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Edwardes [Edgaurdus], David


1. Dates: Born: Northamptonshire, c. 1502; Died: England, c. 1542; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 40
2. Father:  No information on father; No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English 
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Cam, M.D. He was admitted in 1517 as a scholar to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and became B.A. in 1522 and M.A. in 1525, and also fellow of Corpus Christi. In all he had 'seven years study of medicine' at Oxford. In 1528-1529 he continued his medical studies at Cambridge. He received his M.D. there.
5. Religion: He must have been Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; He produced a small book of two treatises (London, 1532), the first entitled De indiciis et praecognitionibus, dealing with uroscopy and medical prognostication; the second, In anatomicen introductio luculenta et brevis, devoted to anatomy, the first work specifically on anatomy published in England. The reference to his dissection of a human body in 1531 in the latter treatise is the first record of a human dissection in England.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; At some undetermined time he practiced medicine at Bristol. After 1529 he became a member of the medical faculty of the University of Cambridge, and retained the position until his death. The evidence suggests that the connection with Cambridge was rather loose, and that his primary support was the medical practice he maintained in Cambridge.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; There was no university appointment without patronage. The dedications of his two books to the son of Henry VIII and to the Earl of Surrey may help to explain the appointment.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
David Edwardes. Introduction to anatomy 1532, C.D. O'Malley and K.F. Russell, eds., (London, 1961). Arthur Rock and Maurice Newbold, 'David Edweardes: His Activities at Cambridge,' Medical History, 19 (1975), 389-92. 


Ent, George



1. Dates: Born: Sandwich, Kent, 6 November 1604; Died: London, 13 October 1689; Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Merchant; Josias Ent was a merchant who immigrated into England from the low countries. No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. University of Padua; M.D. A school at Rotterdam. Cambridge University, 1624-31; Sidney Sussex College; B.A. 1627; M.A. 1631. University of Padua, 1631-6. M.D., 1636. Incorporated M.D. at Oxford, 1638 (I won't list this).
5. Religion: Pur; I admit this is a bit of a guess. The family came to England as religious refugees. Ent attended the quintessential Puritan college, Sidney Sussex. He stayed in London (with no hint of unhappiness) throughout the Civil War. He conformed apparently to the establishment at the Restoration.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Anatomy. Ent published a defense of Harvey, Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis, 1641, in which he showed the influence also of hermetic authors and concepts of innate heat, which seem to look forward to Mayow. He also composed some minor anatomical works published as part of one of Charleton's books.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Medical practice in London, 1636-89.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Ent dedicated Apologia pro circulatione to the Earl of Lincoln. Granted a knighthood by Charles II in 1665 after an anatomy lecture at the College of Physicians at which the King was present. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Ent was one of three fellows of the College of Physicians who supervised the revised edition of the Pharmacopoeia londonensis, 1650.
10. Scietific Societies: Royal Society (London);, Medical College (Any One); Informal connections: Friendship with Harvey from their chance meeting in Rome in 1636. He was one of the first writers to compose a detailed defense of Harvey. In 1648 he persuaded the elderly Harvey to release the manuscript of De Generatione which Ent edited and published with a commendatory preface in 1651. His transcript of Harvey's correspondence was used in the College of Physicians edition of Harvey's works in 1766. In Harvey's will, Ent was charged with dispersing his library in the College of Physicians. Royal Society, 1660-89. Ent was one of the founding fellows and was named to the original Council in the charter of 1662. Royal College of Physicians, 1639. President, seven years between 1670 and 1684. Censor, 22 years between 1645-69.

SOURCES
William Munk, Royal College of Physicians of London, 1, 223-227. Charles Webster, 'The College of Physicians: 'Solomon's House' in Commonwealth England,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 41, 393-412. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 6, 795-6. 


Erastus [Lieber], Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Baden, Switzerland 7 September 1524; Died: Basel, Switzerland 1 January 1583; Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Artisan; In regard to his education it is stated that Erastus came from a poor family.
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: German and Swiss Death: Swiss
4. Education: University of Basel; University of Bologna; M.D. University of Padua; Studied theology and philosophy at Basel 1540 - 1544. I assume B.A. Studied medicine at Bolgna and Padua 1544 - 1555. MD 1552 from Bologna. One account refers to an unnamed and wholly unidentified 'Maecenas' who made possible Erastus' medical education. Erastus was from a poor family. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; Calvinist (or better, Reformed, or Zwinglian); 'Erastian': anti-Calvinist on this issue; the state has supremacy in all ecclesiastical affairs
6. Scientific Disciplines: natural philosophy and medicine.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Sucessful medical practice; 1555 at Meiningen, physician to Count William of Henneberg. 1558, became professor of medicine at Heidelberg and physician to the Elector. Already in 1559 he was elected Rector of the university. 1580 his Erastianism led to a fall from the favor of Frederick III, elector Palatine; left Heidelberg for Basel, where he became professor of theology and moral philosophy.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Magistrate; Count William of Henneberg; Frederick III of the Palatine before he fell from favor. Dedicated a book to three Basel Ratsherrn. The theologian J.J. Grynaeus, who had married the sister of Erastus's wife, took them in when they emigrated from Heidelberg and helped Erastus get the appointment at Basel Univ and acceptance by the Collegium medicorum.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal: correspondence with various medical men. Formal: Basel Collegium medicorum.

SOURCES:
J. Karcher, 'Thomas Erastus (1524 - 1583), der unversöhnliche Gegner des Theophrastus Paracelsus,' Gesnerus, 14 (1957), 1 - 13-mostly about his time in Heidelberg with just a little about Basel. M. Adam, Vitae Germanorum Medicorum, (Heidelberg, 1620), 242 - 246. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ). DSB gives other sources on his science and theology. 


Ercker [Erckner, Erckel], Lazarus



1. Dates: Born: Annaberg, Saxony, ca. 1530; Died: Prague, Bohemia, 1594; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Min; The father was a miner. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth, Germany; Career, Germany and Bohemia; Death, Bohemia
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; secondary: went to school at Annaberg; university: 1547-8 studied at U Wittenberg. No mention of a degree
5. Religion: Lutheran assumed
6. Scientific Disciplines: chemistry, metallurgy
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; 1554?, through help of one of his wife's relatives, a doctor named Johann Neefe, Ercker was appointed assayer at Dresden by Elector Augustus, an enthusiastic admirer of alchemy and metallurgy; A year later, when Ercker dedicated a book to the Elector, he became chief consultant and supervisor in all matters relating to the mineral arts and mint affairs for Freiberg, Annaberg, and Schneeberg, but was soon demoted for unkown reasons. However, he retained a position in the mint at Annaberg. Autumn 1558, Prince Henry of Brunswick made him first warden and then master of the mint at Goslar. 1567, (wife died and) he returned to Dresden, where he sought a position with Elector Augustus but failed because of intrigue and an unsucessful attempt to obtain silver from poor ores. Then went to Prague where his brother-in-law, Caspar Richter, was a minter and through Richter's support was appointed control tester at Kutna Hora; 1574, published Beschreibung allerfürnemisten mineralischen Erzt, which brought him to the attention of Emperor Maximilian II, who named Ercker his courier for mining affairs and clerk in the Supreme Office of the Bohemian crown; During the reign of the next emperor, Rudolf II, a well-known patron of alchemists, Ercker became (1583) Master of the mint in Prague and chief inspector of mines and was knighted (von Schreckenfels). Ercker's second wife, Susanna, for many years was manager-mistress of the mint at Kutna Hora. Both his sons were assayers.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Augustus, elector of Saxony. Dedicated his first book to Augustus in 1556. Dedicated his principal work (1574) to the Emperor Maximilian II. Maximilian II and Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperors. Various in-laws helped him contact these patrons.
9. Technological Connections: Metallurgy; Note that his whole career was explicitly directed to the practical goals of metallurgy and mining.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Gümbel, 'Erker', Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 6 (1885), 214 - not much new. E. V. Armstron and H. S. Lukens, 'Lazarus Ercker and his `Probierbuch'. Sir John Pettus and His `Fleta Minor,'' Journal of Chemical Education, 16 (1939), 553 - 562. P. R. Beierlein, Lazarus Ercker, Bergmann, Hüttenmann und Münzmeister in 16. Jahrhundert, (Berlin, 1955), Freiburger Forschungschrifte - best biography. Partington, History of Chemistry, 2, 104-7.

Not Consulted: Beierlein, Beschreibung der aller-vornehmsten mineralischen Erze und Bergwersarten vom Jahre 1580 (Berlin, 1960), passim. J. Ferguson, in Bibliotheca chemica, 1, (Glasgow, 1906), 242-5. A. Wrany, Geschichte der Chemy (Prague, 1902), p. 91. 


Escholt, Mikkel Pedersön



1. Dates: Born: ca. 1610; Died: Christiania [now Oslo] Norway, 1669; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 59
2. Father: No information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Norwegian/Danish; Birth: Danish; Career: Danish; Death: Danish
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; Studied theology at U Copenhagen, ca. 1628. From subsequent career I assume B.A.
5. Religion: Lutheran. He was a Lutheran minister
6. Scientific Disciplines: geology; He is known to science for his account of an earthquake in 1657. He endeavored to supply an analysis of it both in physical and in theological terms.
7. Means of Support: church living; Called by Hannibal Sehested, one of the highest aristocrats in Denmark and son-in-law of the king, to be chaplain of the Akershus castle (which appears to have been something like a fief held by Sehested) in Christiania in 1646. Seems to have acted as an intelligence officer during campaigns to reconquer provinces lost by Denmark-Norway to Sweden after 1645. 1660, rewarded with the parish of Vestby in Östford. (When he died his oldest son inherited the parish.); After some pause I continue to list this under church living. It is obvious that it could as well be called patronage.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Does not seem to have been in contact with contemporary scientists in Copenhagen.

SOURCES:
Francis Bull, Norsk Biografisk Leksikon.

Not Consulted: A. Garboe, Geologiens historie i Danmark, I (Copenhagen, 1959), 11 - 47 - seems minor. 


