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Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
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Dalechamps, Jacques


1. Dates: Born: Caen, 1513; Died: Lyons, 1 March 1588; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: unknown; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. He entered the University of Montpellier in 1545, received his first degree in medicine in 1546, and M.D. in 1547. He studied under Guillaume Rondolet. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany, Medicine, Surgery; His most important scientific work is the Historia generalis plantarum (1586-1687), the most complete botanical complilation of its time and the first to describe much of the flora peculiar to the region around Lyons. His other more or less original work is the Chirugie franciose (1570). Much of his effort was directed toward editing and translating earlier scientific and medical writings.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; After a few years in Grenoble and Valence, he moved in 1552 to Lyons, where he spend the remainder of his life. After arriving in Lyons in 1552, he has appointed Médecine de Hotel-Dieu, which appears to have been a municipal appointment. In his translation of Galen he is called 'lecteur ordinaire di chirurgie.' He is alternately called a doctor or professor, even at Grenoble and Valence. According to the Grente Dictionaire, he managed the jardin des plantes at Lyons. According to Hoefer, he practiced medicine successfully in Lyons. I think this latter has to be correct. 
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The consulate of Lyons relieved another man of the post of médecine in order to give it to Dalechamps. An edition of De peste has a prefactory letter from Dalechamps to the Bishop of Valence.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; There is minimal evidence for pharmacology, but the evidence seems too slender for reliance.
10. Scientific Societies: His friends and Correspondents included Rondolet, Conrad Gesner, Joseph Justus Scaliger, Robert Constantin, and Jean Fernel.

SOURCES
Georges Grente, ed., Dictionaire des lettrés francaises: Le seizième siècle, (Paris, 1951), p. 211. F.Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, 12, 804-806. Charles B. Schmitt, 'Some Notes on Jacobus Dalechampius and his Traslation of Theophrastus', Gesnerus, 26 (1969), 36-53. Philippe-Louis Joly, Eloges de quelsque auteurs français, (Dijon, 1742), pp. 350-68. 


Dalencé, Joachim



1. Dates: Born: France, 1640; Died: France, 1707; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Surgeon to the king; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: unknown.
5. Religion: Catholic by assumption. His father was a Jansenist.
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy, physics
7. Means of Support: governmental position; 1663, a royal secretary and counsellor, purchased, salaried positions. 1685-8, moved to the Netherlands where he purchased books and art works for the royal collections. I am uncertain how to list this. It could be seen as patronage, but I will include it under the governmental position.
8. Patronage: None Known; His father, surgeon to the king, purchased for him his position as secretary and cousellor. But this is not patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He made serious suggestions about thermometers.
10. Scientific Societies: He served as an intermediary between Oldenburg and Huygens, and the between the Académie and Huygens, and was in contact with Leibnitz.

SOURCES
Nouvelle biographie generale, I (Paris, 1852), col. 786. W.E.R. Middleton, A History of the Thermometer. Nothing of a biographical nature. M. Daumas, Les instruments scientifiques . . .
Nothing of a biographical nature. There is just not much on this guy, even in 18th century encyclopedic sources. 


Danti, Egnatio [Egnazio, Ignazio]



Born Carlo Pellegrino Rainaldi [Rinaldi]. Contemporaries of Egnatio's grandfather, Pier Vincenzio Rainaldi, who admired his talents, began to call him Dante, in imitation of the poet. Egnatio's uncle took Danti as a family name; Egnatio and his brothers appear to have used it.
1. Dates: Born: Perugio. Baptised on 29 April 1536. Died: Alatri (c. 80km straight east of Rome), 19 October 1586; Datecode: Lifespan: 50; 
2. Father: Artisan; It is difficult to categorize the father, Guilio Danti, with assurance. DBI asserts that the family was noble. In its article on Giulio, however, DBI describes a goldsmith-one who made artistic objects such as statuettes of gold. Palmesi describes him as an architect and a maker of astronomical instruments. Egnatio Danti himself described a surveying instrument developed and used by his father. No explicit information on their financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: It; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Personal Means; One source states that Danti established a reputation as a scholar in science and the arts. Palmesi says that he attended the University of Perugia before joining the Dominicans. No mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. As stated above, he was a Dominican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Mathematics; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Scientific Instruments; Optics; Gog; In 1574 he determined by observation that the equinox was eleven days earlier than the calendar. Danti continued to pursue this issue, and was one of the more important figures in the reform of the calendar. He published his grandfather's translation of Sacrobosco's Sphere with his own commentary on it. He also published other astronomical work and mathematical works (as for example an edition of some of Euclid). Danti prepared huge mural maps in Florence (in the Palazzo Vecchio) and later in the Vatican, and he published a work on a surveying instrument that he improved upon. Danti published the Perspective of Euclid together with that of Eliodoro Larisseo. He translated Ptolemy's Geography.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Danti became a Dominican in 1555 as he was nearing the age of nineteen. In 1562 (when he was about 26) Cosimo I de' Medici heard of his reputation, perhaps through Danti's brother who was a sculptor at the court. Cosimo ordered him to prepare maps for his collection, large mural maps for the garda robbia in the Palazzo vecchio, and a large terrestrial globe. In 1566 he designed a monastery for Pius V. In 1571 Cosimo requested of the general of the Dominicans that Danti be allowed to reside in the palace. It appears that Danti instructed the princes in mathematics (not to the pleasure of Francesco, the heir), and he also gave lessons in mathematics to aristocratic youths. Cosimo had him appointed professor of mathematics in Pisa with a salary of 36 scudi, which Cosimo made available by cancelling the appointment of a professor of theology. With the death of Cosimo, Danti, who was hardly in favor with Francesco, was in effect ordered to leave Tuscany-within twenty-four hours. He moved to Bologna, where from 1576 to 1583 he was a professor of mathematics in the university. Having fulfilled a commission to map the territory of Perugia, Danti was commissioned by Gregory XIII to map the papal states and to work at reforming the calendar. In 1580 he was appointed cosmographer and mathematician to Gregory. In 1583 Gregory appointed him bishop of Alatri.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Magistrate; Cosimo was his first patron. When Danti was attacked by other envious Dominicans, Cosimo defended him vigorously in a letter to the general of the order in Rome. Pius V commissioned Danti to plan a church in 1566. Ghisilieri, the Governor of Perugia, employed him to map the region in 1577, leading on to the papal mapping commission. In Bologna he was under the protection of Card. Paleotii, who commissioned some of the instruments that Danti built there. In Bologna, Count Giovanni Pepoli built (i.e., financed) the gnomon for him. The Senate of Bologna chose him to be professor of mathematics one year after he arrived in the city. He built anemoscopes (instruments to show the direction of the wind) for a number of aristocrats in Florence and Bologna. He dedicated a work on the astrolabe to Card. Ferdinando de' Medici (later Ferdinando I). He dedicated his publication of his grandfather's Sphere of Sacrobosco to the Marquise of Castiglione. He dedicated his publication of Euclid's Perspective to the Cardinal of Lorraine. (Recall that Christina of Lorraine was the wife of Ferdinando.); He dedicated Le due regole della prospective practica to the Duke Jacomo Buoncompagni. He dedicated a translation of the Sphere of Proclus to Isabella Orsini, the daugher of Cosimo I. 
9. Technological Connections: Architecture; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Civil Engineer; Hydraulics; Military Engineer; Danti constructed an astronomical quadrant and an equinoctial armillary mounted on the facade of Santa Maria Novella for observations meant to determine the true equinox in order to correct the calendar. He later built a gnomon in Santa Maria Novella for that purpose, and after he moved to Bologna the more famous gnomon in the cathedral there. He published extensively on astronomical instruments. He build anemoscopes (to indicate the direction of the wind) in Florence and in Bologna. He mapped the region embracing Perugia and later the papal states. He perfected the rado latino, a surveying instrument. In 1566 Danti designed a church for Pius V and later a chapel in Bologna. Near the end of his life he was summoned to Rome to help Fontana raise the obelisk. He planned a canal across Italy through Florence to link the two seas and to make Florence a commercial hub. Danti left behind a manuscript on fortification. I hesitate with this, but end up including it.
10. Scientific Societies: Danti was a member of the Accademia del Disegno in Perugia and later in the Accademia of Santa Luca in Rome. He was familiar with the leading intellectual of Florence of his day. Ferrato has published many of his letters. Unfortunately my information on this publication is not more precise.

SOURCES
Jodoco Del Badia, Egnazio Danti, (Florence, 1881). V. Palmesi, 'Ignazio Danti,' Bollettino della R. deputazione di storia patria per l'Umbira, 5 (1899), 81-125. Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 32, 659-62.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G.B. Vermiglioli, 'Elogio di Ignazio Danti detto in Perugia nel giorno 26 Dicembre 1819,' Opuscoli letterari di Bologna, 3 (Bologna, 1820), 1. 'Ignatio Danti,' in Biografie degli scrittori perugini e notizie delle opere loro, (Perugia, 1829), 366-70. R. Almagia, Monumenta italiae cartographica, (Firenze, 1929), pp. 41-9, 525. 


