair in Oxford. It appears that Gregory did have some knowledge of the iatromechanical theories of his friend Pitcairne, but I am not listing the medical degree, or the other for that matter.
5. Religion: Anglican; The Gregories were staunch episcopalians in Scotland. His mother, David Gregorie's first wife, was especially so and reared her children in this faith. Gregory's grandfather had been proscribed during the 40s for his religious views, and the problems of Gregory himself in Edinburgh in 1690 appear to have been related in part to this issue.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; Mechanics. Gregory is known primarily as a mathematician, a decent but not a great one. Exercitatio geometria de dimensione curvarum, 1684. In 1703 a complete edition of Euclid that remained the standard one for nearly two centuries. He worked with Halley on an edition of Apollonius' Conics, which appeared posthumously, 1710. In 1745, from Gregory's lecture notes at Edinburgh, Maclaurin published Treatise of Practical Geometry. Catoptricae & dioptricae sphericae elementa, 1695, with special attention to telescopes. Astronomiae physicae & geometricae elementa, 1702, an effort in the popularization of Newtonian science. Gregory left a manuscript on mechanics and hydrostatics, lectures, I believe, at Edinburgh.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Medical Practioner; In 1690 the family estate at Kinnairdie, where Gregory was reared, was made over to him. Professor of mathematics at Edingburgh University, 1683-1691. Gregory was caught up in the political turmoil in Scotland in 1690, which appears to have been partly, but only partly, an issue between presbyterians and episcopalians. Though he was not forced out, he found the atmosphere inhospitable, and he actively pursued an alternative, which he found south of the border. Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, 1691-1708. Gregory was appointed to be mathematical tutor to the young Duke of Gloucester in 1699. The Duke died before he could assume the position. There is documentary evidence that in Edinburgh at least he gave private lessons. In the 1580s Gregory became seriously interested in medicine. He received an M.D. degree, and he practiced medicine, though I do not have details. 
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Sci; It appears that Pitcairne was responsible for Gregory's appointment at Edinburgh. Gregory was much the wealthier of the two, though Pitcairne at that time had more influence. It is unclear how the two met. In the visitation crisis in Edinburgh in 1690, Gregory was supported and defended by Lord Tarbat, a governmental official. Through the influence of Bishop Burnet, he was appointed mathematical tutor to the young Duke of Gloucester in 1699. He dedicated his principal work, the Astronomia, to Prince George of Denmark. Earlier he had been appointed mathematical tutor to the Prince's son, the Duke of Gloucester, who died. Gregory owed the professorship at Oxford to Newton's strong recommedation and Flamsteed's support. Newton secured his appointment to a temporary and well paid position with the Edinburgh Mint at the time of union. Gregory dedicated the edition of Euclid to Dr. Aldrich, Dean of Christ Church, and received twenty guineas (for his son) in return. It strikes me that Gregory offers an excellent example of patronage. He certainly could have lived on his inherited means. However, he was ambitious, and to fulfill his ambitions he required patrons. He pursued them relentlessly his entire life.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Medical Practioner; Worked on an achromatic telescope. In Edinburgh Gregory lectured, inter alia, on surveying (in his Treatise of Practical Geometry). There was nothing original in the lectures, but they offered a good practical exposition of the methods and instruments of surveying. Gregory held an M.D. and was admitted to the College of Physicians in Edinburgh. Guerrini states explicitly that he practiced medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: He played the role of custodian of certain precious papers of James Gregory passed to him through the family and of verbal communications from Newton, which I recroded. Friendship with Archibald Pitcairne from undergraduate days. Friendship with Arbuthnot, Huygens, Wallis. Collaboration with Halley. Royal Society, 1691. Royal College of Physicians at Edinburgh, 1705-purely honorary.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 536-7.
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 2365-72. P.D. Lawrence and A.G. Mollond, 'David Gregory's Inaugural Lecture at Oxford,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 25 (1970), 159-65. Agnes Grainger Stewart, The Academic Gregories, (Edinburgh, 1901). Christina M. Eagles, 'David Gregory and Newtonian Science,' British Journal for the History of Science, 10 (1977), 216-25. _____, The Mathematical Work of David Gregory, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 1977. Anita Guerrini, 'The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and their Circle,' Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986), 288-311.

Not Available and Not Consulted: W.G. Hiscock, David Gregory, Isaac Newton, and Their Circle, (Oxford, 1937). 