Estienne, Charles [Carolus Stephanus]



1. Dates: Born: Paris?, c. 1505; Died: 1564; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Pub; Estienne belonged to the famous dynasty of Parisian printers and publishers. His father, Henri Estienne, the elder, died in 1520, and his widow married another prominent printer. Charles, the third son, initially sought an independent career. Certainly affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Padua; University of Paris; M.D. After learning Greek under Jean Lascaris, he studied philosophy, botany, and medicine at the University of Padua from 1530 to 1534. His teacher in medicine was Francesco Frizimelega. Having returned to Paris, he studied anatomy and medicine at the Collège Tricquet under Jacbous Sylvius. Later he studied medecine but without being formally registered at the Faculté de Médecin, and received M.B. in 1540, docteur regent in 1542. I certainly assume a B.A. or its equivalent in this. 
5. Religion: Catholic. I assume Catholicism because Charles' brother fled Paris and had his assets seized for religious reasons, while Charles remained immune and was even able to recover some of the assets. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Medical Practioner; He published Anatomia, a short treatise, in 1536, and his main anatomical work, De dissectione, in Latin in 1545, and in French in 1546. His many original observations included the morphology and physiological significance of the 'feeding holes' of bones, the cartaliginous meniscus of the temporomandibular joint, the valvulae in the hepatic veins, and the scrotal septum. Among his several treatises on gardening and the names of plants and birds, De re hortensi libellus (1535) and Seminarium (1536) were favorably received and republished. He published other works on botany. He published a book on medicine, derivative from Galen, in 1550. As a publisher, he printed mostly dictionaries, grammars, and classical literature, but only one real scientific book, by Pierre Belon.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Pub; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1541-4, very little is known, though he translated some literary works. 1544-1547, taught anatomy at the Faculté de Médecin in Paris. 1542-1550, medical practice in Paris. 1550-1562, when his brother fled Paris for Geneva, Charles managed the family business as a publisher. In 1557, financial troubles set in when he was caught with books that he could not sell. 1661-1564, imprisoned.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; J.J. de Mesmes, Lieutenant-Civil de la Prévote de Paris, and later Maitre de requetes and later still president of the Parlement in Rouen. Estienne dedicated books to him in 1536 and 1544. In 1538-40 he tutored the bastard son of Lazarre de Baif, and accompanied Baif, a representative of Charles V, on a legation to Germany and Italy. Estienne Tournebulle, president of the Parlement in Rouen, to whom Estienne dedicated a book as thanks for a stay at his estate in 1543. Guillaume de Bailly, the Royal Inquisitor, is named as a patron. In 1551, Estienne was named royal printer by Henri II, to whom he dedicated one or two books. Cardinal Charles de Lorraine who obtained Estienne's ten year privilege for his collected works and to whom Estienne dedicated two books.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
E. Lau. Charles Estienne, (Wertheim, 1930). Dictionnaire de biographie française, 13, 95-6.

Not Consulted: R.Herrlinger, 'Carolus Stephanus and Stephanus Riverius', Clio medica, 2 (1967), pp.275-287. G. Rath, 'Charles Estienne, Anatom in Schatten Vesals', Sudhoff Archiv fur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, 39 (1955), pp.35-43. 


Eustachi, Bartolomeo



1. Dates: Born: San Severino, Ancona, c. 1500-1510; Died: in Umbria, while travelling to join Card. della Rovere, 27 August 1574; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Mariano Eustachi, was a physician, said to have been of noble family. I assume affluence as always with physicians.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Sapienza (Rome); M.D. He had a good humanistic education, in the course of which he acquired an excellent knowledge of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. He appears to have studied medicine at the Archiginnasio della Sapienza in Rome, and I assume the studies led to an M.D. I also assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medical Practioner; In 1562 and 1563 Eustachi produced a remarkable series of treatises on the kidney, the auditory organ (De auditus organis), the venous system, and the teeth. These were published in Opuscula anatomica (1564). The treatise on the kidney was the first work specifically dedicated to that organ. The teatise on the auditory organ provided a correct account of the tuba auditiva that is still referred to eponymously by Eustachi's name. He was also the first who made a study of the teeth in any considerable detail. In 1552 Eustachi, with the help of Pier Matteo Pini, prepared a series of 47 anatomical plates, which (although they were published only in 1714, long after his death) alone assured him a distinguished position in the history of anatomy. He placed anatomy in the service of medicine; much of it was pathological anatomy.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; 1540-74, medical practice. Some time before 1547, Eustachi became physician to the Duke of Urbino. At the time of his death Eustachi had a clock that the Duke had given to him. 1547-74, physician to the duke's brother, Cardinal Giulio della Rovere. He followed Cardinal della Rovere to Rome in 1549 and considered the cardinal his primary patron. In 1549 he joined the medical faculty of the Sapienza as the equivalent of professor of anatomy. He resigned his chair some years later due to illness. Eustachi was the Protomedico in Rome. He was also physician to S. Carlo Borromeo and S. Filippo Neri.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; He was in the service of the Duke of Urbino and the duke's brother, Card. della Rovere, for about 30 years. The Duke of Terranova in Sicily called Eustachi in on the occasion of an illness. When Eustachi was attacked in polemics, Card. Alciati defended him, and to Card. Alciati Eustachi dedicated De auditus organis, 1562. He dedicated De renum structura to Card. Borromeo and De dentibus to Card. Amulio.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He was a member of the Medical College of Rome. He was a friend of Aldrovandi, Coiter, et al. Letters to Aldrovandi survive. 

SOURCES:
G. Bilancioni, Bartolomeo Eustachi, (Florence, 1913). Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 31-4. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 417-18.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Memorie e documenti riguardanti Bartolomeo Eustachio publicati nel quarto centenario della nascita, (Fabriano, 1913). 


Evelyn, John



1. Dates: Born: Wotton, Surrey, 31 October 1620; Died: London, 27 February 1706; Datecode: Lifespan: 86
2. Father: Gentry. Richard Evelyn, who was High Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1633-4, was the son of a man who made an immense fortune through the introduction of the manufacture of gunpowder into England. Richard, the youngest of sixteen sons (not all of whom survived) inherited enough of the wealth to be well established as a country gentleman himself. The family was clearly wealthy; Richard Evelyn apparently had an income of about L4000.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English.
4. Education: Oxford University, University of Padua; Evelyn was admitted to the Middle Temple in February 1637; however, he studied the law only briefly. Oxford University, Balliol College, 1637-40. Degrees had no meaning to a country gentleman like Evelyn; he never took one. Studied anatomy and physiology in Padua, 1645-6. Note that he did formally matriculate at Padua. Studied chemistry in England and France, 1646-9. An honorary degree of D.C.L., 1669, which I will not list.
5. Religion: Anglican; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Evelyn laid out famous gardens at Sayes Court and worked all his life on a projected treatise on gardening, to be called Elysium britannicum, which he never completed and published, though various parts of it were. He did publish a translation of a French work on gardening (more than one, I think), and in 1664 Kalendarium hortense, or the Gardener's Almanack. 1664, Sylva, a book on timber and Evelyn's most important work. Attached to Sylva was Pomona, on fruit growing for cider. Evelyn also published a translation of Lucretius, De rerum natura. Evelyn was more a literary figure than a scientist; he wrote on a wide variety of topics.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Evelyn was able to travel abroad during virtually the whole of the Civil War-from 1643-7 and again 1649-52. He inherited an estate from his father, 1640, about L7000, and succeeded to the family's estate of Wotton, 1700. He married well and appears to have had financial support from his father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, less or more, beginning 1652. He lived for forty years at Sayes Court, at Deptford, Kent, originally the estate of his father-in-law though Evelyn did purchase it. In 1683 his wife inherited all of her father's estate, though I do not know its precise amount. Evelyn held a number of governmental offices: Commission for the improvement of London streets, 1662. Commission for the Royal Mint, 1663. Commission for the repair of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1666. Commission for the sick snd wounded marines and prisoners of war, with salary L300 /year, 1664-7, 1672-4. Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations, L500 /year, 1671-4. Commission for the Privy Seal, 1686-7, with a salary of L500 /year plus fees. Treasurer of Greeenwich Hospital, 1695-1703, L200 /year.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Charles II showed Evelyn, who had been a staunch if unheroic royalist, much favour. He obtained the King's leave to compound with the occupiers in 1552 and he succeded in compounding in fee farm for L3500 in 1653. Between 1662-85, the King granted him the early positions above. Evelyn dedicated Fumifugium, 1661, and Sylva, 1664, as well as other works, to Charles. James also showed him minor favor. When he was young, Evelyn, who was well to do, was largely independent of patronage except for the obvious relation to the court. In his old age, his needs kept outstripping his means-especially the need to provide for his son and then his grandson, and he became increasingly dependent on aristocratic patrons, especially the Earl of Godolphin (with whose wife, Margaret, Evelyn had been especially friendly, in a wholly Platonic relationship), who obtained the post of treasurer to Greenwich Hospital for Evelyn in 1695. Godolphin was instrumental in the advancement of Evelyn's rather limited son, John, and then the grandson, Jack, who married a niece of Godolphin. Evelyn dedicated Numismata to Godolphin's son Francis, and even composed a life of Godolphin's wife, Margaret. He dedicated Discourse of Sallets, 1699, to Lord Somers, the Lord Chancellor.
9. Technological Connections: Peasant - Small Farmer; He was involved in the plan for the rebuilding of the city, but the plan was impractical. (I don't regard this as technological.); Evelyn was a recognized authority on gardening, who published a number of works on the subject. His Pomona on fruit trees for cider belongs here. The purpose of Sylva was explicitly to provide England with timber.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: He collaborated several times with Christopher Wren during his lifetime. Friendship with John Wilkins and Robert Boyle. He corresponded with Boyle, and sent him a suggestion for the foundation of a mathematical college or community for scientific study in 1559. He was a very close friend of Samuel Pepys. Royal Society from its foundation, 1660-1706. He was a member of the original Council, 1662. Secretary, 1672, 1682, 1691. He refused the presidency on three occasions.

SOURCES:
William Bray, ed., Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn. E.S. De Beer, 'John Evelyn, F.R.S. (1620-1706),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 15, 131-8. _____, 'Introduction: I. Evelyn's Life and Character,' The Diary of John Evelyn, 6 vols. (New York, 1955), 1, 1-42. The De Beer edition is the definitive edition of the diary. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 609-34. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 6, 943-7. John Bowle, John Evelyn and his World, (London, 1981). An inferior work, which no one else should waste time on.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Arthur Ponsonby, John Evelyn. Fellow of the Royal Society, Author of 'Sylva', (London, 1933). Geoffrey Keynes, John Evelyn, a Study in Bibliophily, with a Bibliography of his Writings, (Oxford, 1970). Beatrice Saunders, John Evelyn and his Times, (Oxford, 1970). Jeannne K. Welcher, John Evelyn, (New York, 1972). 