Dasypodius [Rauchfuss], Cunradus



1. Dates: Born: Switzerland, 1530; Died: Germany, 1600; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Academic; Church Living; Peter Dasypodius taught in Sturm's gymnasium in Strasburg and held church positions. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Strasbourg; Studied with Christian Herlinus at the famous academy of Johannes Sturm in Strasbourg. (For the time being, I am considering the academy as a university; if it matters, I will try to learn more about it.) Although it is not specifically mentioned, I take him to have had the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist; His father, the Swiss humanist Petrus Dasypodius, is described as 'reformed' in the Neue Deutsche Biographie. Sturm was a prominent reformer.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Mechanics. He published extensively on mathematics, at the textbook level. He also did some astronomy and he translated Hero's Automata into Latin and drew upon it for the famous clock.
7. Means of Support: Academic; From 1558, Professor at the academy of Johannes Sturm. I am treating this as university level.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Government Official; Medical Practioner; He dedicated his mathematical work of 1570 to the Landgraf of Alsace. In a dedication Dasyposius thanked the personal physician of the Emperor and a councillor of the Emperor for their assistance. He dedicated a work of 1572 to a royal councillor in Paris. He dedicated another work of 1572 to Peter Ramus.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; 1571-4, designed the famous clock in the cathedral at Strasbourg.
10. Scientific Societies: None. He knew and corresponded with Ramus.

SOURCES
Wilhelm Schmidt, 'Heron von Alexandria, Konrad Dasypodius und die Strasburger astronomische Muensteruhr,' Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik, 8 (1898), 175-194. (Supplement to vol. 42 of Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik.) A.G. Kaestner, Geschichte der Mathematik, 4 vols. (Goettingen, 1796-1800), 1, 332-45. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 4, 764.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.G.L. Blumhof, Etwas vom alten Mathematiker C. Dasypodius, (Goettingen, 1796). 


Davison, William



1. Dates: Born: Scotland, 1593; Died: France, 1669; Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: Aristocrat; The family is described as rich and noble. However, the father died when Davison was young, and the mother was plucked by the tutor. Consequently Davison grew up admist constant legal conflict to the extent that when he was old enough he decided he would live elsewhere. It is stated clearly that he lived in poor circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scot; Career: French and Polish; Death: French
4. Education: University of Aberdeen; University of Montpellier; M.D. Marischal College, Aberdeen, M.A. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. Possibly M.D. at Montpellier.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemistry; Alchemy; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Astrology. Philosophia pyrotechnica seu cursus chymiatricus, 1635. Elémens de la philosophie de l'art de feu, 1644. In ideam philosophicam medicinae Petri Severini, 1660, a commentary on the Paracelsian chemist Severinus.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Early on, in France, he appears to have been supported by the Bishop of Boulogne, Claude Dormy. Beginning in 1626, when his patron Dormy died, Davison devoted himself to medicine, especially treating the Scottish nobility in Paris. In 1636, he was physician to the English Ambassador in Paris. About the mid 30's, Davison began to offer chemical instruction, which attracted both students and physicians from several countries. Through the protection of Henrietta, Queen of England, he became physician to the King of France from 1644-1651. In 1647 he was appointed to teach chemistry in the Jardin du Roi. Appointed intendant to the Jardin du Roi, 1648-1651, a position he owed to the recommendation of Vautier, a powerful royal physician. He was confirmed in the intendancy in 1653, but fatigued by the bureaucratic struggles, he had already left Paris for Poland. He won the favor of Queen Marie-Louise of Poland. He was physician to the royal family ('Senior archiatrus et chymicus'), 1551-67. Director of the Royal Garden in Warsaw, 1651-67, a position he owed to the Queen.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Medical Practioner; Jean-Baptiste Morin, a medical astrologer, became his friend. He apparently introduced Davison to Bishop Dormy and later to the Queen of Poland. He was physician to the King of France from 1644-51. Queen Marie-Louise of Poland granted him the position of 'senior archiatrus et chymicus' to King John Casimir and the Queen and the directorship of the Royal Garden in Warsaw in 1651. In addition to the Polish royal family, he earlier had the patronage of the Bishop of Boulogne, Claude Dormy, who among other things allowed him to use his laboratory for chemical experiments. Add Vautier, the royal physician. (Source of patronage: Ambix, 9, 72-80.)
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: a life long friendship with Jean Baptiste Morin; friendship with Claude Dormy.

SOURCES:
E.-T. Hamy, 'William Davison, intendant du Jardin du Roi et professeur de chimie (1647-51), Nouvelle archives du Musée de l'Histoire Naturelle, 3rd Ser. 10 (1898). Ambix, 9, 72-80. J.P. Contant, L'enseignement de la chimie au jardin royal des plants de Paris, (Paris, 1952).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Patricia P. McLachlan, Scientific Professionals in the 17th Century, Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1968. 


Debeaune [de Beaune], Florimond



He was really de Beaune. He is sometimes known as Debeaune solely because, at the end of the 19th century, Tannery gave his name that form.
1. Dates: Born: Blois, 7 October 1601 (this was the date of baptism); Died: Blois, 18 August 1652; Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Gentry; Florimond de Beaune (the father) was the illegitimate son of Jean II de Beaune. He was legitimized so that Florimond the mathematician inherited a title of nobility. Everything about this smacks of Gentry rather than Aristocracy, and so I list it. The father is repeatedly referred to as 'Ecuyer.' Florimond the mathematician (and undoubtedly his father before him) was Seigneur de Goulioust (or Goulioux); i.e., he inherited an estate. However, he married (initally) a woman from the bourgeoisie of Blois. It appears clear that the father was not a man of great wealth, but I do not see how to deny that the circumstances were affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; He studied law at Paris. There is no mention of a degree; a man of his status had no need for such.
5. Religion: Catholic. The brother of his grandfather was a cardinal. Florimond's son was a priest. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics; Optics; His renown was due to the Notes brièves that he wrote on Descartes' Géométrie, which appeared in the first Latin edition of Géométrie in 1649. Notes brièves clarify and conveniently illustrate some of the difficult passages of the Géométrie, and they played a role in the belated spread of Cartisian mathematics. The second edition of Géométrie also contained his two short papers on algebra. He formulated various mathematical problems of the time, including the inverse problem of tangents. One third of Debeaune's library was devoted to astronomy. He had his own observatory. He left manuscripts, never published and now lost, on mechanics and dioptrics.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position; Debeaune inherited a title and an estate. What matters more, Debeaune's second marriage brought him money. He spent much of his time at his country seat near Blois. He had money enough to assemble an excellent library and to build his own observatory. The money from the second marriage enabled him to buy an office. At first he did military service. Later, he bought the office of counselor to the court of justice in Blois, and held the office until 1648. He had his country estate and a town house with an observatory.
8. Patronage: None Known; Debeaune was from the class of patrons. Apparently not aspiring to mount beyond the provincial world of Blois, he had no need of patrons himself.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He worked actively at grinding lenses and at realizing Descartes' machine to grind non-spherical lenses.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Descartes. Friendship with Erasmus Batholin, whom he entrusted with arranging for the publication of several of his manuscripts. He corresponded with Bulliaud, Mydorge, Billy, Bourdin, and Mersenne. Learned men, including Monconis as well as Descartes and Bartholin, came to Blois to discuss things with him.

SOURCES:
Charles Adam and G.Milhaud, eds., Descartes-correspondance, 1, (Paris, 1931), pp. 434-436. B1873 .A19; Pierre Costabel, 'Florimond de Beaune, érudit et savant de Blois,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 27 (1974), 73-5. _____, 'Le traité de l'angle solide de Florimond de Beaune,' Actes du XIe congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, (1965), 3, 189-94. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 10, 422. P. Grimal, Dictionnaire des biographies, 1, 410. Adrien Thibaut, 'Florimond de Beaune', Bulletin de la Société des sciences et lettres du Loire et Cher, 4, no.6, (March1896), pp.13-29. Jean Bernier, Histoire de Blois, (Paris, 1682), 563-8. (Everyone treats this as the basic source on Debeaune's life.) P.Humbert,' Les Astronomes françaises de 1610 a 1667,' Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan, Mémoires, 63 (1942), pp.1-72. 


Dechales, Claude F. M.