Gregory [Gregorie], James



Gregorie was the Scottish spelling of the family name. As far as I can find James Gregorie never signed himself James Gregory, though it is the name universally used by history.
1. Dates: Born: Drumoak, near Aberdeen, November 1638; Died: Edinburgh, 1675; Datecode: Lifespan: 37
2. Father: Church Living; The Rev. James Gregorie was a minister. He died in 1650 when James Gregory was twelve. Partly, but only partly, through his wife's inheritance he amassed a small fortune. All the details indicate wealth.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: Scottish; Death: Scottish
4. Education: Abr, University of Padua; Grammar School at Aberdeen. Marischal College, Aberdeen University I assume an M.A. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. Studied geometry, mechanics and astronomy under Stefano degli Angeli, Torricelli's pupil, at Padua, 1664-8.
5. Religion: Anglican; The Rev. John Gregorie had much trouble from the Scottish Presbyterians because of his episcopalian principles. The whole Gregorie family were stubborn episcopalians.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Mechanics. James Gregory was one of the most important mathematicians of the century, significant especially in the steps that led to the calculus. He pursued what later appeared as a tedious and complex method of infinite series based on polygons to find the area of the circle and the hyperbola. This was published in Vera circuli & hyperbolae quadratura, 1668. In that same year, Geometriae pars universalis, which included also a doctrine of the transmutation of curves. In 1669, Exercitationes geometricae. Gregory also developed a method of drawing tangents to curves (i.e., differentiation). Before his first mathematical publication, Opticae promota, 1663, in which he first described a reflecting telescope. In Geometria Gregory included a section that dealt with astronomical phenomena such as comets. Later, as a professor at St. Andrews in 1673, he tried to found the first public observatory in Britain. Oppostion within the university thwarted it. Gregory pointed out the possible use of transits of Venus and Mercury to determine the distance of the sun. In 1672 Gregory published an important pioneering paper on the motion of bodies through a resisting medium. He composed some other papers on mechanics.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Professor of mathematics at St. Andrews, 1668-74. Professor of mathematics at Edingburgh University, 1674-5. The DNB says that Gregory was devoid of ambition-i.e, vulgar ambition.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; His talent was dicoveried and encouraged by his brother, David Gregorie. (I leave the information in, but this it not patronage.); He probably owed his professorshp at St. Andrews to Robert Moray. After his death, Charles II granted a pension to his widow and children. I'm not sure what to do with the following item: there was a church door collection in Aberdeen to provide Gregory with astronomical instruments. When Huygens thought he was dying in 1668, he suggested Gregory as a replacement in the Académie. This does not quite seem patronage because nothing happened. Compare James Gregory with his nephew David. James did not have anything like the personal means of David. However, he was apparently not ambitious for higher position. There was very little patronage in his life.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; The Gregorian telescope. Though there was an effort to realize the concept in fact, in London in 1664 with the instrument maker Reeve, it was unsuccessful because of the problem of polishing a good mirror. Gregory also invented a reflecting burning mirror. In 1674, by means of a lunar eclipse, observed by him in St. Andrews and also observed in Paris, Gregory was able to establish the longitude of St. Andrews.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship and correspondence with John Collins, 1668-75. Through Collins he received transcripts of letters written by Barrow, Huygens and Newton on a variety of topics, and he made Collins privy to many of his researches. Quite a bit of Gregory's correspondence is published (see especially the Gregory Memorial Volume) but not all in one place. See DSB. Royal Society, 1668-75.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 541-2. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 4, 1255-65. Agnes Grainger Stewart, The Academic Gregories, (Edinburgh, 1901). H.W. Turnbull, 'James Gregory,' in Turnbull, ed. James Gregory Tercentenary Memorial Volume, (London, 1939). _____, 'Early Scottish Relations with the Royal Society. 1. James Gregory, F.R.S. (1638-1675),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 3 (1940), 22-38.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: H.W. Turnbull, 'James Gregory (1638-1675),' Nature, 142 (1938), 57-8. The Gregory family, Chambers Edinburgh Journal, 223 (1846).