Fabri [Fabry], Honoré



1. Dates: Born: Virieu-le-Grand (Ain), 5 April 1607; Died: Rome, 8 March 1688; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: Law; Fabri came from a family of judges. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. Following his studies at the institut in Belley, he entered the Jesuit novitiate in Avignon in 1626, remaining until 1628. In the fall of 1628 he went to the Collège de la Trinité in Lyon, where he completed his course in Scholastic philosophy in 1630 under Claude Boniel. From 1632 to 1636 he studied theology in Lyons. The Collège certainly sounds like a standard Jesuit college, which was not a university. He would have had the equivalent of a B.A. and, as a full Jesuit, a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. Entered Jesuit novitiate in Avignon in 1626. became a priest in 1635.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; In his principal mathematical work, Opusculum geometricum, Fabri approached, through the functional reinterpretation of Cavalieri's concept of indivisibles by means of a dynamic concept of fluxus, ideas similar to those of Newton. The book originated in connection with the controversy over cycloids and Pascal's challenge. In natural philosophy, his noteworthy achievements included the constant use of the static moment, an attempted explanation of tidal phenomena based on the action of moon, and investigations on capillarity. According the DBF Fabri discovered the circulation of the blood independently of Harvey in 1638. I am dubious enough about this not to list physiology. He discovered the Andromeda nebula and disputed with Huygens about the rings of Saturn. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; 1630-2, regent of grammar in Roanne. 1636-1638, professor of philosophy at the college in Arles. 1638-1639, professor of logic at the college in Aix-en-Provence. 1640-1646, professor of logic and mathematics at, and the dean of, the Collège de la Trinité. All of these are Jesuit colleges, and I am listing such positions under Ecc. 1646-1680, member, and finally Grand Inquisitor, of the Penitentiary College (the Inquisition). He finally became rector of the college of penitents. Fabri was accused of Cartesianism, and he was involved in many polemics. Hence his call to Rome in 1646. He travelled to France in 1668-9. Upon his return and the publication of his Apologeticus (Lyon, 1670), he spent some time in the pontifical prison. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; In Rome, Fabri became acquainted with Michel Angelo Ricci, who recommended him to the Medici Grand Duke, Leopold II. The Grand Duke made him a corresponding member of the Accademia del Cimento. When he was put in the prison, the intervention of the Grand Duke secured his release. He had a strong influence on Pope Clement IX through Cardinal Albizzi. I assume that relations of this sort involved favors in return.
9. Technological Connections: None Known.
10. Scientific Societies: He was a corresponding member of the Accademia del Cimento. (I need to say that from my reading of the records of the Accademia I do not remember any reference to him. I am not listing this.); When he was teaching at the college in Aix-en-Provence (1638-1639), he was leader of a sort of circle, that brought him the acquaintance of, and a long lasting correspondence with, Gassendi. His students at the Collège de la Trinité included Pierre Mousnier, Francois de Raynaud, Jean-Dominique Cassini, and Philippe de la Hire. Claude Dechales and Berthet were also members of his circle. Among these scholars and the two Huygenses, Leibniz, Descartes, Mersenne, and others an active correspondence developed. In 1660, with an anonymous work, Fabri opened the controversy with Huygens over Saturn's rings which, after five years and a great expenditure of energy, was decided in Huygens' favor.

SOURCES:
Carlos Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de la Compagnie de Jesus, 3, (Paris-Brussels, 1892), pp.512-522.  Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 13, 432-4. P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72. Emil A. Fellmann, 'Honoré Fabry (1607-1688) als Mathematiker-eine Reprise,' in P.M. Harman and Alan E. Shapiro, eds. The Investigation of Difficult Things: Essay on Newton and the History of the Exact Sciences in Honor of D.T. Whiteside, (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 97-112.

Not Consulted:  E. A. Fellmann, 'Die mathematischen Werke von Honoratus Fabry', Physis (Florence), 1-2 (1959), pp.6-25, 69-102. P. de Vrégille, 'Un enfant de Bugey-le père Honoré Fabri, 1607-1688,' Bulletin de la Société Gorini, 3 (1906), 5-15. 


Fabrici [Fabricius, Fabrizi], Girolamo



1. Dates: Born: Acquapendente, c. 1533; Died: at his villa, La Montagnola, outside of Padua, 21 May 1619; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 86
2. Father: Aristocrat; His father was Fabrico Fabrici. The family is said to have been noble and once-wealthy, but in decline at the time of Fabrici's youth, though not improverished. After hesitation, I list this as unknown.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D., Ph.D. Studied Latin, logic, and philosophy, and then medicine in Padua for nine years, and took his degree in medicine and philosophy in about 1559. I assume a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Physiology; Embryology; Subordinate Disciplines: Surgery; He published his anatomical observations in several volumes, including De visione, voce, auditu (Venice, 1600), De venarum ostiolis (1603), which contains systematic and accurate descriptions of the venous valves ex novo, De motu locali animalium secundum totum (1618)-all of which may be considered as parts of the uncompleted but monumental Totius animalis fabricae theatrum which he meant to publish and to which he devoted many years. Fabrici was one of the creators of comparative anatomy. Fabrici's embryological works included De formato foetu (1604), and De formatione (1621). His surgical works were gathered in the Pentateuchos cheirurgicum (Frankfurt,1592) and in The Operationes chirurgicae (Venice, 1619).
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Official; He was a private teacher of anatomy in Padua, 1562-1565, and he continued to give some private courses thereafter. Professor of surgery and anatomy, 1565-1613, initially with a salary of 100 florins, raised to 200 in 1571, and later to 400, 600, 850, and 1100. In 1600 he was given the salary of 1000 scudi (which were more than florins) for life. He was given life tenure in 1600, with the title sopraordinario. From 1570-1584 he was a member of the commission that examined surgeons for licenses. Fabrici was consulted by the Duke of Mantua in 1581, by the Duke of Urbino in 1591, and was called to Florence by the Grand Duke in 1604 to attend his son. In Florence he was given two golden chains in recompense. The King of Poland consulted him by mail, and sent him a gold chain and a gold medal. Fabrici practiced medicine as a surgeon and physician, and he amassed a fortune from his practice and from his academic appointment. In 1514 he was able to entertain a Venetian patrician, Morosini, at his country villa in a style sufficiently lavish that Morosini described it at length. He charged his wealthy patrons nothing-and received extravagant gifts from them in return. He treated the poor gratis. Fabrici left an estate of 200,000 ducats. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Magistrate; It is said that he studied in Padua under patronage of the patrician Loredan Family from 1550 to 1559. However, Fabrici never mentioned this family, but in his will he did mention five other patrician families as his patrons. As a surgeon and physician he enjoyed the patronage of many eminent people. He was consulted by the Duke of Urbino in 1591, and treated the son of Ferdinand I and Christina di Lorena. He visited Venice with Spigelio in 1607, and in Venice he cured Paolo Sarpi, who had been wounded. For his services, he was made a knight of St. Mark by the Republic of Venice. Fabrici dedicated De venarum ostiolis to the German nation (in Padua) and received two silver cups from them. Frankly, I do not have a category under which this can fall. In 1600 he dedicated the three parts of De visione, voce, auditu to the three patricians who had secured his appointment to be sopraordinario, and he dedicated other words to other Venetian patricians. He dedicated De locutione, 1601, to the Polish magnate Thoms Zamoyski and Opere chirurgica to the King of Poland.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; He invented instruments for use in dentistry.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He was a member of the Medical Colleges of Padua and of Venice.

SOURCES
Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 35-8. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. H.B. Adelmann, The Embryological Treatises of Heironymus Fabricius of Acquapendente, (Ithaca, N.Y., 1942). G.Favaro, 'Contributi alla biografia di Girolamo Fabrici di Acquapendente', in Memorie e documenti per la storia della Universita di Padua, (Padua, 1922), pp. 241-348. _____, 'L'insegnamento anatomico di Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente,' in Monografie storiche sullo studio di Padova. Contributo del R. Istituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti alla celebrazzione del VII centenario della universitaà, (Venice, 1922), pp. 107-36.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.F.Ciucci, L'Ospidale di Parnaso, Bruno Zanobio, ed., (Milan, 1962). K.J. Franklin, De venarum ostiolis of Hieronymus Fabricius of Acquapendente, (Baltimore, 1933). E. Gurlt, Geschichte de Chirurgie, 2, (Berlin, 1898), 445-81. 


Falloppio [Falloppia, etc.], Gabriele



1. Dates: Born: Modena, c. 1523. Died: Padua, 9 October 1562 (Although a couple of portraits say 1663, and this year is sometimes repeated, Favaro is quite definite on 1562, and he cites incontrovertable evidence.); Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 39
2. Father: Artisan; Military; Capparoni says that Girolamo Falloppio was from a noble family which owned property in Padua. Favaro tears this pleasant fantasy to shreds. Girolamo Falloppio was initially a goldsmith and then a freeland scoundrel who, as a soldier, undertook the dirty work of his masters. Favaro thinks that Girolamo, as the soldier client of a tyrant in control of Modena, was doing well by the time of his marriage (aside from the fact that he had contacted syphilis, as part of the fateful French expedition to Naples that may have carried the disease across the alps). By the time of his death, when Gabriele was about ten, the father was destitute, and his family had severe financial difficulties after his death.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Ferrara; M.D. Falloppio learned medicine initially, not in a university but at the Medical College of Modena. There he carried out a dissection in 1545, and he earned the right to practice in Modena as a surgeon. Realizing the limitations that would always attach to this empirical practice, he took himself to Ferrara in 1545 for formal university study. There is a story that he studied for a time at Padua under Gianbattista da Monte and Matteo Realdo Colombo, but Favaro finds this highly dubious. He studied in Ferrara under Antonio Musa Brassavola from 1545 to 47; Favaro is convinced that he earned the M.D. I will, as usual assume a B.A. or its equivalent. Giambattista Canano was a fellow student. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Modena was a center of Lutheran sentiment in Italy, and in 1542 Falloppio was among those officially suspect. At some point near then, however, he was nevertheless ordained a priest (and was hence able to inherit his uncle's canonry). He apparently resigned his priesthood before many years.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Physiology; Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Surgery; Pharmacology; Of the various works by Falloppio only the Observationes anatomicae (1561) was published during his lifetime and was fully authentic. It is a work of great originality. In this work he made a number of contributions to the knowledge of primary and secondary centers of ossification, to the detailed account of muscles, and to the understanding of the vascular system and of the kidneys. His desription of the uterine tubes was sufficiently accurate that they bear his name. He also explained the physiological uses of various features. With Vesalius and Eustachi, he is often perceived as one of the three heroes of anatomy. The remainder of his writings, originally lecture notes, were edited for publication at various times after his death. He did extensive work on medicine and in pharmacology. He was one of the early experts on syphilis. He was one of the great surgeons of the age, and one who instituted new procedures.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; In 1548 he received from an uncle an ecclesiastical benefice which he was able to hold in absentia, and from the same uncle he inherited a canonry in Modena. He resigned the canonry at once, but it does appear that he enjoyed the income from the benefice for several years, until he renounced the status of priest. He began the practice of surgery when he was still a student, but soon went on to medical study in the university. 1548-9, professor of pharmacy in Ferrara. 1549-51, professor of anatomy at the University of Pisa. 1551-62, professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua and lecturer on simples. His initial stipend at Padua was 200 florins; later it was increased to 270. In 1557-9, and then again in 1561, bitterly unhappy at Padua, he negotiated with the University of Bologna to move there. In 1561 he was offered a salary of 400 scudi, and had he not died, he would have moved to Bologna as the Professor of Practical Medicine (Medical Practice?); Falloppio was famous in his age as a physician. He was called to treat prominent patients as far away as Florence and even Rome. He had a prominent practice among the Venetian patriciate. In 1552, at the request of Pope Julius III, Falloppio was given leave from the university to go to Rome to treat Baldovino del Monte, the Pope's brother.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The Grand Duke Cosimo I, when he was seeking to establish his new university as a prominent institution, called Falloppio to Pisa in 1549. Toward the end of his life he became in effect the family physician to the Este of Ferrara. He was medical consultant to the Gonzaga in Mantua.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He became a member of the Medical College of Venice in 1556. He established a relation with Ghini in Pisa when he was there, and this relation continued. He had friction with Anguillara in Padua. He corresponded heavily with Aldrovandi. Many of these letter have been published, though I gather not as a collection, but rather in separate works. See Favaro, p. 8.