1. Dates: Born: Chambéry (Savoy), 1621; Died: Turin, 28 march 1678; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. As a full Jesuit he would have had both the equivalent of a B.A. within the order, and a doctorate in theology. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He became a Jesuit in 1636 and was for a time a missionary in Turkey.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Dechales is best remembered for his Cursus seu mundus mathematicus, a complete course of mathematics, including practical geometry, mechanics, statics, geography, magnetism, architecture, optics, astronomy, natural philosophy, and music. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; For some time he was a Jesuit missionary in Turkey. He read public mathematical lectures at the Collège de Clermont at Paris for four years. I am almost certain that this was the Jesuit institution. After teaching at Lyons and Chambery, he moved to Marseilles (always in Jesuit colleges), where he taught the arts of navigation and millitary engineering and the practical applications of mathematics to science. In Marseilles he was appointed Royal Professor of Hydrography by Louis XIV. From Marseilles he went to Turin, where he was appointed professor of mathematics at the university. He died there.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; See the appointment by Louis XIV above as well as the chair in Turin, which had to have been due to the Duke of Savoy.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Military Engineer; He taught the arts of navigation and military engineering. I am not listing cartography because I have not found any explicit reference to it; however, note that appointment as royal hydrographer.
10. Scientific Societies: Correspondence with Hevelius, Huygens, and Cardinal Bona, among others, survives.

SOURCES
Moritz Cantor, Vorlesungen uber die Geschichte der Mathematik, 3, (Leipzig, 1913), 4-6, 15-19. 
Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 10, 476. Joseph MacDonnell, Jesuit Geometers, (Vatican City, 1989).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Hutton, Philosophical and mathematical Dictionary, 1, (London, 1815), 395-396. 


Dee, John



1. Dates: Born: London, 13 July 1527; Died: Mortlake, Surrey, December 1608; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: Merchant; Government Position; Roland Dee was a mercer (i.e., merchant) in London. Biographia britannica says he was a vintner. Apparently he also held some petty appointment at the court. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Polish; Germany; Czechoslovak; Death: English; 
4. Educaton: Cambridge University, M.A. Lou Chantry School at Chelmsford in Essex, 1537-42. St. John's College, College, Cambridge, 1542-6; B.A., 1545; Fellow of Trinity upon its foundation in 1546; M.A., 1548. Studied at Louvain University, 1548-51, with Gemma Frisius and Mercator.
5. Religion: Anglican; Dee was always viewed, frequently with dread, as a conjurer. During the reign of Mary he was under suspicion of heresy. His angel-magic was not all that different from the position of Bruno. In the 80s in Prague he was not far from condemnation by the Catholic Church. Nevertheless I am not aware that questions were ever raised in England about his orthodoxy after the accession of Elizabeth (and thus I will not list heterodoxy), 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Occult Philosophy; Astrology. Subordinate sciences: Alchemy; Astronomy; Gog; He editted the Billingsley translation of Euclid in 1570 and added to it a famous preface in justification of mathematics. Dee's interests always tended toward the occult (and his mathematics was not unconnected with this). His favor in court circles was related to his expertise in astrology. About 1582 he became associated with Edward Kelly in occult and alchemical projects. Ultimately his interest in alchemy led Dee virtually to abondon his other work. Monas hieroglyphia, 1564. As this early publication indicates, Dee became involved in hermeticism, cabala, and alchemy early, already in his student years. As early as 1550 in Paris he was expounding the mathematical-magical theory revived by Ficino. Propaedeumata aphoristica, 1558, a book of astrology. Parallacticae commentationis praxosque, 1573-trigonometric theorems for determining parallax of the new star of 1572. Dee was an early admirer of Copernicus, whose work he studied, whether or not he himself became a Copernican. He was an important figure in Tudor geography. For an extended period, from about 1551 to 1583, Dee was the advisor to English voyages of discovery, to the Northeast and to the Northwest. He may have been an advisor to Drake's voyage. His Perfect Arte of Navigation (more geography and propaganda for English empire than the science of navigation) was originally intended as part of a larger work, a general history of discoveries. Clearly Dee could be listed also under navigation and music, which was associated with his mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Astrology; Schoolmaster; Fellow of St. John's College, 1545. Fellow of Trinity College upon its foundation, 1546 -c.1550. Dee was offered a professorship at the University of Paris in 1551, and in 1554 a position as lecturer on mathematics at Oxford. He declined both positions. Dee's support through most of his life came from patronage, and it is my distinct impression (which is not based on any document) that he rejected these academic position precisely with the intention of living, and living better, on patronage. From the court he never received the plums he clearly expected. Nevertheless there appears to be no way to account for his library and collection except through gifts from patrons. At Louvain, 1548-50, Dee began to tutor influential people in such subjects as mathematics and geography. At some point near then he tutored the Earl of Warwick. Apparently Sir Philip Sidney studied with him, perhaps later. Patronage of the Duchess of Northumberland and her husband, 1551-5. He was granted a yearly pension of one hundred crowns by King Edward, 1552. He exchanged the pension for the Rectorship of Upton-upon-Severn in Worcestershire in 1553. He succeeded in holding the claim to this living all his life though the income apparently escaped him sometime around 1580. Note that he never filled the duties of this or another church living; I consider the income as patronage. Queen Elizabeth promised him security against any attacks on his studies and sent him gifts of money. Dee had cast horoscopes for Elizabeth already during the reign of Mary, and he received the title of Royal Astrologer. He selected the day for the coronation. The court consulted him when occasion demanded, and he was sent on missions abroad. Nevertheless Elizabeth also held Dee somewhat at arm's length as though she did not wish to be too closely associated, and Dee never received the patronage he expected. Rectorship of Long Leadenham in Lincolnshire, 1566-to end of life, though that income also escaped him about 1580. Wardenship of Christ's College, Manchester, 1592-1605. He owed this position to Queen Elizabeth. Apparently he did fill this post, disastrously. Free-lance advisor to the crown, often in connection with astrological events, but also on calendar reform, getting meager payments from the State, 1558-1602. Dee added to his income by drawing horoscopes and giving advice to all kinds of people. Dee also earned money from students who came to him to learn dialing, alchemy, and the like.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Government Official; Merchant Patronage; Financial support of Duchess of Northumberland and her husband during 1551-5 for his research. Dee was tutor to the Northumberland children, including Robert Dudley, the future Earl of Leicester. Leicester was to be a major patron in England. Dee was close to him; Biographia britannica calls Leicester his chief patron. Leicester made use of his scientific knowledge. King Edward granted him a yearly pension of one hundred crowns in 1552 after Dee presented him with two treatises he had composed. During the reign of Edward (I think), Dee entered the service of the Earl of Pembroke. In 1568 Dee got the Earl to present the second edition of his Propaedeumata aphoristica to Queen Elizabeth. It is reported that she received it graciously, whatever that may mean. The Earl himself gave Dee L20 for the copy Dee presented to him. Elizabeth promised Dee that she would protect him from the slanders and damages of the public, so that he could pursue his 'Rare studies and philosophical exercises.' She sent gifts of money, though never much. It is interesting that when Dee was seriously ill in 1571, the Queen sent two physicians to treat him. However, she did not grant him the lucrative positions he was angling for, such as provotship of Eton, and several others that she did promise at one time or another. In 1589, after Dee returned to England destitute, Elizabeth promised him a gift of L100; eventually he got L50. Ultimately she granted him the Wardenship of Christ's College, Manchester (1595-1605). I am convinced that one should read Dee's famous justifications of English empire in terms of his efforts to win patronage from Elizabeth. Thus in 1580, in response to Elizabeth's request, he prepared a document listing the territories in the world legally subject to her rule. He dedicated his pamphlet, Rare studies and philosophical exercises (the later key words in the title are Perfect Arte of Navigation), propaganda for a British empire, to Sir Christopher Hatton. On the whole, Dee did not use dedications much. Dee was also a close friend of Francis Walsingham. He was a consultant on navigation to the Muscovy Company from about 1551 to 1583. Dee was always close to the circle of Sir Philip Sydney. French (p. 128) describes one member of this circle, Sir Edward Dyer, as one of Dee's disciples and his constant patron. In 1564 Dee travelled to Presburg in order to present a copy of Monas heiroglyphia to Maximillian II, to whom he had dedicated the work. On this trip to the continent, he was so serviceable to the Marchioness of Northampton (the sources do not say how) that she remained Dee's permanent patron. On 3 October 1574, Dee wrote to Burghley complaining that he had not received the rewards to which his years of study entitled him. I think this letter should be very revealing; it is published in Ellis, Letters of Eminent Literary Men. See also in this respect Dee's autobiographical 'Compendious Rehearsal' of 1592, which is also published. See also 'A necessary Advertisement,' a preface to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, 1577, in which Dee defended himself against the charge that he had not used his learning for the benefit of England. And for a statement of the value of learning and the reputation its patron can earn see his petition to Queen Mary, 1556, to preserve the contents of the monastic libraries (Biographia britannica, 5, 33). Dee was always dissatisfied with the level of his support by Queen Elizabeth. Finally, when a Polish prince, Lasky, arrived at Mortlake in 1583, promising him everything that he did not get from Elizabeth, Dee reluctantly accepted and left England, going first to Laski's estate in Poland. When he went to Prague in 1584, Dee alienated Rudolph, and failed to get the patronage he desired from him. He was for a time banished from the Empire. Count Rosenberg of Bohemia took Dee under his protection and succeeded in having the order mitigated. Dee was Rosenberg's guest for two years, 1586-8. For a number of years, until late in 1589, he was a sort of itinerant alchemist and magician around the continent. When Dee returned to England in penury, he appealed to his old friends who raised about L500 for him. The Countess of Warwick used her influence with the Queen on Dee's behalf. In November 1592 he petitioned the Queen (the 'Compendious Rehearsal'). Elizabeth did give him a gift (see above) and bestowed a pension of L200 on him until a suitable preferment should appear. In fact he never received the pension. Finally she granted him the Warenship of Manchester College in 1595. In fact, Dee died destitute.
9. Technological Connection: Navigation; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Almost by definition his astrological activities had practical ends in view, but I am not listing astrology as a technology. Advice on navigation and expedition projects, especially for the Muscovy Company for more than thirty years, from about 1551 to 1583. He prepared, or helped to prepare, a considerable list of considerable pilots, including Richard Chancellor, Stephen and William Borough, Martin Frobisher, Humphrey Gilbert, John Davis, and Walter Raleigh. He wrote the Perfect Arte of Navigation (which is, I gather, more about the geography of exploration than about the science of navigation), 1577. He is said to have made optical instruments, though I hardly know what this could mean. He did bring astronomical and navigational instruments into England when he returned from the continent in 1550. About 1553 he developed what he called the paradoxal compass and/or paradoxal chart. One source calls it a circumpolar chart for navigation in polar regions. Taylor (whom I trust) calls it a device for laying out a series of rhumbs that would lie along a great circle route. There was also a compass of variation. He designed a large radius astronomicus for Thomas Digges to observe the new star of 1572. Dee continued to work at the development of scientific instruments. While consultant to the Muscovy Company Dee assembled geographic and nautical information and prepared charts for navigation in the polar regions. De Smet calls him the central figure in the development of scientific cartography in England, and he suggests that Dee's influence was transmitted to the Netherlands where it helped form Dutch cartography in its so-called golden age.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Gerard Mercator, Gemma Frisius, Abraham Ortelius, and Peter Ramus. He was in touch with Pedro Nuñez and Oronce Finé. Correspondence with scholars in the universities of Cologne, Ferrara, Bologna, Heidelberg, Orleans, Rome, Verona and Urbino. He consulted with Robert Recorde and the two Digges on navigation and cartography. Close connection with the Sidney circle. Association with Edward Kelley.