Grew, Nehemiah



1. Dates: Born: Mancetter, Warwickshire, 1641; Died: probably in London, 25 March 1712; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Church Living; Schoolmaster; Obadiah Grew was a non-conformist clergyman. As the Vicar of St. Michael's, Coventry, he refused to comply with the Act of Uniformity in 1662 and was ejected; later he was imprisoned for preaching inside limits forbidden by the Five Mile Act. He was also the master of Atherstone Grammar School. I don't know the dates, but I suspect that this was a non-conformist school set up after 1662. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cmb; University of Leiden; M.D. Early education at Coventry; Cambridge University; Pembroke Hall; B.A., 1661. University of Leiden; M.D., 1671. Grew did not study at Leiden; in keeping with an accepted practice, he came, took an examination, delivered an act, and received a degree.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Grew continued to adhere to the religious views of his father throughout his life.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Bot  Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy; Chemistry; Along with Malpighi, Grew is one of the founders of botany as the study of more than taxonomy. The Anatomy of Vegetables Begun, 1671, was followed by several other books that studied parts of plants (e.g, roots and trunks), and all were brought together in The Anatomy of Plants, 1682. Grew established, or helped to establish, the sexuality of plants. He described and illustrated the intestines and related organs of many different animals, studies collected in 'Comparative Anatomy of Stomachs and Guts,' in his Musaeum. He published a series of chemical papers, mostly analyses of vegetable products, collected in Anatomy of Plants. Musaeum regalis societatis, 1681. Cosmologia sacra, 1701.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Scientific Organization; Schoolmaster; Pub; There is no information on what Grew did between 1661 and 1671, though there is some indirect evidence that he was practicing medicine in Coventy. He was certainly practicing there in 1672 when the Royal Society induced him to move to London. Bishop Wilkins took the lead in a project within the Royal Society to raise a salary for Grew by subscription. He was appointed Curator of the Anatomy of Plants at a salary of L50. Ten fellow promised to subscribe, apparently L5 apiece, though several of them never paid up. Wilkins died before the year was out. Grew composed An Idea of a Phytological History Propounded, 1673, almost as a research proposal to the Royal Society (to whom it was dedicated) to encourage them to extend the arrangement. The society failed to obtain enough continuing subscriptions, and Grew returned to Coventry. However, he returned to London almost at once as the deputy to lecture for Jonathan Goddard, Professor of Physic at Gresham College, for L40. (I categorize this under Schoolmaster; as deputy he does not seem to me to have held an academic position.) Goddard died in 1675. Somewhat later Grew deputized for Walter Pope, the Professor of Astronomy at Gresham, and he was also paid for occasional lectures at the Royal Society. He was Secretary of the Royal Society, with a small salary, for three years, 1677-80. There is no evidence that Grew was also practicing medicine in London at this time. However, his half-brother, Henry Sampson, who played an important role in promoting Grew's scientific career, had set up practice among non-conformists in London in about 1668. Later, in the same year, 1680, both Grew and Sampson were admitted as so-called honorary fellows of the Royal College of Physicians. After about 1679 there is no doubt that Grew devoted himself entirely to his medical practice; it appears likely to me that he practiced medicine from the time he moved to London from Coventry. In 1681 and 82 Grew published his two books (Musaeum and Anatomy of Plants) by public subscription which he himself organized. They were among the first books financed in this way.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; He was persuaded by John Wilkins and other fellows of the Royal Society to move to London to take up the study of plant anatomy more seriously after they saw the manuscript of his Anatomy of Vegetables Begun. The Royal Society published the book, which Grew dedicated to Brouncker and the fellows of the society. Likewise he dedicated An Idea of the Phytological History Propounded to them in 1683. He dedicated one part of the Anatomy of Plants to Robertr Boyle. Robert Hooke made the society's microscope availble to Grew, launching his career as a micrscopist. See above for the society's continuing (if uncertain) encouragement of his research. He dedicated Comparative Anatomy of Trunks, 1675, and Anatomy of Plants, 1682, to Charles II.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; In addition to medical practice, Grew devoted attention to pharmacology. In 1678 he published Experiments of Luctation, which he described as a natural history of materia medica. He was the first to obtain sulfate of magnesia from Epsom waters and to employ it as a medicine. He published a tract on this in 1692 and another one on another salt (to be used as a medicine) in 1689.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: His studies were encouraged by Henry Sampson, his half-brother, and through Sampson he made connection with the Royal Society. Royal Society, 1671-1712; Curator, 1672; secretary, 1677-80. Royal College of Physicians, 1680-1712.

SOURCES:
Julius von Sachs, History of Botany, pp.229-41. QK15.S12; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 609-11. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), pp. 406-9. Agnes Arber, 'The Tercentenary of Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712),'Nature, 147 (1941), 630-2. _____, 'Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) and Marcelloa Malpighi (1628-1694): An Essay in Comparison,' Isis, 34 (1942-3), 7-16. _____, 'Nehemiah Grew, 1641-1712,' in F.W. Oliver, ed. Makers of British Botany, (Cambridge, 1913), pp. 44-64. Jeanne Bolam, 'The Botanical Works of Nehemiah Grew, F.R.S. (1641-1712),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 27 (1972-3), 219-31. Michael Hunter, 'Early Problems in Professionalizing Scientific Research: Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) and the Royal Society, with an Unpublished Letter to Henry Oldenburg,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 36 (1981-2), 189-209. This is a very illuminating article. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 6, 2402-4.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: W. Carruther, 'On the Life and Work of Nehemiah Grew,' Journal of the Royal Microscoptical Society, 129 (1902), 129-41. C.R. Metcalfe, 'A Vista in Plant Anatomy,' in W.B. Turrill, ed. Vistas in Botany, (London, 1959), pp. 76-98. Agnes Arber, 'Nehemiah Grew and Marcello Malpighi,' Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London, 153 (1940-1), 218-38. Conway Zirkle, introduction to Grew, The Anatomyk of Plants, (New York, 1965).