SOURCES:
Giuseppe Favaro, Gabrielle Falloppia Modenese (MDXXIII-MDLXII): studio biographico, (Modena, 1928). Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 2, 46-9. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical.
P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 70-1, and 27 (1901), 46. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 400. 


Faulhaber, Johann



1. Dates: Born: Ulm, 5 May 1580; Died: Ulm, 1635 Datecode: - Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Artisan; His father Samuel, was a weaver. His family had been vassals of the abbot of Fulda from 1354 to 1461. They are said to have been poor.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Ulm, Germany; Career: Ulm, Germany; Death: Ulm, Germany
4. Education: None Known. He was taught mathematics by David Saelzlin, a resident of Ulm.
5. Religion: Luthern (assumed); The references to dangerous theological views are too vague to interpret.
6. Scientific Disciplines: mathematics, military engineering. Subordinate Disciplines: alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Military Engineer. He was trained to be a weaver like his father. After he had shown his ability in mathematics, the city of Ulm appointed him town mathematician, standards master, and surveyor. As far as I can tell, he retained this position for the rest of his life. He founded a school in Ulm in 1600, and from 1604 he was paid a salary of 30 gulden. He did a great deal of work on fortifications for Basel (1622), Frankfurt (1630), Randegg, Schaffhausen, Fuerstenberg, Memmingen, Lauingen, and other cities. He entered the service of Landgrave Philipp of Butzbach as an advisor for a few months (1618-1619), but continued to reside in Ulm.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; The municipal council of Ulm held sway over his career for his entire career. They reprimanded him repeatedly for his dangerous theological views and prognostications, controlled his publications, and on at least one occasion ordered him to write an annual almanac. They also forbad him to divulge his work on fortification to Landgrave Philipp of Butzbach. His alchemical dabbling brought him into contact with Duke Johann Friedrich of Wuerttemberg, from whom he obtained permission to teach his arts and sciences freely in the duchy in 1619. Landgrave Philipp of Butzbach held him in service and consulted with him. Through his fortification work he did work for Duke August of Brunswick-Lueneberg; Duke Johann Friedrich of Wuerttemberg; the Bishop of Olmuetz; Cardinal Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein; King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden; Landgrave Philipp of Hesse (same as Butzbach?); Count Wratislau of Fuerstenberg; and Princes Heinrich Friedrich and Moritz of Oranien, from whom he received his image in gold.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Military Engineer; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Weights and Measures: At the command of the city of Ulm, he collaborated with Johannes Kepler on the gauging bucket of Ulm (1627). His fortification expertise was widely sought. He improved some of the mills and waterwheels of Ulm. He improved mathematical and surveying instruments, especially those he used in his military engineering. I am taking his position as surveyer for Ulm seriously here.
10. Scientific Societies: He had contact with Maestlin, Kepler, van Ceulen, and Descartes, who attended his school.

SOURCES
Gottlob Kirschmer, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ) 5, 30a-30b. Hoechstetter, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 6, 581-583. 

Not Consulted: Hermann Keefer, 'Johannes Faulhaber, der bedeutendste Ulmer Mathematiker und Festungsbaumeister,' Wuerttembergische Schulwarte 4 (1928), 1-12. 


Fermat, Pierre de



1. Dates: Born: Beaumont; baptised 20 August 1601; Died: Castres (somewhere near Toulouse), 12 January 1665; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Merchant; His father had a prosperous leather business. He was also second consul (whatever that might have been) of Beaumont. Fermat's uncle and godfather was also a merchant. His mother brought the social status of the parliamentary noblesse de la robe to the family. This certainly says at least affluence. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Orleans; LD; He received a solid classical secondary education, beginning at the convent of the Cordeliers in Beaumont (run by the Franciscans). After studying with the Franciscans, he then studied with the Jesuits. He may have attended the University of Toulouse. He obtained the degree of Bachelor of Civil Laws from the University of Orleans in 1631. I accept this as the equivalent of a B.A., and in accordance with my practice I list also the degree in law.
5. Religion: Catholic. In the Parlement of Toulouse, which was divided according to religion, he was a Catholic counsellor.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. 
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Personal Means; Fermat enjoyed financial security throughout his life. In 1631, he registered as a lawyer in Toulouse. He purchased the office of conseiller and commissaire aux requetes in the parlement of Toulouse that same year for 43,500 livres. In 1634 he rose to the position of conseiller aux enquetes, and in 1642 he entered the highest councils of the parlement: the criminal court and then the Grand Chamber. (I think this was the Chambre de l'Édit.) He also served as member and then president of the Chambre de l'Édit. The dowry his wife brought was 12,000 livres. 
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: He corresponded with Carcavi, Brulart de Saint Martin, Mersenne, Roberval, Pascal, Huygens, Descartes, Frénicle, Gassendi, Lalouvere, Torricelli, Van Schooten, Digby, and Wallis.

SOURCES
Jean Itard, Pierre Fermat, Kurze Mathematike Biographien, no. 10, Basel, 1950. Roger Albernhe, Pierre de Fermat: magistrat, mathématicien, Discours prononcé à l'audience solennelle de retrée du 16 Septembre 1969, (Agen, 1970). Dictionnaire de biographie française, 13, 1041-2. Michael Sean Mahoney, The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat, 1601-1665, (Princeton, 1973).

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.E.Hofmann, 'Pierre Fermat-ein Pionier der neuen Mathematik', Praxis der Mathematik, 7 (1965), pp.113-119, 171-180, 197-203. 


Fernel, Jean Francois



1. Dates: Born: Montdidier, c. 1497 (Hazon quotes Plantius, Fernel's friend, as placing Fernel's birth in 1485.); Died: Fontainbleau, 26 April 1558; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Merchant; His father was an substantial furrier and innkeeper. Fernel's marriage testifies to the economic status of the family; his father-in-law was a counselor of the Parlement of Paris. Fernel received a substantial dowry, which he dipped into for the construction of some instruments until conflict arose over this. At this point Fernel laid mathematics aside and discharged the craftsmen and engravers whom he had maintained under his own roof. Obviously affluent at the least, though wealthy would not be an assumption without support.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A., M.D. After schooling at Clermont, Fernel entered the Collège de Ste. Barbe in Paris in 1519, and received his M.A. at the age of twenty two. Then he studied philosophy, astronomy, and mathematics until 1524. After 1524, he studied medicine, and obtained his venia practicandi and his M.D. at Paris in 1530.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Anatomy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; His De naturali parte medicinae (1542), in which he addressed himself to physiology, was read for a century, until Harvey's time. He introduced the term 'physiology' for the science of the function of the body. In Medicina (1554), he noted the peristalsis and the systole and diastole of the heart. Among his anatomical observations was the earliest description of the spinal canal. He also pursued astronomy, mathematics and natural philosophy. He rejected astrology over his career.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; 1521-4, Fernel seems only to have studied humane letters and mathematics with no thought of a career. He was supported by his father until 1524, when he began teaching. 1524-1530, teacher of philosophy at the Collège de Ste. Barbe. 1530-58, medical practice. Hazon says that he earned 2,000 livres a year, the best medical income of the age. 1534-56, professor of medicine at the Collège de Coenouailles. 1556-8, physician to Henry II. Fernel was physician-in-chief to the Dauphin, later Henry II. The prince wanted to keep him at court, but Fernel declined until 1556. Plancy, Fernel's biographer and close associate, reports that Fernel seldom received less that 10,000 livres a year and sometimes more than 12,000. He evidently received 2,300 livres Tournai for Catherine's last childbirth alone. At his death, 30,000 écus d'or were found in his study.
8. Patronage: Academic; Court Patronage; Fernel dedicated Monalosphaerium (1527) to Jocab de Gorea, a mathematician who either had been or would become Principal of Ste. Barbe. The book was sumptuous and appeared to indicate the support of a generous patron. This was also true of two other books published in this period. Hazon says that Fernel cured Catherine de' Medici of sterility, which made his fortune. (There is another story about this below.) According to this story, the king rewarded Fernel with 40,00 écus, and Catherine is reported to have given him 10,000 écus at each birth (there were six). In 1530s, (according to the other story) Fernel's reputation at court became firmly established when he saved the life of Prince Henry's mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Later he also treated Catherine de' Medici, Henry's wife. Fernel treated Francis I in 1547 before the king's death. Henry II wanted to keep him as physician-in-chief, but Fernel wanted to stay in Paris instead of moving to Fontainbleau. While Henry was Dauphin, he did keep Fernel at court for two years (with a large stipend), much to Fernel's displeasure. Much later, from 1556 to 1558, Fernel was physcian to the court. Henry II said that as long as he had Fernel beside him, illness would not be mortal. Fernel dedicated his Dialogue and The Natural Part of Medicine (1542) to the Dauphin. He dedicated Medicina (1554) to King Henry II.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Fernel's practice thrived sufficiently that he was compelled to give up teaching.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
C.S. Sherrington, Endeavour of Jean Fernel, (Cambridge, 1946). Guillaume Plancy, 'Life of Fernel,' appendix II in Sherrington, pp. 150-70. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus célèbres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 30-6. 