SOURCES:
Richard Deacon, John Dee, (London, 1968). Peter J. French, John Dee: the World of an Elizabethan Magus, (London, 1972). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 721-9. E.G.R. Taylor, Tudor Georgraphy, (London, 1930), pp. 75-139, 191-2. _____, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), pp. 34-8, 170-1. Antoine de Smet, 'John Dee et sa place dans l'histoire de la cartographie,' in Helen Wallis and Sarah Tyacke, eds. My Head is a Map: Essays & Memoirs in Honour of R.V. Tooley, (London, 1973), pp. 107-13. I have drawn upon a seminar paper by Qiong Zhang.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Charlotte Fell Smith, John Dee (1527-1608), (London, 1909). Walter I. Trattner, 'God and Expansion in Elizabethan England: John Dee, 1527-1583,' Journal of the History of Ideas, 25 (1964), 17-34. Nicholas Clulee, John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion, (New York, 1988). Francis Yates, Theatre of the World, (Chicago, 1969). E.G.R. Taylor, 'John Dee and the Map of Northeast Asia,' Imago mundi, 12 (1955), 103-6. _____, 'Master John Dee: a Cambridge Geographer,: Reports of the Proceedings of the International Geographical Congress, (Cambridge, 1928), pp. 439-43. 


De Groot, Jan Cornets 



(NNBW gives his name also as Johan Hugo de Groot, Cornets de Groot, or Janus Grotius)
1. Dates: Born: Kraayenburg (between Delft and The Hague, 8 March 1554; Died: Delft, 3 May 1640; Datecode: Lifespan: 86; 
2. Father: Aristocrat; Apparently a Delft patrician. It seems clear from the details of his life that de Groot inherited sufficient wealth to live well. Nothing is said; I'll call the family affuent
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Douai; M.A. He enrolled in the University of Leiden when it was opened in 1575. M.A. and M.Phil at Douai. In 1596 he was awarded the doctorate of law by the University of Leiden. I feel certain that this was honorary, and I won't list it.
5. Religion: Obviously Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mechanics; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; De Groot was a distinqueshed amateur scientist, and best known for the experiment he performed with Stevin, published in Stevin's Waterwicht (1586), in which they proved that lead bodies of different weights in falling traverse the same distance in the same time. He was also knowledgable in optics.
7. Means of Support: Personal; Secondary Means of Support: Governmental position, Patronage; He was a counselor of Delft, and from 1591 to 1595 was one of the mayors. Without knowing the details, I am convinced that these positions, the functions of patricians, were also their perquisites and carried salaries. He was a curator of the University of Leiden, 1594-1596. After 1617 he served as adviser to the Count of Hohenlohe. It is impossible to make much out of de Waard's miserable sketch in NNBW, but I do not see how one can interpret the details of de Groot's life without assuming personal wealth. He is called a patrician of Delft.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy-see above.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; With Stevin in building windmills on contract.
10. Scientific Societies: He was acquainted with the best minds in the Netherlands. He collaborated with Stevin in the performance of mechanical experiments and in the construction of windmills. He also befriended Ludolph Van Ceulen, on whose behalf, he translated Archimedes' Measurement of the Circle into Dutch. In 1586, Ceulen submitted to him his approximation of pi to 20 decimal places.

SOURCES
C.de Waard, 'Groot, J.H.de', Nieuw Netherlandsch biographisch Woordenboek, 2, (1912), cols. 528, 529. 

Not Consulted: The Principal Works of Simon Stevin, Amsterdam, 1955-1966, esp. vols.I,V. Surprisingly, there is just not a lot on de Groot. De Waard's sketch is impossibly opaque. 


Delamain [Delamaine], Richard



1. Dates: Born: unknown; first recorded in 1629. Died: before 1645 when his widow petitioned. Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: Unknown; No information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English 
4. Education: None Known; Originally a joiner by trade, he studied mathematics at Gresham College. 
5. Religion: Anglican assumed
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Delamain is known almost entirely for his essay, Grammelogia, or the Mathematical ing, which deals with practical mathematics and a couple of instruments, and for the controversy the work generated with Oughtred. He also published The Making, Description, and Use of . . . a Horizontal Quadrant, 1631, which was part of the controversy. As far as Oughtred was concerned, Delamain was a simple plagiarist who stole instruments that Oughtred designed but did not seriously understand them. On the whole modern commentators appear to doubt Delamain's originality. There is enough uncertainty for me to leave him in the catalogue.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Schoolmaster; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; Originally he was a joiner. After studying in Gresham College, he supported himself by teaching practical mathematics in London. Later he became mathematical tutor to King Charles I, and (according to his widow) Quartermaster-general. We know from governmental records that he was employed by the Master of Ordnance in measuring forts and castles.
8. Patronage: Court; Delamain sent the manuscript of his Grammelogia to King Charles in 1629, and Charles retained his service as tutor at a salary of ?40 per annum. Delamain dedicated the published pamphlet to Charles. A few years later he petitioned for an engineer's post. Following an interview with the King at Greenwich in 1637, he was granted a warrant for making a number of mathematical instruments. He fashioned a number of instruments for the King. 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; Cartography; He constructed a number of mathematical instruments, including a large silver sundial. Two instruments were central to the quarrel with Oughtred and the charge of plagiarism-the circular slide rule and the horizontal instrument (a sundial with other uses as well). His mathematics was wholly practical, and the circular slide rule was a calculating device. See above for his work as a surveyor.
10. Scientific Societies: Relationship with Oughtred. He was a pupil of Oughtred, and in the early days of their association the two men became close friends. Later, they quarreled violently over priority in invention of the circular slide rule and the horizontal quadrant.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-50), 5, 751. E.G.R., Taylor, The Mathematical Practioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), p.201. Florian Cajori, William Oughtred, (London-Chicago, 1916). A.J. Turner, 'William Oughtred, Richard Delamain and the Horizontal Instrument in 17th-Century England,' Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza di Firenze, 6.2 (1981), 99-125.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.J. Turner, 'The Mathematical Practitioner Richard Delamain and his Son Richard Delamain the Younger, Mathematician and Radical Preacher.' Turner announced the preparation of this article in his article of 1981; I do not know whether it ever came to fruition. 