Grimaldi, Francesco Maria



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 2 April 1618; Died: Bologna, 28 December 1663; Datecode: Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Merchant; A silk merchant Fantuzzi says it was a noble family but I am not trusting that. The family is described as wealthy.
3. Nationality: Italy; Italy; Italian; Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Ord. Equivalent of B.A. assumed. D.D. 1634, studied in the Jesuit college at Novellara. 1635, studied philosophy at the Jesuit college at Parma. 1636, studied philosophy at Ferrara. 1637-1638, at Bologna, presumably studying. 1642-1645, studied theology at Bologna (presumably at the Jesuit College of Santa Lucia); 1647, doctorate in theology. Note that all of Grimaldi's education was in institutions of the society.
5. Religion: Catholic. 1632, entered the Jesuit order. 1651, took full vows for the priesthood.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; In addition to his well known work in optics, Grimaldi helped Riccioli in astronomy and prepared a map of the moon that assigned the enduring names to its principal features.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; 1638-1642, taught rhetoric and humanities at the College of Santa Lucia, Bologna. 1647, appointed to teach philosophy, but in ill health, so he took the less time consuming position of teaching mathematics. He continued in the college in Bologna until his death.
8. Patronage: None Known; Grimaldi's work is closely tied with the work of Riccioli, who was prefect of studies at Bologna when Grimaldi arrived. Grimaldi conducted experiments for him, and Riccioli credits him as being essential for the completion of his Almagestum novum (1651). Grimaldi is also responsible for a large amount of the tabular work in the second volume of Riccioli's Astronomia reformata (1665). It appears to me, especially from Riccioli's warm elogium to Grimaldi, that the two were far more peers and friends than patron and client.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Riccioli remarked especially on Grimaldi's skill at devising, building, and operating new instruments. Cassini was impressed by a quadrant he made.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Riccioli, Elogium, attached to Grimaldi, Physico-mathesis de lumine, coloribus, et iride (Bologna, 1665).  Roberto Savelli, Nel terzo centenario del 'De lumine' di F.M. Grimaldi, (Ferraro, 1966).
Vincenzo Busacchi, 'F.M. Grimaldi (1618-1663) e la sua opera scientifica,' in Actes du VIIe Congress international d'histoire des sciences, Florence 1956, (Paris, 1958), pp. 651-5. Vasco Ronchi, 'Padre Grimaldi e il suo tempo,' Physis, 5 (1963), 349-72.  Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891).  G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 4, 305-6. Angelo Fabroni, Vitae italiorum doctrina excellentium, 3, (Pisa, 1779), pp. 367-81.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Giorgio Tabarroni, P.F.M. Grimaldi, bolognese iniziatore della ottica-fisica (Bologna, 1964). _____, Nel terzo centenario della morte de F.M. Grimaldi, (Bologna, 1964). Neither of these pieces by Tabarroni, listed in the DSB, appear to be anywhere in the United States.
Roberto Savelli, Grimaldi e la rifrazione, (Bologna, 1951).


Grisogono, Federico [Federicus De Chrysogonius]



1. Dates: Born: Dalmatia, 1472 or 73; Died: Dalmatia, 1538 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Aristocrat; Antun Grisogono was the head of a noble Zadar family, described as one of the most illustrious ones in Zara. The details of Grisogono's own life, indicating the wealth he inherited, seem to make it obvious that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Yu, Yu, Yu; Birth: Dalmatia, or better Croatia (Yugoslavia); Career: Dalmatia (Yugoslavia); Death: Dalmatia (Yugoslavia)
4. Education: Pad. M.D. He studied philosophy and medicine at Padua at the same time when Copernicus was studying mathematics. B.A. about 1507. He also obtained an M.D.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Astrology; Mathematics; His small book, Speculum astronomicum (Venice, 1507) was a theoretical-mathematical commentary on Euclid's principles of geometry. [I must say that this sounds strange.] His major work, Federici de modo collegiandi... was printed in Venice in 1528. I am not sure if this work was astrological, but Grisogono was clearly involved in astrology.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: City Magistrate; Medical Practioner; He was born into one of the most illustrious families in Zadar, Dalmatia. After military adventures in Italy and France, he went to study at Padua. While there he received sixty-six florins a year (presumably from his personal wealth). Upon receiving his doctorate, he taught astrology and mathematics at Padua until returning home in 1508. He spent the rest of his life in Zadar as a rich aristocrat: administering property, holding public office, and practicing medicine. He was a town council member and a counsellor of the prince of Zadar in 1527.
8. Patronage: Non 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Civil Engineering; In 1537 he was involved with the problem of harbor construction in Rimini. 
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
M.D. Grmek, 'Prinosi za poznavanje zivota i rada F. Grisogona,' Radovi instituta Jugoslavenske akademie u Zadru, 15 (1968), 61-91.