Ferrari, Ludovico



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 2 February 1522 Died: Italy, October 1565; Datecode: Lifespan: 43
2. Father: Unknown; Ferrari's grandfather was a refugee in Bologna from Milan. This is all that is said of the father. Ferrari was orphaned at the age of fourteen. He had not received any formal education. Without any possessions or resources he went to Milan. Can this possibly mean anything other than poverty?
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Bologna; Ph.D. Having received no formal education, he was sent to Milan where he joined the household of Girolamo Cardano in 1536. Cardano introduced him to Latin, Greek, and Mathematics. Years later, in 1564, he returned to Bologna where he earned a doctorate in philosophy. All things considered, I think this had to have been an earned degree. I assume a B.A. or it equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Geography; Astronomy; He collaborated with Cardano in researches on the cubic and quartic equations, the results of which were published in the Ars magna (1545). He found a method of solving the quartic equation. 
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1536-40, member of Cardano's household as his amanuensis, disciple, and ultimately collaborator. In 1540, he was appointed by Ferrante Gonzaga, the governor or Milan, public lecturer in mathematics in Milan. In this capacity he gave, inter alia, lessons on the Geography of Ptolemy. Ferrari was then (c. 1548-56) in the service of Ercole Gonzaga, Cardinal of Mantua, for some eight years. Later, he carried out a survey of Milan for the governor of the province. Gherardi's article makes it clear that this was essentially a cartographic survey. From 1564 until his death in 1565, he was lecturer in mathematics at the University of Bologna
8. Patronage: Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Patronage of Government Official; Ferrari lived with Cardano beginning in 1536. Cardano introduced him to mathematics and employed him as amanuensis. He was in the service of Ercole Gonzaga, Cardinal of Mantua, for eight years, and to the cardinal he dedicated the cartelli in the mathematical contest with Tartaglia. At the request of the cardinal's brother, Ferrante, then governor of Milan, he carried out a survey of that province. He received an offer from Emperor Charles V, who wanted a tutor for his son.
9. Technological Connections: Architecture; Cartography; I am accepting the single word in Gherardi that Ferrari was, inter alia, an architect. On cartography see above.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and collaboration with Cardano. Feud with Niccolo Tartaglia, which was caused by the publication of the Ars magna in 1545. 

SOURCES:
Arnaldo Masotti, ed., Cartelli di sfida matematica (between L. Ferrari and N. Tartaglia), (Brescia, 1974). P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 450. G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 3, 320-2. and 9, 99-106. G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana, (Firenze, 1809), 7.2, 522-3. S. Gherardi, 'Lettera del Prof. S. Gherardi . . . sopra . . . L. Ferrari,' Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali . . . di Bologna, ser. III, 1 (1850), 213-24.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: 'Vita Ludovici Ferrarii Bononiensis', in Giolamo Cardano's Opera omnia, (Lyons, 1663), 9, 568-569. J.H.Morley, life of Girolamo Cardano of Milan, Physician, (London, 1854), 1, 148, 187. Arnaldo Masotti, 'Sui cartelli di mathematica disfida scambiati fra Lodovico Ferrari e Niccolo Tartaglia, Rendiconti dell'Istituto lombardo di scienze e letter, 94 (1960), pp.31-41. 


Feuillée, Louis



1. Dates: Born: Mane, Basse-Alpes, 15 August 1660. Died: Marseilles, 18 April 1732; Datecode: Lifespan: 72 
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Scipion Feuilée was a small farmer. Feuillée spent his early years in the convent of the Minims where his poor parents, who thought he was stupid, placed him 'en qualite de portier.'; I take the information at face value-poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Sp; Death: France; 
4. Education: Religious Orders; His first studies were on his own at the convent of the Minims. He was sent to Marseille to study theology, and there he also discovered mathematics and astonomy. He took his vows in 1680 at Avignon. I find the equivalent of a B.A. in this.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was placed in the convent as a young child. He took his vows in 1680. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Botany; Zoology; Feuilée's rapid progress in astronomy and physics soon accorded him a reputation among the savants of Europe. Jacques Cassini recognized his talent, and he appears to have been behind the mission of the French government that sent Feuilée to the Levant and the coast of northern Africa to determine the exact positions of a number of ports. The success of this first trip led Feuillée to solicit means for a second voyage, this time to the Antilles and the South American coast (1703). It is uncertain whether Feuillée got the means for this and his succeeding voyages from the Académie, the court, or some other source. In 1707 he set off for South America a second time with letters of recommedations from the minister of France. One of the results of this trip was a more accurate map of the Chilean coast. He also mapped Buenos Ayres and the Plata. He made astronomical observations, and he collected both plants and animals, even doing dissections of some of the animals. He published a botanical piece on the medicinal use of 100 plants from this trip, Histoire des plantes médicinales, (Paris, 1714-1725). He brought back natural historical specimens of all sorts. Upon his return Louis XIV had an observatory built at Marseilles for Feuilée. In 1724 the Académie commissioned Feuillée to establish the longitude of Hierro Island in the Canaries. He published his observations made during his several trips in 1714 and 1725. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Government Official; Although Feuillée probably spent 30 years of his life at the convent of the Minims, a great deal is not known about his duties in the order. In 1694 he was correcteur of the community of Notre-Dame de Vie, near Venusque, and then he was in monasteries at Arles and Marseille. Feuillée seems to have enjoyed the patronage of the court, the minister of France, and the Académie and members of this society. He was named mathematician to the King in 1706, which involved nothing much beyond the title. However, in 1711 the king bestowed a pension on him along with the observatory.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Government Official; Court Patronage; Jacques Cassini sponsored Feuilée in the Académie. The Académie, which was very appreciative of Feuillée's observations, named him a correspondent. Pontchartrain, an important minister in the government, commissioned the trip to South America at Feuilée's request. In 1707 he was appointed royal mathematician. In 1711, in recognition of his useful services and explorations Louis XIV awarded him a pension and had the observatory at Marseilles built for him. 
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Cartography; Instruments; Feuillée published a work on the medicinal uses of 100 plants from Peru and Chile. He did a map of the coast of Chile, and the establishment of the longitude of Hierro Island was undoubtedly also a project in cartography. That early trip to the Levant certainly sounds like cartography, and I assume the later ones to South America were also. Note that they were closely tied to navigational needs and could easily be listed under that category also. The commission for the second trip to South America explicitly said that the purpose of his observations was to perfect geography in order to establish secure navigation. Feuilée was facile at constructing his own instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1732; Impressed by Feuilée's observations, Jacques Cassini had him appointed a corresponding member of the Académie in 1699. 

SOURCES:
Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 17-18. Michaud, Biographie générale, 14.
Dictionnaire de biographie française. Alfred Lacroix, 'Notice historique sur les membres et correspondants de l'Académie ayant travailé dans les colonies francaises de la Guyane et des Antilles de la fin du XVIIe siècle au début du XIXe,' Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France, 2nd ser. 61 (1934),1-99, especially 11-16. Though only five pages, this is still the best account I have been able to find.

Not Available and Not Consulted: P. Autran, Essai historique sur P. Feuilée, 1846. Saint-Yves, Un voyageur bas-alpin, 1896. C. Bernard, Un érudit bas-alpin, 1904. These last three items all come from the Dictionnaire de biographie francaise. They are not in the NUC or the catalogue of the Bibliothéque nationale. I suspect that they are journal articles, and I have not made any further effort to track them down. 


Finé, Oronce



1. Dates: Born: Briançon, 1494; Died: Paris, 8 August 1555; Datecode: Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Physician; François Finé died while Oronce Finé was an adolescent. I assume prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. 1522, bachelor of medicine degree, Collège de Navarre (i.e., Paris). In the database, I list this as M.D. and assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy, mathematics, cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: astrology
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; From 1515, edited astronomical and mathematical writings for editors in Paris and abroad. 1531-55, Professor of Mathematics, Collège Royal. 
8. Patronage: court, aristocracy; He entered the Collège de Navarre thanks to the influence of his countryman Antoine Sylvestre, professor at the Collège de Montaigu. His opposition to the concordat of 1516, or a horoscope against the prince landed him in jail in 1518. He was in jail again in 1524. The duration of these stays is uncertain. When in jail in 1524, l'amiral de Bonnivet, his protector, governeur du Dauphiné, presented him to the king Francois I, who had him taken away to work on the fortifications of Milan. The king consulted with him during the seige of Pavie (Pavia?). He was a prisoner again in 1524, working on a bridge over the Tessin. The Duke of Bourbon offered him the job of professor at the university of Pavie, but he refused. As recompense for his work, Francois I named him Professor of Mathematics at the University of Paris. The Dictionnaire de biographie Francaise identifies him as 'sieur de Champrouet,' but nothing else is said about it.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Civil Engineer; Military Engineer; Cartography; He wrote several treatises on astronomical instruments, one similar to Apian's Astronomicum Caesareum. And a very rare ivory navicula (a type of sundial, I believe) exists which is signed 'Opus Orontii F. 1524.'; About 1519 Finé drew a world map in the heart-shaped projection, dedicated to François I. This projection was apparently Finé's invention. He did another world map, which first used the name Terra Australia, in 1531. In 1525 he drew a map of France, and later he did maps of the travels of Paul and of the Holy Land. Finé wrote on the use of lunar eclipses to determine longitudes.
10. Scientific Societies: None known

SOURCES
P. Hamon, 'Finé,' Dictionnaire de biographie Francaise, 13 (Paris, 1975), col. 1370-1. [ref. CT1003.D55 v. 13]; Denis Hillars, 'Orone Finé et l'horologue planetaire de la bibliothéque Sainte-Genevieve,' Bibliothéque d'humanisme et renaissance, 33, (Geneva, 1971), 320f. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 1 (Nr. 199), 63-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: L. Gallois, De Orontio Finaeo gallico geographico (Paris, 1890). R.P. Ross, Studies on Oronce Finé (1494-1555) (Columbia University dissertation, 1971). 