Delisle, Guillaume



1. Dates: Born: France, 28 February 1675; Died: France, 25 January 1726; Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Schoolmaster; Government Position; His father, Claude Delisle, was a historian and geographer who made his living by giving private instruction in these fields. He was later a royal censor. Philippe of Orléans was Claude Delisle's pupil and patron. Guillaume's mother was the daughter of a lawyer. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; He was taught both by his father and by Gian Domenico Cassini, the director of Paris observatory. There is no mention of university education.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed); His father had been educated by the Jesuits.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography; He was the first modern cartographer. His published several atlases and many single maps. He applied astronomical findings to his maps and insisted on critical use of source materials and dependence on accurate measurements. He did not, however, introduce any cartographic innovations of a mathematical type. 
7. Means of Support: Publishing; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; 1699, he produced his first maps and globes. He ran his own mapmaking establishment in Paris until his death, located first on St. Sulpice and then on the Quai de l'Horologue. He was elected to the Académie in 1702, but never became a full member. He tutored the young king, Louis XV, in geography. In 1718 he was given the title Premier géographe du roi with a yearly salary of 1200 livres.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Sci; He taught the king geography and was given the title Premier géographe du roi. Delisle made a number of globes and maps for the king. Note that his father had taught the Duke of Orléans who had always remained attached to him. Delisle dedicated his first celestial globes (1699) to the Duke of Orléans. Cassini brought him into the Académie. Delisle was wooed by the King of Sardinia who wanted him to enter his service, but Delisle refused. The Tsar of Russia appears to have made similar overtures.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; He was an accomplished mapmaker and globemaker.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1702-1726. He studied under Cassini. His membership in the Académie was as an astronomer under Cassini; the Académie did not have a position in geography. In 1716 he was made adjunct member and in 1718 associate member.

SOURCES:
Christian Sandler, Die Reformation der Kartographie um 1700, Munich-Berlin, 1905, pp.14-23. Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 10, 840. Fontenelle, 'Éloge de M. Delisle,' L'Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, 1726, 103-16. 


Denis, Jean-Baptiste



1. Dates: Born: Paris, ca 1640; Died: 3 October 1704; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Engineer; His father was Louis XIV's chief engineer. Niceron says that his father made water pumps. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. Studied medicine at Montpellier, no record of any degree. Both Niceron and Hoefer say that he received an M.D., however. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology. He is remembered for his transfusion experiments. He performed the transfusion of blood on dogs and on men in 1667 and 1668. He published a Discours sur l'astrologie judicaire et sur les horoscopes (1669).
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; Schoolmaster; After receiving his degree, Denis was attached to the Chambre royal. He had the title of ordinary consulting physician to the king. Although I did not find explicit mention, everything suggests a medical practice as well. He taught philosophy and mathematics in Paris, assuming the title of professor. Beginning in 1664, Denis gave public lectures in physics, mathematics and medicine at his home in Paris. In 1673 he was invited to England by Charles II, but later returned to France to continue his interests in science and mathematics.
8. Patronage: Court; Charles II invited him to England in 1673. The king wished to learn about transfusion and Denis'other remedies. He had a relation with Louis XIV (see above), and he published Recueil de mémoires & conferences sur les arts & les sciences, presentées à M. le Dauphin pendant l'année 1672
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: He jointed the Montmort group in 1664. 

SOURCES
J.P.Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres de la republique des lettres, XXXVII, Paris, 1727, pp. 77-81. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 13 636.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Jean Astruc, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de la Faculté de Montpellier, rev.by M.Lorry and P.G.Cavelier, 5, (Paris, 1767), 378. 


Derham, William



1. Dates: Born: Stoughton (or Stoulton), Worcestershire, 26 November 1657; Died: Upminster, Essex, 5 April 1735 Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Unknown; We know only that his name was Thomas Derham. The records at Oxford record Derham as 'pauper puer,' and he enrolled as a servitor. I think the father clearly was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English 
4. Education: Ox, M.A. Blockley Grammar School. Oxford University, Trinity College, 1675-81. B.A., 1679; M.A., 1683. D.D., 1730, but I do not list this as obviously by mandate.
5. Religion: Anglican; He was a clergyman in the Anglican Church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Meteorology; Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Entomology; Physics; Derham's best known works were Physico-Theology (the Boyle Lectures), 1713, and Astro-Theology, 1714. He published very extensive meteorological records in the Philosophical Transactions, as well as on natural history (including a much noticed paper on the sexes of wasps as well as other papers on insects) and on astronomy. He had a considerable collection of birds and insects. He also published John Ray's Synopsis methodica avium et piscium, 1713, and new editions of Ray's Pysico-Theological Discourses, and The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation, both in 1713, and in 1718 Ray's Philosophical Letters. He editted Robert Hooke's Posthumous Works, 1705, and his Philosophical Experiments, 1726. Derham's measurement of the velocity of sound was the best that had been achieved; Newton accepted and used it in the Principia.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; He was appointed Chaplain to Lady Grey in 1679. Appointed Vicar of Wargrave in Berkshire, 1681-9. Appointed Vicar of Upminster in Essex, 1689-1735, a living worth more than L200 per annum. Medical practice: acted as physician and parson in Upminster, 1689-1735. Boyle Lecturer, 1711-12. Frankly I do not know how to list this, but think patronage is the best category. Chaplain to the Prince of Wales, 1715. Canon of Windsor, 1716. I list both of these under patronage.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Gentry; Court Patronage; Medical Practioner; Upon the recommendation of the President of Trinity, when Derham took his B.A. in 1679, Bishop Seth Ward obtain the chaplaincy with Lady Grey for him. Richard Neville, the lord of the manor, whose wife was the daughter of Lady Grey, made him Vicar of Wargrave in 1681. A Mrs. Bray apparently presented Derham to Upminster. She was the widow of the previous incumbent, and I find the transaction a mystery. Chaplain to the Prince of Wales, to whom he dedicated Astro-Theology, 1715, and continued when the Prince became George II. Through the Prince he became Canon of Windsor. He dedicated notes on insects that were published as part of a book by Albin in 1724 to the Princess of Wales. He dedicated Ray's Philosophical Letters, 1718, to Samuel Molyneux, Secretary to the Prince of Wales. Correspondence (published in Atkinson) seems clearly to indicate that Hans Sloane's intervention with the Archbishop of Canterbury obtained Derham's appointment as Chaplain to the Prince of Wales. Derham's letter to Sloane on 3 October 1715 is one of the best documents on patronage I have seen.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; See above on medical practice. Derham's first publication was The Artificial Clockmaker, 1696, a treatise on clocks. He continued to work on clocks and apparently on telescopes. He published an account of an instrument for finding the meridian in the Philosophical Trasnactions.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: Correspondence with John Ray, Dacre Barrett (the correspondence survives in the Sloane MSS at the British Library, in the Royal Society, and elsewhere-see Atkinson); connection with Newton, Hooke and Halley. Royal Society, 1702-35.

SOURCES:
A.D. Atkinson, 'William Derham, F.R.S. (1657-1735),' Annals of Science, 8 (1952), 368-92. Q1.A7 This is an outstanding article. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 842-3. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 116-19. 


Desargues, Gérard



1. Dates: Born: Lyon, 21 February 1591 (DBF says 2 March); Died: October 1661; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Government Position; His father was Investigating Commissioner of the Seneschal's court in Lyon (1574), the collector of the tithes on ecclesiastical revenues for the city of Lyon (1583), and for the diocese of Lyons (85-91). He was royal notary (85-91) though his signature continues to appear on documents until 1605. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; Probably studied at Lyon. I am not aware of a university in Lyons; this must refer to secondary education. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. (Geometry); Subordinate Disciplines: Music; His geometrical works marked an essential stage in the rationalization of graphical techniques. He also introduced the principal concepts of projective geometry, trying to integrate the projective methods into the body of mathematics. His work was rediscovered and fully appreciated by the geometers of the 19th century. His works were collected in L'oeuvre mathématique de Desarques (Paris, 1951).
7. Means of Support: Eng; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Schoolmaster; How he supported himself from 1630-45 is a bit of a mystery. Although he was later an architect, this did not begin until 1645. He gave private instructions at Paris to reveal his graphical procedures, but this did not produce much income. He did have an inheritance, but only enough to support him at the subsistence level. Nevertheless he lived quite comfortably. Thus Taton assumed that Desargues was an engineer and technical consultant in the entourage of Richelieu, although positive evidence is lacking. Because he designed primarily detail work, such as staircases, it is difficult to know how much architectural work he did. Some sources say that he was technical adviser and engineer at the seige of la Rochelle in 1628. Taton doubts this. Architect in Paris, 1645-1649, 1657-1661. Architect in Lyon, 1649-1657.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; Richelieu appreciated his talent as an engineer.
9. Technological Connections: Architecture; Hydraulics; Mathematics; His architectural creations were numerous. He participated in planning several private and public buildings in Paris and Lyons. As an engineer, he designed many projects. One of them was a system for raising water that he installed near Paris. The system was based on the use, until then unknown, of an epicycloidal wheel. He communicated his diagrams and his knowledge to the workmen, and tried, through mechanics, to extend his graphical method to several areas of technique.
10. Scientific Societies: About 1630 he had become friendly with Mersenne, Gassendi, Mydorge, and perhaps Roberval. In 1635 he regularly attended the meetings of Mersenne's Académie parisienne. In 1638 he had contact with Descartes and in 39 with Pascal; After 1644 the evidence of his scientific activity became much rarer. In 1660 he was again active in the Montmor's Academy. He had a bitter dispute with Sieur Curabelle which led him to return to Lyon.