Guericke [Gericke], Otto von


1. Dates: Born: Magdeburg, 20 November 1602; Died: Hamburg, 11 May 1686; Datecode: Lifespan: 84; 
2. Father: Aristocrat; Hans Gericke descended from a patrician family long established in Magdeburg. The mother, née Anna von Zweidorff, came from a similar family. The father, Hans, died in 1620 when von Guericke was eighteen. It is clear that the family was wealthy. Von Guericke inherited extensive property both in the city and in the countryside around it. 
3. Nationality: birth: German; career: German; death: German; 
4. Education: University of Leipzig; University of Helmstaedt; University of Jena; University of Leiden; Studied in the Faculty of Arts in Leipzig, 1617-20. With the early stages of the Thirty Years War threateninng Leipzig, his parents moved him to Helmstedt. He was there only briefly before the death of his father called him home. In 1621-2 von Guericke studied law at Jena. 1622-5, enrolled in the Faculty of Law at Leiden; according to his own account, he also studied mathematics and fortification there. Von Guericke did not take any degree in all of this-in accordance with his standing and needs. After Leiden he spent nine months on a tour of parts of France and England before returning home in 1626. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Physics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Electricity; Mtr; As a convinced Copernican, von Guericke was concerned with the nature of space and the possibility of empty space and the means of action across it. He constructed a physical world view, embodying Copernicanism, based on empty space across which magnetic action controls the movements of the planets. Each celestial body has its own finite sphere of activity. Von Guericke's experiments with the famous hemispheres led him to recognize the elasticity of air, which he investigated. When he learned of the Torricellian experiment, he repeated it, made barometric forecasts of the weather based on systematic observations over a period of years, and proposed a network of stations to make systematic reports of the barometer and weather. In addition to his interest in astronomy as a Copernican, von Guericke owned a telescope, which he apparently did not use extensively. He did observe the comet of 1664. He experimented with what we know to have been static electricity, although he did not recognize it as such. 
7. Means of Support: City Magistrate; Personal Means; Merchant; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Eng; When von Guericke returned home after his education, he was elected alderman of Magdeburg almost immediately, and he served the city continuously over the following fifty years. In 1630, he became city contractor. After the destruction of Magdeburg in 1631, as part of the Thirty Years War, when he had lost everything for the moment, von Guericke became an engineer (really military engineer) in the service first of Sweden, though the locale of the work was mostly Magdeburg, and then when control of the city passed into the hands of the Elector of Saxony in 1635, in his service. In this capacity, and also in his capacity as a magistrate of the city, von Guericke played a large role in its reconstruction. He functioned as a diplomatic representative of the city to the occupying powers, and later he represented the city at the peace negotiations that led to the Peace of Westphalia. Von Guericke attended the Imperial Diet at Regensburg (in the 50's). Diplomacy consumed much of his time from 1642 until 1666. He was elected one of the four rotating mayors of Magdeburg in 1646 and remained one of the mayors until 1676. He was enobled in 1666. Although I have been calling him von Guericke, this name is really correct only from 1666 on. Until then he was Otto Gericke. Von Guericke was also a brewer in Magdeburg. Although little is said about it, I tend to think that this must have contributed considerably to his income. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Von Guericke dedicated his Experimenta nova, 1672, to the Elector of Brandenburg. He received no money became, as a letter explicitly stated, he was known to be wealthy. In 1663 he built one of his Wettermännchen in Berlin for the Great Elector. His relation to the Great Elector, who became sovreign over Magdeburg as a result of the Peace of Westphalia, is intriguing. Von Guericke's son was an official in Hamburg in the service of the Great Elector. Apparently the son arranged the construction of the Wettermännchen, and that incident raises the speculation that the clientage of von Guericke, who was a wealthy men, was performed for the benefit of his son. 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Military Engineer; Civil Engineer; Cartography; He made his first suction pump in 1647 and continued in the following years to work at improving it into a real air pump. He also made what might be called the first static electric machine, a sulfur globe mounted on an axle. It is necessary here to note that von Guericke did not recognize the effect he generated as static electricity. He made a special barometer in which the column of mercury moved the arm of a man, which thus pointed out rising and falling pressure. This was the Wettermännchen. Von Guericke was an important man in rebuidling the city, both its fortifications and its bridges over the Elbe. After the destruction of Magdeburg, he drew up a map of the city for the Swedish authorities.
10. Scientific Societies: None Known.  Through his diplomatic activity, which involved much travel, von Guericke came into contact with intellectual and scientific circles in Germany. He corresponded with Schott, Lubieniechy, Leibniz, et al. Some of the correspondence is published in the Schimank volume. Krafft's 1978 article publishes a catalogue of the correspondence.