Fink [Fincke], Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Denmark, 1561; Died: Denmark, 1656 Datecode: Lifespan: 95
2. Father: Merchant and alderman (Mag); He was prosperous enough that he left some sort of inheritance to Fincke. I find later that the father had married into the Thorsmede family, one of the richest bourgeois families in Denmark. After some thought I am listing him as affluent rather than wealthy.
3. Nationality: Denmark; Denmark; Denmark; Birth: Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Denmark
4. Education: University of Strasbourg; University of Heidelberg; University of Leipzig; University of Padua; University of Pisa; University of Basel; M.D. Until 1577 grammar school in Flensburg. 1577-1582, studied under Dasypodius in Strasbourg. Later attended Jena, Wittenberg, Heidelberg (matric. 1582), Leipzig (matric 1582), Basel (studied medicine, 1583), Padua (1583-1587), and Pisa (1586). In Padua Procurator of the German Nation (1583), Consiliarius of the German Nation (1586), instrumental in founding of a type of regent (coemiterium) for the German Nation (1587). 1587, received M.D., Basel. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy, Medicine
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medicine; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Fincke had an inheritance, managed by his uncle Reinholt Thorsmede, until Fincke took over management about 1580. 1587, practiced in Flensburg as a physician for a while. In fact he practised as a physician throughout his life. ca. 1590, physician-in-ordinary to Duke Philip of Holstein-Gottorp, until the duke's death in 1591. 1591, professor of mathematics, University of Copenhagen. Called to the chair at the request of the chancellor Niels Kaas. 1593 and 1599, Decon in philosophy faculty. 1601, endowed with a 'vikarie' (some sort of church position) in Aarhus. (I consider this as patronage.); 1602, professor of rhetoric, University of Copenhagen. 1603, professor of medicine, University of Copenhagen. Also Decanus perpetuus in faculty of medicine, in which position he remained, drawing the salary, until his death. 1603, Exchanged the vikarie for a more profitable canonry in Roskilde. 1598, 1606, 1615, 1624, 1633: rector of university.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Geometriae Rotundi libri XIV is dedicated to King Frederick II. The chancellor Niels Kaas evidently called him to Copenhagen in 1591. Chancellor Christian Friis also apparently favored him. Thomas Finke (as he is in Danish) stood, as far as I can tell, at the beginning of a sort of academic oligarchy that must have depended on the patronage of the court, though I do not now have any information that gives me insight into how they maintained the good will and support of the court over four generations. It is worth noting that Fincke's cousin (Drude Thorsmede, the daughter of Reinholt Thorsmed (the brother of Fincke's mother) was married to Peder Soerenson, who was apparently another academic. The Thorsmede family was one of the richest in Denmark, and perhaps their riches had some role in this saga of patronage. Fincke had two daughters who married Caspar Bartholin and Ole Worm, both of whom had chairs at the University of Copenhagen. (I found later that Worm was the permanent substitute decon of the medical faculty for Finke from 1640-54.) Caspar's sister married Christian Soerensen (Longomontanus). Caspar's two sons, Erasmus and Thomas both had chairs. I think I have seen reference to Thomas' sons, whom he installed in chairs-if I recall, no less than four in number (and not confined to the sciences). Erasmus's daughter married Ole Roemer, who (after she died) married Else Magdalene. After Roemer died, Else married Thomas Bartholin, the grandson of the Thomas above). Ole Worm's granddaughter (so it appears) was at one time engaged to Ole Borch (or Borrichius) though the engagement was broken off. I have accounted in this paragraph for nine of the fifteen Danes who appear (for my period of two centuries) in the DSB. I might add that two of the others were connected to each other. Winslow was the grand nephew of Stensen. Stensen was very close to Thomas Bartholin. This is quite a tale of closed family circles.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; see 6 above.
10. Scientific Societies: Was in contact with Brahe, Magini, Peder Soerensen, Caspar Bauhin, his son-in-law Caspar Bartholin and Ole Worm, and his grandsons Thomas and Erasmus Bartholin, and no doubt mang others during a long life.

SOURCES
C.M. Taisbak, 'Fincke,' in Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 4 (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1980), pp. 398-9. [ref. CT1263.D33 v.4 1979]; H.F. Roerdam, Kjoebenhauns Universitets historia fra 1537 til 1621 (Copenhagen, 1873-77), 3, 550-62. V. Ingerslev, Danmarks Laeger og Laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-4), pp. 261-7. 


Flamsteed, John



1. Dates: Born: Denby, near Derby, 19 August 1646; Died: Greenwich, 3 December 1719; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Merchant; Stephen Flamsteed is described as a prosperous maltster.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English 
4. Education: None Known; Derby free school. Flamsteed was not sent to the university because of ill health. Studied astronomical science by himself, 1662-9-apparently against the wishes of his father. Enrolled non-residently at Cambridge, 1670-4. I am not listing this. M.A. at Cambridge by letter-patent, 1674. That is, though he received a degree, he did not really study at a university. I am not listing the M.A. Note: no B.A.
5. Religion: Anglican; After he received his M.A., Flamsteed took orders and eventually served a parish near Greenwich.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Mtr; Flamsteed's lifelong task was to replace existing observational data of the heavens with more exact tables. Lunar theory was always a special interest. His Historia coelestis britannica, 1725, contained his catalogue of 3000 stars. Flamsteed's method of determining right ascensions has been called the basis of modern astronomy. In his Gresham lectures he dealt with the optics of telescopes. He kept observations of the barometer, which he correlated with the weather.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Personal Means; Astronomer Royal at an annual stipend of L100, 1675-1719. Granted the living of Burstow in Surrey by Lord North, 1684-1719. Private instruction, 1676-1709, about 140 pupils in all. Inherited something from his father, 1688.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; The King appointed him Astronomer Royal in 1675. Sir Jonas Moore, Master of the Royal Ordnance, proposed to establish him in a private observatory which he intended to erect at Chelsea College in 1674. After Flamsteed took the position of Astronomer Royal (obtained in part through Moore's influence), Moore furnished him a micrometer, lenses and two clocks and those were the only instruments he got at that time. Moore had been one of his best friends and greatest admirers since their first meeting in 1670. Lord North granted him the living of Burstow in Surrey in 1884. Dr. Bernard offered to resigh the Savilian professorship of astronomy in his favour in 1677. (This is interesting, but I don't think it counts as patronage.); In 1704 Prince George of Denmark (the consort of Queen Anne) undertook to publish Flamsteed's catalogue, though in the end, after much conflict with Newton, the Prince died before the publication could be completed. In 1715, the Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Bolton, arranged to have the remaining 300 copies (out of 400 published) of the Newtonian edition of the Historia delivered into Flamsteed's hands, to be destroyed.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Nav; Instruments were of immense importance to Flamsteed. They bulk very large in his autobiographical accounts of his life, and they form the central theme of his Preface to the Historia. Early in his life he learned to grind lenses. He was constantly concerned with making and improving instruments-a sextant, a quadrant, a mural arc of 140 degrees, telescopes, the graduation and calibration of the scales and micrometer-screws. The great mural arc is considered to have been a major step forward in precision instrumentation and Flamsteed to have stood at the beginning of a new era in instrument technology. In 1674 he presented Charles II and the Duke of York with barometers and thermometers of his design, for use in forecasting weather. In 1675 he showed that a method to determine longitude at sea (via the position of the moon) could not possibly work given the existing astronomical data. This incident led directly to the establishment of the Royal Observatory, with the specific aim of perfecting navigation. The needs of navigation were the initial inspiration for the Historia.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Extensive correspondence with Oldenburg and John Collins and other members of the Royal Society, 1670-86. The frienship and ultimate hostility with Newton, 1670-1719. The frienship and collaboration with Abraham Sharp and Joseph Crosthwait, 1681-1719. Extensive correspondence survives, much of it published. The correspondence with Collins in the early 70s seems full of insight into how a community could function through correspondence. Early in his career Flamsteed visited the Towneley estate, observed with Richard Towneley, and became familiar with Gascoigne's instruments. A correspondence with Towneley followed. Later on he corresponded some with Cassini. Royal Society, 1677-1709. Member of council, 1681-4, 1698-1700.

SOURCES
Francis Baily, 'Preface,' to An Account of the Revd. John Flamsteed, (London, 1835), pp. xxiii-xlix, QB36 .F6A2 This work contains Flamsteed's autobiographical sketches and his correspondence as it was then known. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 7, 241-8. Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 3, 1943-58.
Robert McKeon, 'Le début de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 284. John Flamsteed, The 'Gresham Lectures' of John Flamsteed, ed. Eric G. Forbes, (London, 1975). _____, The Preface to John Flamsteed's 'Historia coelestis britannica', (Maritime Monographs and Reports, No. 52), ed. Allan Chapman, (Greenwich, 1982). Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982), pp. 37-8.

Not Available and Not Consulted: E.F. MacPike, Hevelius, Flamsteed, and Halley, (London, 1937). 


Fleischer, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Breslau, 29 March 1539; Died: Breslau, 4 March 1593 Datecode: - Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Unknown; He was born into a 'well to do' family. I could find nothing else out.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Breslau, Germany; Career: Breslau, Germany; Death: Breslau, Germany
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.A., D.D. Attended the Goldberg Gymnasium near Breslau. 1557, matriculated at the University of Wittenberg. He received a M.A., and a theology doctorate in 1589.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Opt
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Government Position; 1568-1569, taught arts and languages at Goldberg Gymnasium, but fled because of plague. 1572, he became the noon preacher at St. Elizabeth's in Breslau, and was a professor at the Gymnasium attached to the church. 1583, he became the minister at St. Maria Magdalena, Breslau. 1589, inspector of the churches and schools of Breslau. The D.S.B. describes a 'series of ecclesiastical positions at St. Maria Magdalena and St. Elizabeth's.' Neither the position of minister at St. Maria nor the inspectorship was mentioned there, but I can find no others.
8. Patronage: None
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 2, 636. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Gustav Bauch, Valentine Trozendorf und die Goldberger Schule (Berlin, 1921), 235-237. 