SOURCES:
Dictionaire de biographie francaise, X (1964), pp.1183-1184. A.Birembaut, 'Quelques documents nouveaux sur Desargues', Revue d'histoire des sciences, 14 (1961), pp.193-204. A. Machabey, 'Gérard Desargues, geometre et musicien,' XVIIe siecle, no.21-22 (1954), pp.346-402. René Taton, 'Introduction biographique,' in Desargues, L'oeuvre mathématique, (Paris, 1951), pp. 1-67. 


Descartes, René



1. Dates: Born: La Haye, Touraine, 31 March 1596; Died: Stockholm, 11 February 1650; Datecode: Lifespan: 54; 
2. Father: Aristocrat; His father was a counsellor of the Parlement of Britainy-noblesse de la robe. Descartes was also the grandson and great grandson of physicians-on his mother's side, I believe. It is clear that he grew up in wealthy surroundings.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Dutch; Sweden; Death: Sweden
4. Education: University of Poitiers; University of Franeker; University of Leiden; Descartes entered the Jesuit college of La Fleche in 1606, two years after its foundation, and was there until 1614. He spent the following two years in Paris, mostly devoting himself to mathematics. He studied law in Poitiers in 1616. Crombie (DSB) says that he graduated in law from Poitiers. This is the only reference to a degree that I can remember seeing, and I am wholly inclined to doubt it. In 1617 he set out for the Netherlands and the Dutch army. He wandered through Europe (at least he saw Germany and Italy, in addition to France) during the following eleven years before he settled in the Netherlands in 1628. He matriculated in Franeker in 1629. He matriculated in Leyden in 1630. There is no mention of a degree at either university. As an aristocrat who was never concerned with earning a living, a degree was without relevance to him.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics; Physiology; Mus; There can be no debate about mathematics and natural philosophy in my view. There can also be no debate that he devoted serious attention to the other four disciplines. Again in my view optics and mechanics have to be included among his major disciplines, and I think that he clearly devoted more attention to optics. The problem arises from the fact that Descartes also devoted serious attention to medicine, anatomy, embryology, and meteorology. As the grandson and great grandson of physicians, he was always attracted by the art of curing and frequently expressed his desire to contribute to it-but I think through his natural philosophy. He devoted extensive time to dissections of all sorts of animals, but since no anatomical discoveries that I know of emerged, I am willing to categorize this under physiology. His treatise on embryology seems to me to fit readily under natural philosophy, for it was essentially an exercise in his mechanical philosophy. I'll say the same for his treatise on meteorology. Perhaps I should expand the space in the dBase file in order to be able to list more disciplines; however, Descartes is the first serious problem (found when I am about eighty percent done) presented by too little space. (I now know of other cases, but I do not think the problem is serious enough to warrant the considerable labor to effect this change.)
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; After La Fleche Descartes spent fifteen years wandering, first in France and then over much of Europe. He was a volunteer who received no pay in the army of the Prince of Orange. Descartes himself spoke of nine years of leisure-1919-26; I am not aware of what distinction he saw between them and the previous six. The point is that through this period he was never in need of gainful amployment. Sometime during this period he inherited one-third of his mother's property, which he sold for about 27,000 livres. This produced enough income for him to live on. He had a pension from his father during the years of wandering, and later he inherited more extensive property from his father. At one point he considered buying a governmental position that would have cost about 50,000 livres (and would then have produced corresponding income), but he decided not to. In 1628 Descartes left France for the Netherlands in order to isolate himself. It is clear that he lived quite comfortably; he did not aspire to live extravagantly. He himself asserted that he had received enough property from his family that he was free to choose where and how he would live. And he did. Note that in 1633 he withdrew Le monde from publication lest it compromise his freedom and leisure. The decision makes it clear that he felt no need to establish a name for himself.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Perhaps one should list here Descartes' meeting with Cardinal Bérulle in 1628. Certainly he received the strongest sort of moral support from the Cardinal, who pressed upon Descartes very strongly his obligations to employ his talents, urging that God would hold him responsible for what he made of them. There was no overt material support, but this encounter has all of the trappings of patronage. In the controversy with Voet in the early 1640's, when there seemed the chance of measures against him on religious grounds, Descarts called upon the protection of Huygens and through him (and through the French ambassador) the protection of the Prince of Orange-both of which he received. When Bourdin, a Jesuit, attacked him, Descartes appealed to the highest authority among French Jesuits, P. Dinet, who silenced Bourdin. Dinet went on to become the confessor to Louis XIII, and he remained Descartes' protector. By the mid 40's, Descartes was beginning to be concerned with publication and recognition of his philosophy. He dedicated the Principles to Princess Elizabeth. The whole relation with the Princess is surely revealing of the patronage system. She had no monetary rewards to give, just the prestige of a royal name. About 1647 Mazarin arranged a pension for Descartes-which he never received, though he might have had he decided to move back to France. In 1648, Montmor offered Descartes a country house near Paris with a revenue of 3-4,000 livres. Descartes thought this would make him Montmor's domestic and he refused. Gassendi (who did not have a personal fortune) later accepted a similar offer from Montmor without hesitation. Chanut, the French ambassador to Sweden, was instrumental in arranging the offer from Queen Christina of Sweden, who brought Descartes there in 1649. She planned to naturalize him and to incorporate him into the Swedish aristocracy with an estate on conquered German lands. Descartes himself, hardly at the bottom of the social hierarchy, was a patron to Ferrier, Gillot, Rembrantsz, and Waessenaer, to name the most prominent.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Medical Practioner; With Ferrier and others Descartes was involved in trying to perfect optical instruments. He designed a machine that would grind non-spherical (i.e., hyperbolic) lenses. His correspondence is full of references to his medical interests and his conviction that an effective matural philosophy would extend life.
10. Scientific Societies: In Paris, he was in the circle of Mersenne, Mydorge, Morin, Hardy, Desargues, Villebressieu. Later the Abbé Picot should be added to this list. In the Netherlands there was first Beeckman and then a network of followers that included Reneri, Regius, Constantijn Huygens, Herreboord, Heydanus, Golius, Schooten, Aemelius. He established close relations with the artisan Ferrier, the cobbler Dirck Rembrantsz, his own domestic Gillot, the surveyor Waessenaer, and Gutschooven. He carried on a mathematical controversy with Fermat.

SOURCES
G. Cohen, Écrivains français en Holland dans la première moitié du XVIIe siècle, (La Haye, 1921). A Baillet, La vie de Monsieur Des-Cartes, (Paris, 1691). J.R. Vrooman, René Descartes: a Biography, (New York, 1970). C. Adam, Vie et oeuvres de Descartes, vol. 12 of the Oeuvres, (Paris, 1910). Descartes, Corresponance, ed. C. Adam and G. Milhaud, 8 vols. (Paris, 1931-63). 


Despagnet [Espagnet], Jean



1. Dates: Born: 1564; Died: 1637 or after; Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Unknown; We know only that he was not related to the parlementary family of the same name in Aix. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; This means only no information.
5. Religion: He had to have been Catholic to hold the offices he had.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy, Occult Philosophy; He acquired a great reputation as a hermetic philosopher and alchemist. His only extant alchemical works, the Arcanum Hermeticae philosophiae and the Enchiridion physicae restitutae, published in 1623, are classics of their kind.
7. Means of Support: Government Position; 1590, he became a lawyer in Bordeaux. 1592, Conseiller au Grand Conseil in Paris. 1601, named President of the Parlement of Bordeaux. Around 1609-12, he presided at the Chambre de l'Edit at Nerac after the mysterious death of his predecessor; he remained in office until 1615. 1620, honorary president (apparently of the Parlement of Bordeaux).
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Fermat visited him at Bordeaux in 1629.

SOURCES:
Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 12, 1491. John Ferguson, Bibliotheca chemica, 1, 248-50. A.E.Waite, The Secret Tradition in Alchemy, London, 1926, pp.39, 338, 341. QD13 .W145

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Nouvelle biographie universelle, 15, (Paris 1854), pp.402-403. John S. Maxwell, Un magistrat hermétiste, (1896). 