SOURCES:
Hans Schimank, tr. and ed., Otto von Guerickes Neue (sogenante) Magdegruger Versuche über den leerer Raum, (Düsseldorf, 1968). Alfons Kauffeldt, Otto von Guericke, (Leipzig, 1977). Fritz Krafft, Otto von Guericke, (Darmstadt, 1978).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Fritz Krafft, 'Die Correspondenz des Otto von Guericke (d. ). Eine Übersicht,' Technikgeschichte, 45 (1978).


Guibert, Nicolas



1. Dates: Born: Saint-Nicolas (Lorraine), c. 1547; Died: Vaucouleurs, c. 1620; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Unknown; Little is known of his family and early life. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany; (Lorraine was not then part of France); Career: Italy; German; Death: German 
4. Education: Personal Means; M.D. He studied medicine at the University of Perugia and received his degree. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy; Guibert spent the majority of his career as a working alchemist. Toward the end of it, he turned against the Art, and he his known today primarily for his attacks on it. As a vehement critic of alchemy, he attacked the fundamental tenets of the profession. In his Alchymia ratione et experientia ita demum viriliter impugnata (1603), he demonstrated that metals are distinct species and not transmutable. His second major work, De interitu alchymiae (1614), attacks the transmutation theory defended by a German iatrochemist in detail. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; After receiving his degree, he worked as an alchemist for the grand duke of Tuscany, for the Viceroy of Naples (Cardinal Granvelle), and for a leader of Philip II's Spanish faction at Rome. Later he settled in the Italian town of Casteldurante and established a successful medical practice. In 1578 he was appointed chief medical authority of one of the papal states. At the end of 1579 he left Italy to work as alchemist for Otto Truchs, Archbishop of Augsburg. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; He was alchemist to Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuccany. He worked as an alchemist for Cardinal Granvelle, Viceroy of Naples. He served as an alchemist for a leader of Philip II's Spanish faction at Rome. He was alchemist to Otto Truchs, Archbishop of Augsburg. Truchs underwrote the publication of an edition of Latin translations of Paracelsus.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: He associated for a time with Giambattista della Porta.

SOURCES
A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 2, 900-1. Partington, 2, 268. F.Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle biographie generale, 22, (Paris, 1858), p.517. John Ferguson, Bibliotheca chemica,(Glasgow, 1906), 1, 353. Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, (New York, 1941), 5, 648, 6, 244-7, 451-2.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Dom Calmet, Contenant la bibliotheque Lorraine, vol. IV of Histoire de Lorraine, (Nancy, 1751), pp. 454-5.


Guidi, Guido [Vidus Vidius]



1. Dates: Born: Florence, 10 February 1509; Died: Pisa, 26 May 1569; Datecode: Lifespan: 60
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Guiliano Guido was a physician from a family of physicians. The mother was a daughter of the painter Ghirlandaio. As always, I assume affluence at the least. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; French; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; Although Guidi received a doctorate in medicine from Pisa, he got it only in 1548 when he returned there as a professor in the university and personal physician to Cosimo I. I do not list such degrees. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Surgery; Medical Practioner; He carried out important anatomical investigations at Pisa after 1548, recorded in a manuscript, Anatomia, which was composed around 1560. His name is attached to the canalis vidianus of the sphenoid bone and to the nerve that traverses this canal. He also made original studies of the mechanism of articulation in the human body resulting from its vertical position in relation to the mechanism of quadruped articulations. Guidi was the author of a book on surgery that he translated from the Greek (of Hippocrates, Galen, and Oribasius-from a manuscript that Cardinal Ridolfi furnished to him) and to which he added a commentary of his own. Guidi's Ars medicalis, in three volumes, was essentially complete at the time of Guidi's death; it was published finally in 1596.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; After becoming a doctor of medicine, he practiced in Rome and Florence. In 1542 he went to Paris, where he was named royal physician and became the first professor of medicine at the Collège Royal. He left Paris in 1547 upon the death of Francis I and became professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Pisa in 1548 and physician to Cosimo I. He became a priest and was given ecclesiastical benefices, including the rectorship of Pescia. 
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Cardinal Ridolfi introduced Guidi to the Greek manuscript on medicine that the cardinal then owned and that Guidi translated. Ridolfi also introduced Guidi to Francis I. Francis I became Guidi's patron. In 1542 Guidi brought Francis the splendidly illustrated manuscripts containing his Latin translation of several classic treatises on surgery. The king named him royal physician and made him the first professor of medicine at the College Royal and conferred on him ecclesiastical benefices to increase his salary. Guidi dedicated the published work to Francis. After the death of Francis, Cosimo I de' Medici named him professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Pisa in 1648 and his own personal physician. In Florence, he became a priest in order that he might be given various ecclesiastical benefices. He was also the consul of the Academy of Florence, and he was named to the Pisan nobility.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; It appears that Guidi elaborated and improved upon various devices in Hippocrates for setting fractures and reducing dislocations.
10. Scientific Societies: He maintained a friendship with Cellini. He was a member and ultimately consul of the Florentine Academy.