Fludd, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Bearsted, Kent, 1574; Died: London, 8 September 1637; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Gentry; Government Official; Sir Thomas Fludd was a member of the gentry and a governmental official-Receiver for the counties of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and later Treasurer of war for Elizabeth in France and the low countries. Fludd is described as coming from a well-to-do family. I do not see how this can mean anything short of wealthy. Among other things, note Fludd's six year tour of the European continent after Oxford.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., M.D. Oxford University, St. John's College; B.A., 1596; M.A., 1598. After his years on the continent he returned to Christ Church; M.D. 1605. Fludd studied medicine, chemistry and occult sciences while travelling in France, Germany, Spain, and Italy, 1598-1604. It is interesting that the accounts of these years do not so much as mention a single university on the continent.
5. Religion: Anglican; Questions were apparently raised about Fludd's orthodoxy because of his involvement in occult sciences, but Fludd always insisted on the religious dimension of his philosophy. I think it is correct to say that he was specifically Anglican in name only. He saw himself as above sectarian differences, though always within the boundaries of Christianity.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Occult Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Alchemy; Already as a student at Oxford Fludd rejected Aristotelian philosophy and embraced hermeticism. Apologia . . .fraternitatem Rosea-Cruce, 1616, a defense of the Rosicrucians, inaugurated his career of publication. Tractatus apologeticus, 1617, was an expanded version of the Apologia. There followed a considerable series of publications in occult philosophy, which are too numerous to list. Apparently the most important was Philosophia moysaica, 1638. Alchemy was always a central part of the program. As a Paracelsian, Fludd naturally related his occult philosophy to medicine, as for example, Medicina catholica, 1629-31.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Per Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; According to his own account, Fludd functioned as a tutor in various aristocratic families, such as the Guise, during his years on the continet. A highly successful medical practice, 1605-37. Inherited wealth from his well-to-do family connected with the court. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; See the aristocratic families above. He dedicated his History of the Microcosm, 1617, to James I. When the book around suspicions, partly on the part of James, Fludd succeeded in allaying them. He dedicated two other manuscripts (which however remained unpublished) to James, and he refered to James as his patron. From my perspective, which is not informed by anything approaching exhaustive knowledge of Fludd, it appears that he lived mostly outside the patronage system. He always had more than enough money. He never married. He was apparently interested only in pursuing his philosophy and did not seek place and position. He made a career of offending people. For example, the College of Physicians rejected his applications three times, largely because of his arrogant rejection of Galenic medicine, at the very examinations for admission. I do not find many traces of patronage about him. I do find references to two other dedications: Philosophia sacra, 1626, to John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln; and Medicina catholica, to Sir William Paddy, principal physician to Charles I. In light of the paragraph above, I am strongly convinced that I should not interpret these dedications as acts within the patronage system.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Mechanical Devices; Instruments; Medical practice. He developed mechanical devices (which had an aura of the occult about them in the early 17th century): an automatic dragon, a bellowing bull, a self-performing lyre. He developed an early thermoscope. Fludd included sections on surveying and fortification in at least one of his books (I don't known which one). I have looked only cursorily at illustrations from these sections. They look neither extensive nor original, and I have decided not to list them.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Connection with the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross. Royal College of Physicians, 1609-37. Censor, 1618, 1627, 1633 and 1634. Note that initially Fludd was rejected by the College at least wice because of his militant Paracelsianism.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 7, 348-50. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 150-3. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 2, 618-22. C.H. Josten, 'Robert Fludd's Theory of Geomancy and his Experience at Avignon in the Winter of 1601 to 1602,' Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 27, 327-35. ART, AS122 .W2; Allen G. Debus, The English Paracelsans, (London, 1965), pp. 105-27. _____, 'Renaissance Chemistry and the Work of Robert Fludd,' in Allen G. Debus and Robert Multhauf, Alchemy and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century, (Los Angeles, 1966), pp. 1-29. Serge Hutin, Robert Fludd (1574-1637), alchmiste et philosophe rosicrucian, (Paris, 1971). Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds, (Bouler, CO, 1979). John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 271-5.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: William H. Huffman, Robert Fludd and the End of the Renaissance, (London: Routledge, 1988). C.H. Josten, 'Truth's Golden Harrow. An Unpublished Alchemical Treatise of Robert Fludd in the Bodleian Library,' Ambix, 3 (1949), 91-150. J.B. Craven, Doctor Robert Fludd (Robertus de Fluctibus), the English Rosicrucian. Life and Writings, (Kirkwall, 1902). Francis A. Yates, Theatre of the World, (Chicago, 1969). 


Fontenelle, Bernard le Bouyer [or Bovier]



1. Dates: Born: Rouen, 11 February 1657; Died: Paris, 9 January 1757 Datecode: Lifespan: 100
2. Father: Government Official; A local official for the government. Though of a long-established and prominent family (Fontenelle was the nephew of Corneille), he is described as of modest means. Note that Fontenelle did not attend a university; I attribute this, not to lack of means, but to the high standing of the family, such that careerism through a university degree was out of the question. The family cannot have been poor; I list this, with hesitation, as affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Rouen, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: None Known; 1664, Jesuit college in Rouen.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization; Com; 
7. Means of Support: Governmental position, Patronage; Trained to be a lawyer like his father, but quit after trying one case and losing. ca. 1680-1687, still in Rouen, then ca. 1687-1697 in Paris, devoting himself to philosophy and literature, with which he had mixed success. I have not found explicit information on his support in these years. The éloge has him move to Paris in 79. The Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes, 1686. 1697-1740, secretary of the Académie (from 1699, secretaire perpetuel, a post which he himself outlined in the new statutes of 1699). As secretary, Fontenelle conceived of the annual Histoires to publicize and popularize the work of the Académie-carrying on the tradition of the Entretiens. sous-directeur, 1706, 1707, 1719, 1728. directeur, 1709, 1713, 1723; I think these last two pertain, not the Academy of Science but to the Académie Francaise of which he was also secretary-as also of the Academy of Inscriptions & Belle lettres, and the Academy of Rouen. 1740, pensionnaire veteran
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Though he is said to have prized his independence in relationships with men of rank, the Regent, Philippe d'Orleans, lodged him in the Palais Royale (until 1730) and awarded him a pension. Fontenelle was secretary to the Duke of Orleans. It was through Varignon that Fontenelle got into the Parisian scientific circle, becoming friendly then with Nicolas de Malezien and l'Hospital. He was a friend of Abbé Bignon and Pontchartrain, patrons of the Academie, and was asked by them to be secretary. His title, sieur de Fontenelle, was a low-level title inherited from his father, a man of modest means.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); BA. 1691, accepted into the academie on his fifth try. 1733, elected member of the Royal Society. 1749, became a member of the Berlin academy. Also a member of the Academie Francaise, the Accademia dei Arcadi of Rome, and the Academy of Nancy.

SOURCES
J. Paladilhe, 'Fontenelle,' Dictionnaire de biographie Francaise, 14 (Paris, 1979), cols. 358-360. [ref. CT1103.D55 v.14]; Grandjean de Fouchy, 'Eloge de Fontenelle,' Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences, année 1757, 282-306. [Q46.A16 1757, pt. 1]; Emile Boulan, Figures du XVIIIe siècle, (Leiden: Sijthoff, 1920). (This is an interpretation of Fontenelle, with scarcely any biographical information.)   Not available in time to be used: Alain Niderst, (ed. par)[?], Fontenelle. Actes du dolloque tenu à Rouen du 6 au 10 octobre 1987, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1989).


Fracastoro, Girolamo



1. Dates: Born: Verona, ca. 1478; Died: near Verona, 6 August 1553; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 75 
2. Father: Unknown; Fracastoro came from an old Veronese family. Despite what some sources say, it was not a noble family. Many of the family had been in the law or in the service of the city, but I found nothing at all about the father's specific occupation. Fracastoro spent his early years in his father's villa, Incaffi, fifteen miles from Verono on Lake Garda. Fracastoro inherited this estate, or another like it in the same locale. By any standards this has to be called at least prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. He received his first literary and philosophical instruction from his father. He studied literature, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine at the University of Padua, and received his M.D. degree in 1502. It appears that he studied philosophy under Pomponazzi. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Cth. There is apparently some reason to doubt how pious and sincere Fracastoro was but abundant evidence that he conformed to the Church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Natural Philosophy; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Geography; Botany; Fracastoro's scientific thought culminated and concluded with De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione (1546), which assures him a lasting place in the history of epidemiology. In it he described numerous contagious diseases and the means by which contagion can be spread. Closely associated with this was Syphilis, sive morbus gallicus the book that gave the disease its name. Fracastoro was a humanist poet, and some of his medical works, including Syphilis, are in poetry. Besides his medical writings, he also published works on natural philosophy (a work on sympathies and antipathies), and astronomy. He was a student of the medicinal properties of plants. Syphilis contains an important section on Columbus discovery of American, although Fracastoro rejected the theory. already abroad, that Columbus brought the disease back to Europe from the new world.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; He became an instructor in logic at the University of Padua in 1501, and in anatomy in 1502. He left Padua in 1508. After returning to Verona, he dedicated himself to his studies, to reorganizing his estate, and, for a while, to medical practice, treating patients from all over Italy. Wright argues that the period of medical practice lasted from 1509 to about 1530, and he makes it clear that the practice was a source of income. He became medicus concuctus et stipendiatus of the Council of Trent in 1545. Marini prints his joint opinion (together with another physician, Balduino) that the Council should vacate Trent immediately because of the pestilence raging there. Around 1546 he was made canon of Verona, with special dispensations. I categorize this, not as ecclesiastical income, but as patronage.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; In 1509, when the imminent war with the Holy Roman Emperor and the League of Cambrai caused the University of Padua to close, the leader of the army of Venice, Alviano, a condottiere elevated to the rank Duke of Pordenone for his victories had Fracastoro stay with him in Pordenone (in the Udine) in Alviano's short-lived Accademia Friulana. Bishop G.M. Giberti, a patron to Fracastoro, supplied him with a house in Malcesine (I think on Lake Garda). Fracastoro dedicated Syphilis to Cardinal Pietro Bembo, Secretary of Briefs to Leo X. Bembo asserted that the dedication was the most precious gift he had ever received. Bembo had entered actively into the completion of the work, giving advice on 111 different lines and passages. Fracastoro dedicated De contagione as well as some poems to his patron, Card. Farnese. Pope Paul III (a Farnese) nominated him as medicus conductus et stipendiatus of the Council of Trent. Fracastoro had dedicated his work, Homocentrica, to Paul. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); College of Physicians of Verona, 1505. His home in Verona became a place for philosophical and scientific meetings of his learned friends. He is said to have been friendly with the leading intellectuals of the age. With Bembo he belonged to the academy of Manutius; he corresponded with Ariosto. He may have know Copernicus in Padua. His correspondence with Rannusio and others has been published.