Digby, Kenelm



1. Dates: Born: Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire, 11 July 1603; Died: London, 11 July 1665; Datecode: Lifespan: 62
2. Father: Gentry; Sir Everard Digby was executed in 1606, when Kenelm was three, for involvement in the Gunpowder Plot. Kenelm was able to claim the estate. Kenelm's uncle, John Digby, later the Earl of Bristol, reared him. Clearly wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; French; Death: English 
4. Education: Oxford University; Oxford University, Fellow Commoner, Gloucester Hall, 1618-20; no degree. After the years in Oxford, Digby went on the grand tour, 1620-3, ending in Madrid, where his uncle was the English Ambassador.
5. Religion: Catholic. Anglican; Digby, who was reared a Catholic, was able to attend Oxford without subscribing to the Thirty-nine Articles. Gloucester Hall was known as a haven for Catholics, but even with that Digby lived apart and not in the college. And he left without taking a degree. Briefly an Anglican, 1630-3; returned to the Catholic Church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Alchemy; In Gresham College, where he lived for two years following the death of his wife, Digby pursued a wide variety of subjects-magnetism, the circulatory system, refraction and reflection of light, the growth of the embryo. He was in touch with the latest developments in the new science. Digby's Two Treatises, 1644, embodied this general interest in natural philosophy and the specific topics he studied in Gresham College. In the Two Treatises he was influenced by the new mechanical natural philosophy. His Discourse Concerning the Vegetation of Plants (more a pamphlet than a book), 1661, was his most important scientific effort. In the '30s Digby and the painter Van Dyck actively pursued alchemy.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Sai; Digby inherited wealth. It was confiscated during the Civil War, and he emerged from the Interregnum deeply in debt. With the Restoration there was some return to prosperity, but he died still in debt. In 1628 Digby commanded a privateering expedition in the Mediterranean, which certainly won him fame and apparently some material reward. It led to his appointment as Naval Commissioner in 1629 (to 1635), and Governor of Trinity House, and there were other favors. As a member of Charles' Privy Council he was much in favor during the early thirties, and apparently profitted considerably. He held some of the notorious monopolies; the one for sealing wax was probably lucrative. It was during this period that he briefly switched to Anglicanism. The King gave him the profits from the patent for sealing wax in Wales, later extended to Northumberland and Cheshire, and then gave him the trade monopoly for 'Ginney, Binney, and Angola', three places in and near the rich gold coast of west central Africa. Also, Digby and five others were awarded a thirty-year monopoly for Canadian trade. Without details I gravely doubt that any of this, except for the sealing wax, brought in income. In 1635, following his reconversion, Digby went to France where he lived, on his personal means, for most of the following twenty-five years. Chancellor to Henrietta Maria, 1644- until his death. He was sent as the envoy of the Catholic royalists to the Pope in 1645 and again in 1646-7. During the Interregnum the position as Chancellor to the Queen could not have netted any income, but I think that it did in 1660. In the mid '50s Digby engaged in negotiations with Cromwell on behalf of English Catholics. He and Cromwell got along well, and apparently Digby, then in need because of the confiscation of his estate, was on pension from Cromwell.
8. Patronage: Court; He was knighted in 1623 presumably for his share in entertaining Prince Charles in Spain and became a member of the Privy Council of the Prince. Six years later, Charles I made him Naval Commissioner. In the 1630s the King gave him quite a few profitable favors. Through his uncle, John Digby, Ambassador at Madrid and later the first Earl of Bristol, Digby became accquainted with Prince Charles in Spain and became part of the Prince's household in 1622, and later a member of Chrles' Privy Council. Charles occasionally employed him in negotiations. In 1643 the Queen Dowager of France was the principal agent in obtaining Digby's release from imprisonment by Parliament in London. He became Queen Henrietta Maria's Chancellor in 1644 and retained this position, whatever it may have entailed, until his death. He was probably given a pension by Cromwell. Nevertheless he was in good odor upon the Restoration, and he received some payments from the royal government for some earlier efforts. Like others in his social position, Digby did not seek the sort of patronage I am usually dealing with. Significantly he dedicated his major work, the Two Treatises, to his son. Digby himself was a minor patron-of the likes of Van Dyck and Ben Jonson, for example. At least nineteen books in five different languages were dedicated to him. 
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; There is extensive evidence that Digby occasionally used his knowledge of medicine to treat sick people. He actively collected cures all of his life, for example, already in 1620 while on the grand tour; the famous sympathetic powder was part of this concern. Shortly after his death a collection of his remedies, Choice and Experimental Receipts of Physick and Chirurgery, 1668, was published. While Digby was imprisoned in Winchester House in 1643, he devised a method for making uniform glass bottles. I don't know how to categorize this.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: As a young natural philosopher he was involved in the projected Royal Academy which attempted to bring together all the new work in literature, philosophy, history and science. He was one of the 84 nomminated members of the suggested Academy in 1617. (Obviously that date is a typo; I am not now in a position to correct it.); When he was Naval commissioner Digby served for several years in and out of Deptford. Through the Trinity House in Deptford, a place which attracted all travellers and naval men who were interested in experimental science, he came into close touch with these topics. Perhaps through Deptford he came to know the scientific group at Gresham College including Gunter, Gellibrand, and Goddard. After 1633, he lived chiefly in Gresham College for more than two years. He met Hobbes and Mersenne in 1636-7 and seems to have become a memeber of Mersenne's circle. He attentended the 'Académie Mersenne' at the salon of Etienne Pascal, Le Fevre's and Moray's conferences in chemistry, and the anatomical demonstrations at Moulin's laboratory. He knew Montmor, Pierre Borel and Huygens very well, and he was a friend to Samuel de Sorbière. He introduced Descartes' Discours to Hobbes in 1637, and later he became a close acquaintance of Descartes. He played the virtuoso role in the scientific correspondence between a group of French and English mathematicians (Frenicle and Fermat, Wallis and Brouncker). Wallis dedicated the published correspondence to him. He was the first person to see the micrometer invented by William Gascoigne. Royal Society, 1660-5. Member of council, 1662-3.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 965-71. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 184-99. R.T. Petersson, Sir Kenelm Digby, the Ornament Of England, (Cambridge, MA, 1956). This is clearly the leading source on Digby. John F. Fulton, 'Sir Kenelm Digby, F.R.S., (1603-1665),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960), 199-210.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: E.W. Bligh, Sir Kenelm Digby and his Venetia, (London, 1932). Vittorio Gabrieli, Sir Kenelm Digby; un inglese italianato nell'età della controriforma, (Roma, 1957). 


Digges, Leonard



1. Dates: Born: Digges Court, near Canterbury, Kent, c.1520. Digges was born prior to 1530-1, when he was listed in a visitation of Kent. He was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1537. Died: England, c.1559; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 39; 
2. Father: Gentry; James Digges of Digges Court, Barnham, Kent, was from an ancient family of Kent. Clearly wealthy. 
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English; 
4. Education: None Known; May have attended a University, but no real evidence and certainly no proof. Biographia britannica says University College, Oxford, and Wood says he was at Oxford but the college is not known. It seems fairly certain that he took no degree if indeed he did attend a university. 
5. Religion: Anglican; Leonard Digges participated in Wyatt's rebellion against Mary. From what little I know of it, the rebellion was as much against Spanish interference as against Catholicism, and I have found no statement whatever about Digges' motivation. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Cartography; Secondary Means of Support: Optics; Astronomy; It is difficult to establish Digges's scientific productions precisely because it was mostly published by his son, Thomas Digges, with his own work mixed in. However, Tectonicon, 1556, a surveying manual emphasizing practical mathematics, was all his. Thomas Digges published Pantometria (surveying and cartography), 1571, and Stratioticos (military engineering), 1579, both as essentially his father's work. In Pantometria, Thomas Digges described his father's skill in optics. Digges' Prognostication, first published in 1553, apparently to earn money after his estate was attainted for treason, and then reprinted frequently until 1605, was an almanac with, among other things, astronomical information, for example on how to determine the hour at night from the stars, and information about instruments for observation. 
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; Inherited wealth from his ancient and considerable family, enough to give him ample means and leisure. He was attainted for treason as a result of Wyatt's rebellion, lost his estate, and in the last years of his life apparently tried to support himself partly through publication. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Digges dedicated Prognostication of Right Good Effect, 1555, to Lord Clinton, later the Earl of Lincoln, who apparently saved Digges from execution for his participation in Wyatt's revellion under Mary. 
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Navigation; Military Engineer; Scientific Instruments; Architecture; Applied mathematics to surveying, navigation and gunnery. He was known as an architect and as a master of fortification. He invented the instrument now called the theodolite. 
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Dee, and influence on his son, Thomas Digges.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 975. Much information has been learned since this was written; it is not entirely reliable.
Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 238. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, 414-15. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical practioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), pp. 166-7. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947). Louise Diehl Patterson, 'Leonard and Thomas Digges. Biographical Notes,' Isis, 42 (1951), 120-1. Francis R. Johnson, 'Thomas Digges,' Times Literary Supplement, 5 April 1934, p. 244. E.F. Bosanquet, 'Leonard Digges and his Books,' Proceedings of the Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1 (1922-6), 247-52. _____, 'English Printed Almanacks and Prognostications: Corrigenda and Addenda,' The Library, 4th ser., 8 (1928), 456-77.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: A.W. Richeson, English Land Measuring to 1800, (Cambridge, MA., 1967). Despite the number of items in the bibliography, there is a paucity of information about the important Digges family. 