SOURCES
W.Brockbank, 'THe Man Who Was Vidius,' Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 19 (1956), 269-295. Dezeimeris, J.E. Ollivier and Raige-Delorme, Dictionnairehistorique de la médecine ancienne et moderne, 4 vols. (Paris, 1828-39). The names, without first names or initials except for Ollivier, appear this way on volume 1; Dezeimeris alone appears on the remaining volumes.

Not Available and Not Consulted: S. Salvini, 'Guido Guidi consolo,' in Fasti consolari dell' Accademia Fiorentina, (Florence, 1717), pp.115-23. P.B., 'Elogio di Monsig,' in Elogi degli uomini illustri di Toscana, (Lucca, 1772), 3, 250-256. 


Guinter, Joannes



1. Dates: Born: Andernach, Germany, ca. 1505 [not 1487]; Died: Strasbourg, Germany, 4 October 1574; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Unknown; Nothing is nown of his family except that it was obscure and impoverished.
3. Nationality: German; Belgian Area; France; and German; German; Birth: Andernach, Germany. Career: Belgium, France, and Strasbourg, Germany. Death: Strasbourg, Germany.
4. Education: University of Leipzig; Lou, University of Liege; University of Paris; B.A., M.D. Nothing is known of his early education. He studied at Utretch and Deventer (i.e., pre-university). At some undetermined time he studied medicine at Leipzig (see below). He then studied at Louvain, and then Liège (but the stay at Liège could not have been long). About 1527, he went from Liège to Paris, where he received his baccalaureat (1528) after two witnesses had sworn to the fact of his previous study at Leipzig. He was later promoted to licentiate (1530), and received an M.D. (1532). He was accepted as a regent doctor by the Paris faculty of medicine (1533).
5. Religion: Catholic, Lutheran. 1538, due to the pressure of religous orthodoxy he left France for Germany.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medical Practioner; Guinter wrote several works on medicine, but especially he was the translator of Galen (and some other lesser ones) into Latin.
7. Means of Support: accademic position, medical practice; At Louvain he did some teaching of Greek. 1534-1538, he was named one of the two professors of medicine by the Paris faculty of medicine at a salary of 25 livres. 1538- ca. 1540, lived in Metz. About 1540, he received the chair of Greek at the gymnasium at Strasbourg. He simultaneously developed a medical practice. Criticism of his double occupation forced him to relinquish his chair in 1556.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Medical Practioner; He dedicated his translations of three books of Galen (1528) to the Count of Beaulieu. He dedicated a book on medicine in 1528 to the Abbé de Saint-Marc. He dedicated a translation of Galen (1530) to Francis I. He dedicated a translation of Galen (1533) to Poblation, physician to the Queen and professor of mathematics (sic) at the Collège royale. (I categorize him as Physician.); He dedicated a translation of Galen (1534) to the Spanish aristocrat Rodrigue Manrique. He dedicated a medical book (1549) to Archbishop Cranmer. He dedicated a translation of Alexander de Tralles to the Landgrave William of Hesse. He contacted his fatal illnes while attending Baron Lazare de Schwandy.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He concentrated more and more on practice as he went on, eventually abandoning an accademic position for his practice. Also, after about 1556, most of his publications reflect a practical rather than a theoretical interest.
10. Scientific Societies: None; Vesalius was Guinter's student in Paris.

SOURCES
M.-L. Concasty, ed., Commentaires de la Faculté de médecine de l'Université de Paris (Paris, 1964), passim. [R506.P3 P32]; Edouard Turner, 'Jean Guinter d'Andernach, 1505-1574,' Gazette hebdomadaire de médicine et de chirurgie, 2nd ser., 18 (1881), 425-34, 441-8, 505-16.

Not Consulted: J.J. Hoeveler, 'Ionnes Guinterius Andernachus,' Jahresbericht ueber des Progymnasium zu Andernach fuer das Schuljahr 1898-99 (Andernach, 1899), 3-21.