SOURCES
Vita di Girolamo Fracastoro con la versione di alcuni suoi canti, (Verona, 1952). The life here is the anonymous biography composed in the 16th century. F. Pellegrini, 'Per la storia del poema 'De morbo gallico',' in F. Pellegini, ed. Scitti inediti di Girolamo Fracastoro, (Verona, 1954). W. Cave Wright, introduction to his translation of Fracastoro's Contagion, (New York, 1930). Geoffrey Eatough, 'Introduction,' in Fracastoro's 'Syphilis,' Geoffey Eatough, tr. and ed. (Liverpool, 1984). P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 75, and 27 (1895), 50-1. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28),1, 39-41. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 389-90, and 2, 291-5.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: E. di Leo, Scienze ed umanesimo in Girolamo Fracastoro, 2nd ed. (Salerno, 1953). E. Barbarani, Girolamo Fracastoro e le sue opere, (Venezia, 1891). F. Pellegrini, Fracastoro, (Trieste, 1948). PA8520 .F7. 


Freind, John



1. Dates: Born: Croughton, Northamptonshire, 1675; Died: London, 26 July 1728; Datecode: Lifespan: 53
2. Father: Church Living; The Rev. William Freind was the Rector of Croughton. No explicit information on financial status. However, the Rev. Freind was able to send three sons to Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford. Moreover, in 1700, while he was still a student in Oxford who had not yet earned a penny, Freind purchased the manor of Hitcham in Berkshire, which he owned as lord of the manor for the rest of his life, and where he was buried. I fail to see how the family can have been less than affluent; I tend to suspect that 'wealthy' might be the more correct adjective.
3. Natonality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A., M.D. Westminster School. Christ Church, Oxford, 1694-1703; B.A., 1698; M.A., 1701; M.B., 1703; M.D. by diploma, 1707.
5. Religion: Anglican; Freind was a Jacobite in politics.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Freind began to publish articles on medicine in the Philosophical Transactions in 1699, while still a student. His chemical lectures at Oxford in 1704 were published in 1709 as Praelectiones chymicae-an application of the Newtonian concept of attractions to mechanical chemistry. As a physician Freind wrote on medical topics-e.g., Emmenologiae, 1703, which expounds a mechanistic physiology. Mostly he wrote on therapeutics-e.g, Hippocrates de morbis popularibus, 1716. His History of Physick, 1725-6, was perhaps his major work; it expounds Freind's ideas on medicine in the process of writing its history.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; I mentioned above his purchase of Hitcham in 1700. Add to this his apparent leisure during 1707-12. It seems impossible that he did not have personal means. He was appointed to give chemical lectures at Oxford in 1704; although nothing is said, I assume he received some salary. Physician to the English forces in Spain, 1705-7. There is no indication of what Freind did between 1707 and 1712; I assume that he practiced medicine, perhaps in Oxford. It is not impossible that he was a gentleman of leisure. Physician to the Duke of Ormonde on the military campaign in the low countries, 1712. Freind established a medical practice in London about 1712 and became very prominent in the profession. One of the famous stories about him concerns his imprisonment for three months in 1723. After his release his friend, Dr. Mead, gave him a bag of coins, the fees from his patients whom Mead had tended during that period. According to the story the bag contained 5,000 guineas. Someone has suggested that this is a slip; it was really 500. Even if that were so, it was an enormous sum, and the story is surely indicative of what people thought physicians were making, even if we cannot give it much credence as evidence of Freind's income. Let me add here that Freind was able to assemble a valuable collection of books. Freind became an M.P. in 1722. He had strong Jacobite leanings and was involved in some way in Atterbury's plot in 1723 and was imprisoned in the Tower for about three months. What I find impossible to understand, he became physician to the Prince of Wales upon his release in 1723, and upon the Prince's accession to the throne as George II in 1727, Freind became personal physician to Queen Caroline, 1727-8.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Sci; At Oxford, Freind became a protégé of Henry Aldrich, Dean of Christ Church and godfather of the Oxford high church party. The King and the Queen treated him very kindly. Soon after his release from the Tower in 1723 (for involvement in a treasonous plot against the house of Hanover) he was nevertheless appointed physician to the children of Princess of Wales (other accounts say physician to the Prince of Wales), and in 1727 physician to the Queen. George II bestowed a pension on Freind's widow. He was appointed physician to the English forces by the Earl of Peterborough in his campaign in Spain in 1705. Having returned to England, he published two books in defence of Lord Peterborough's conduct in Spain. He was appointed physician to the Duke of Ormonde in 1712 on another military expedition. He had been an intimate friend of Bishop Atterbury from the time they met at Christ Church, and he was involved in some manner in Atterbury's plot for the restoration of the Stuart family in 1722. (By itself, this does not constitute patronage. It fits in closely with the Aldrich connection.); Freind dedicated the Praelectiones chymicae to Newton. After some hesitation I am listing this. He was a close friend of Richard Mead. Mead used his influence as Walpole's physician to get Freind released from the Tower. I repeated the story of the fees for Freind's patients above. Freind dedicated his History of Physick to Mead. This sounds like a relationship of peers to me; I am not listing it as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Friendship with Baglivi and Lancisi, from 1696. Friendship with Mead. He engaged in an acrimonious dispute with Woodward (in which Mead inevitably also engaged) following the publication of Freind's De morbis. Royal College of Physicians, 1716-1728; Gulstonian Lectures, 1718; Harveian Oration, 1720; Censor, 1718-1719. Royal Society, 1712.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 7, 681-3.
Biographia Britannica, 1st ed. (London, 1747-66), 3, 2024-44. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 2, 48-56. A short account of his life in Charles Hutton, George Shaw, and Richard Pearson, Philosophical Transations . . . Abridged, (London, 1809), 4, 423fn. Major Greenwood, 'John Freind,' in Medical Dictator, London, 1936), pp. 37-66. R134/ G816. Philip Shorr, 'Sir John Freind (1675-1728), M.D. Pioneer Historian of Medicine,' Isis, 27 (1937), 453-74. Major Greenwood, 'John Freind (1675-1728),' Janus 37 (1933), 193-210. Anita Guerrini, 'The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and their Circle,' Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986), 288-311. 


Frenicle de Bessy, Bernard



1. Dates: Born: France, 1605; Died: Frence, 1675 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: France; France; French; Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: Non; Perhaps better, No Information.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics
7. Means of Support: Government Position; Held an official position as counselor at the Cour des Monnais. Later a member of the Académie.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; 1666, he was appointed to the Académie by Louis XIV. I assume this wasn't on his own initiative.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666, appointed to the Académie. Corresponded with Descartes, Fermat, Huygens, and Mersenne.

SOURCES
Condorcet, Eloges des Académiciens de l'Académie Royale des Sciences. Mort depuis 1666, jusqu'en 1699 (Paris, 1773), 30-35. [Q171.C746 1968]; St. Le Tourneur, 'Frenicle (Bernard),' Dictionnaire de Biographie Francaise, 14 (Paris, 1979), col. 1204. [ref. CT1003.D55 v. 14]
Note: Even the Eloge has sparse information about him; it is mostly about his work. 


Fuchs, Leonhart



1. Dates: Born: Wemding, Germany, 17 January 1501; Died: Tübingen, 10 May 1566 Datecode: - Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Magistrate; His father, Hans Fuchs, was Burgermeister of Wemding. He died when Leonhart was four years old. (I am far from certain that Governmental Position is the correct category for the father.); His grandfather, also a Burgermeister of Wemding (presumably before Hans), brought him up. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Wemding, Germany. Career: Germany; Death: Tübingen, Germany.
4. Education: University of Erfuhrt; University of Ingolstadt; M.A., M.D. 1511, he was sent to Heilbronn to prepare for university. 1512, transferred to the Marienschule, Erfurt. 1515, entered the University of Erfurt, received his B.A. after three semesters, in 1517. 1519, enrolled at Ingolstadt, received his M.A. in 1521. He continued on at Ingolstadt, switching to medicine, and received his M.D. in 1524.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. He must have been Catholic first. It is not clear when he converted, but is thought to have been early. He read Lutheran writings while a student at Ingolstadt. Fuchs was a dedicated Lutheran and experienced some friction with the Zwinglists at Tübingen (Duke Ulrich among them).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; 1517-1519, opened a prosperous school at Wemding. 1524-1526, practiced medicine in Munich. 1526-1528. Professor of Medicine at the University of Ingolstadt. 1528-1535, court physician to Georg von Brandenburg, Margrave of Ansbach at a salary of 50 gulden. 1533, he received another appointment at Ingolstadt, but religious opposition prevented him from assuming it. 1535-1566, Professor of Medicine at Tübingen, practicing medicine as well. He was elected rector in 1536 1540, and five other times as well.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He was court physician to Georg von Brandenburg, Margrave of Ansbach, partly because of the plans the Margrave had to found a university. At the center of these plans was the chancellor Georg Vogler. When these plans fell through, Fuchs moved on, but returned after religious opposition prevented him from keeping the position at Ingolstadt (see above). When he returned to Ingolstadt, there was a religious examination (Untersuchung), from which he escaped only with the intervention of the Bavarian chancellor Leonhard von Eck. Duke Ullrich of Wuerttemberg called him to Tübingen. This call was probably due to Melanchton, who was originally to reorganize Tübingen, and who had corresponded with Fuchs since 1532. After the Duke had called him, Fuchs dedicated Paradoxa medicina (1534) to the Duke; In 1548, he declined an offer from Duke Cosimo de' Medici, who, at Vesalius's suggestion, wanted to attract Fuchs to be the director of a new botanical garden in Pisa. Fuchs dedicated a book to Cosimo de' Medici in 1548. Fuchs had corresponded with the brother of Margrave Georg duke Albrecht of Prussia, and when Fuchs was considering leaving Tübingen in 1537, Albrecht asked Fuchs if he could recommend him as personal physician to his brother-in-law, King Christian III of Denmark. Because of the possibility of receiving the chair in medicine at the newly-founded protestant university in Denmark, Fuchs gave Albrecht permission to start negotiations, but withdrew from consideration after a few months. Perhaps Fuchs wanted to serve Albrecht instead, and had some idea of Albrecht's plans to found the university of Koenigsberg (which he did in 1544).
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He practiced medicine concurrently with his professorial position, and gained wide-spread acclaim for his treatment of the epidemic of 1529.
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: he worked closely with Joachim Camerarius.

SOURCES
Gernot Rath, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ) 5, 681b-682b. Eberhard Steubler, Leonhart Fuchs... (Munich, 1928).





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
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