Guldin, Paul



1. Dates: Born: St. Gall, Switzerland, 12 June 1577; Died: Graz, Austria (Ge), 3 November 1643 Datecode: - Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Unknown; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Swiss; Italy; and German; German; Birth: St. Gall, Switzerland. Career: Italy and Germany; Death: Graz, Austria.
4. Education: Collegio Romano; D.D. 1609, he was sent to Rome by the Jesuit order for further education. He studied at the Collegio Romano under Clavius. I assume a B.A. As a Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology, even though he does not appear to have advanced to the fourth vow.
5. Religion: Jew, Cth. He was of Jewish descent, but his parents were protestant and he was raised as such. But in 1597 he converted to Catholicism and entered the Jesuit order, changing his name from Habakkuk to Paul. It is of interest that the order recognized his talents rather late; although he received the full education, he remained a 'spiritual coadjutor' and was not admitted to the fourth vow. Can this mean that the order chose not to recognize the talents of a Jew?
6. Scientific Disciplines: mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: mechanics; In mechanics he worked on centers of gravity in general, of the earth in particular.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; He began work as a goldsmith and worked as such in several German towns. After becoming a Jesuit and receiving his education, he taught mathematics at the Jesuit colleges in Rome and Graz (1617). When a severe illness forced him to suspend his lecturing, he was sent to Vienna (1623), where he became a professor at the university. In 1629, he was posted to Sagan to the Jesuit gymnasium established by Wallenstein, but returned eventually to Vienna. 1637, he returned to Graz, where he died in 1643.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was influential at the court of the Emperor Ferdinand II. Kepler had a short correspondence with him on account of this
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Franz Hammer, Neue deutsche Biographie, (Berlin, 1952- ), 7, 304a. M. Cantor, Vorlesungen ueber Geschichte der Mathematik, 2, (Leipzig, 1900), 840-4.


Gunter, Edmund



1. Dates: Born: Hertfordshire, 1581; Died: London, 10 December 1626; Datecode: Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Unknown; All we know is that Gunter was of Welsh descent. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., D.D. Westminster School. Oxford University, 1599-1615; Christ Church; B.A.,1603; M.A.,1605; B.D., 1615.
5. Religion: Anglican; Gunter was ordained and was Rector of a church in Southwark.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Navigation; Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Magnetism; Gunter is known as a competent but unoriginal mathematician, whose work was largely of a practical nature. He contributed devices that aided calculations, and indeed instruments of all sorts, and he contributed importantly to mathematically controlled navigation. Thus, New Projection of the Sphere, 1623, and Canon triangularum, 1620, the logarithms of the trigonometric functions primarily for use in navigation. This also came out in English immediately. His Description and Use of the Sector, Cross-staffe, and Other Instruments, 1623, described, among other things, a precursor of the slide rule. Gunter was the first to observe the secular variation of magnetic declination.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Rector of St. George's, Southwark, 1615-26. Professor of astronomy at Gresham College, 1619-26.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Scientist; Court Patronage; He obtained his rectory through the patronage of the Earl of Bridgewater. Gunter is known to have made one of Oughtred's horizontal instruments for the Duke about 1618. He owed his professorship to Briggs' recommendation. At the request of Prince Charles (later Charles I) he wrote a book in 1624 on the sundials he installed in the Whitehall Gardens.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; Navigation; Cartography; Invented scientific instruments to simplify calculations: especially Gunter's scale or Gunter's line of numbers, the precursor of the slide rule. His Canon triangulorum was also primarily an aid to calculation. Gunter was a major figure in the introduction of logarithms into navigational practice. He developed a new quadrant (Gunter's quadrant) and a new cross staff. He may have invented the log line. Finally there is Gunter's chain, which long remained one of the basic instruments in surveying. I did not find any reference to actual surveying by Gunter, but I have not been able to understand the chain without assuming such. 
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Intimate friendship with Henry Briggs and the Gresham group.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 8, 793. E.G.R. Taylor, The Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor & Stuart England, (London, 1954), p. 196. Christopher Hill, Intellectual Origins of the EnglishRevolution, (Oxford, 1965). David W. Waters, The Art of Navigation in England in Elizabethan and Early Stuart Times, (London, 1958). John Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, facsimile ed. (New York, 1967), pp. 77-81.  John Aubrey, Brief Lives, (London, 1950), p. 116. Charles H. Cotter, 'Edmund Gunter (1581-1626),' Journal ofNavigation, 34 (1981), pp. 363-7. A.J. Turner, 'William Oughtred, Richard Delamain and the Horizontral Instrument in Seventeenth Century England,' Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienze, Firenze, 6.2 (1981), 109-10.





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

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