Digges, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Kent (probably Wotton, near Canterbury), 1545 or 46; Died: London, 24 August 1595; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 50
2. Father: Gentry; Scientist; Leonard Digges, who is also in this catalogue, was from an old, established family of Kent. Clearly wealthy. However, when Thomas Digges was less than ten his father was attainted for treason in the Wyatt rebellion against Mary and his estate confiscated. After the accession of Elizabeth, Digges was able to reclaim the estate of his now dead father. It is simply not clear what one can say about the economic circumstances in which he was reared.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English 
4. Education: None Known; The DNB statement about Digges at Cambridge confuses him with another, earlier Digges. Wood asserts that Digges studied at Oxford. There is no proof that he was ever at either university. By Digges's own statement he received his mathematical education first from his father and then from Dee.
5. Religion: Anglican; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Cartography; Engineer; Optics; Pantometria, 1571; it is impossible to separate Thomas Digges' part of this work on surveying and mapping from that of his father. The work includes a treatise on the geometric solids that is certainly by Thomas Digges. Alae seu scalae mathematicae, 1573, with observations of the new star, and trigonometric theorems useful for determining parallax. Digges' observations of the new star established him as one of the ablest observers of his time. Digges became the leader of the early English Copernicans. He attached 'A Perfit Description of the Caelestial Orbes,' a Copernican statement, to his republication of his father's Prognotication, 1576. In 1579 (Stratioticos) Digges said that he was working on a commentary on Copernicus. Stratioticos, 1579, on military organization, including enough mathematics for a soldier and a discussion of ballistics that was based on his father's earlier work. This was the first serious study of ballistics in England. Like his father kDigges was skilled in so-called 'perspective glasses.'
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Military; Digges inherited wealth. He succeeded in reclaiming his father's estate. It is significant that he was a Member of Parliament in 1572 and 1584.
Muster-master-general of English force in Netherlands, 1586-94.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Digges dedicated Pantometria, 1571, to Nicholas Bacon. He dedicated Alae seu scalae mathematicae, 1573, to Lord Burghley. He was made muster-master-general through the influence of the Earl of Leicester, to whom he dedicated Stratioticos, 1579. Digges later wrote a defense of Leicester's relief of Sluse in the Netherland's campaign.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Navigation; He was involved in the plans for the repair of Dover Harbor, in charge of fortification, in 1582. He wrote extensively on surveying, and published a plan of Dover Castle, town, and harbor in 1581. Digges was interested in the application of mathematics in military as his publications suggest. In the Preface to Stratioticos he mentioned a Treatise of the Arte of Navigation, a Briefe Treatise of Architecture Nauticall, a Treatise of Great Artillerie, and a Treatise of Fortification, all in preparation and intended for publication but delayed by the law suits in which Digges was tied up.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: He got his mathematical training from his father and John Dee. He was a intimate friend and co-worker of Dee. Dee designed a huge radius astronomicus for him to observe the new star of 1572.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 976-8. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 239. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 1, 414-15, 636-9. Louise Diehl Patterson, 'Leonard and Thomas Digges. Biographical Notes,' Isis, 42 (1951), 120-1. _____, 'The Date of Birth of Thomas Digges,' Isis, 43 (1952), 124-5. Francis R. Johnson, 'Thomas Digges,' Times Literary Supplement, 5 April 1934, p. 244. Francis R. Johnson and S.V. Larkey, 'Thomas Digges, the Copernican System, and the Idea of the Infinity of the Universe in 1576,' Huntington Library Bulletin, No. 5 (April 1934), 69-117. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical practioners of Tudor and Stuart England, (Cambridge, 1954), p. 175. 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Francis R. Johnson, Astronomical Thought in Renaissance England, (Baltimore, 1937). _____, 'The Influence of Thomas Digges on the Progress of Modern Astronomy in 16th Century Englsnd,' Osiris, 1 (1936), 390-410. 


Divini, Eustachio



1. Dates: Born: San Severino (Ancona), 4 October 1610; Died: Italy, 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: None Known; He received some scientific training from Benedetto Castelli, one of Galileo's disciples. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instrumentation; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; He was among the first to develop technology for the production of scientifically designed optical instruments. He produced long telescopes, some as long as 72 Roman palms (c. 16m). He also made microscopes. He made a number of astronomical observations, utilizing his instruments. In these observations he became involved in a controversy with Huygens about Saturn, in the course of which he published several tracts. In 1649 he published a copper engraving of a map of the moon, based upon his own observations with his own instruments. 
7. Means of Support: Instruments; Secondary Means of Support: Military; After an undistinguished military career (undoubtedly at a low level), he established himself in Rome in the early 1640's as a maker of clocks. He began working lenses by 1646.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He dedicated his publication on Saturn to Prince Leopold de' Medici, and through the 1650's his telescopes were celebrated in the Tuscan court. He made a telescope of 52 palms (in length) for Card. Flavio Chigi, the nephew of Pope Alexander VII, for which the cardinal paid him 500 scudi. 
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; In 1648 he constructed a innovative compound microscope with cardboard sliding tubes and convex lenses for the objective and the eyepiece, several years later he developed the doublet lens for microscopes. He constructed telescopes of long focus (up to 633 inches). His reticule for the telescope was an important step toward the micrometer. He also attached telescopes to surveying equipment.
10. Scientific Societies: His lenses and instruments competed with those of Giuseppe Campani, and a bitter rivalry between the two developed into a lasting feud that involved Pope Alexander VII. In 1660 he joined with Fabri to challenge Huygens' interpretation of Saturn.

SOURCES
Silvio A.Bedini, 'Seventeenth Century Italian Compound Microscopes', Physis, 5 (1963), 383-422. Nouvelle biographie générale, 14, 331. Maria Luisa Righini Bonelli and Albert Van Helden, Divini and Campani, Supplement to Annali dell'Istituto e Museo de Storia della Scienza, 1981. The Dizionario biografico degli italiani presently extends to Da . . ., and thus Divini is not yet in it. Robert McKeon, 'Le debuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 234-6 and 14, 228.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Carlo Antonio Manzini, L'occhiale all'occhio, dioptrica practica, Bologna, 1660. Giovanni-Carlo Gentili, Elogio storico di Monsignor AngeloMassarelli di Sanseverino, (Macerata, 1873), pp. 60-86. I gather that this work contains the primary information about Divini's life, collected by a man from Divini's native city.
Montucla, Histoire des mathematiques. Mantio Bianchedi, 'Eustachio Divini, ottico matematico del secolo XVII,' Bollettino dell'Associazione Ottica Italiana, serie storica, 1 (1946), 1-18. 


Dodart, Denis



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 1634; Died: Paris, 5 November 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Unknown; Jean Dodart is described as a 'bourgeois de Paris' (according to Hazon 'honnete bourgeois de Paris'). In another account he was upper middle class. Dodart's mother was the daughter of a lawyer. Frankly I do not know what this may mean; he could have been a merchant, a lawyer, or a government official. However, that phrase 'upper middle class' certainly implies affluence. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. He received a particularly broad and thorough education. After studing medicine he graduated 'docteur regent' from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 1660. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Medicine; Pharmacology; His main work was the Mémoires pour servir a l'Histoire des plantes, a preliminary study and an announcement of a large collective work that never appeared. Recommending a phythochemical analysis, this work marked a new step in botany. He also published a good description of ergotism (1676) and several anatomical, pathological, and embryological observations. He was the first since Aristotle and Galen to present new ideas on the mechanism of phonation. His three memoirs on phonation appeared between 1700 and 1707.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; In 1666 Dodart became a professor at the School of Pharmacy in Paris. He was first in the service of the Duchess of Longueville as her physician and then was physician to the house of Conti. Later he became doctor at Port-Royal. He became a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1673, and was renominated with the reorganization in 1699 with a pension of 1000 écus. He had the title of physician adviser to the king in 1698 and was the doctor to the entire court, and he was physician at St. Cyr.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; His principal patroness was the Princess of Conti, the daughter of Louis XIV. Despite the fact that Louis did not like Dodart because of his connection with Port Royal, the Princess named him physician to the house at St. Cyr. Dodart's appointment to the Académie came through Mme. Perrault who had connections to Colbert. Louis XIV yielded to Colbert's appeal that he make Dodart a member of the Academy and to that of Mme. de Maintenon that he give Dodart a place at the court (1698). Dodart was named a counsellor of the king. He was physician to the Duchess of Longueville and then to the house of Conti, and later became doctor at Port-Royal.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1673-1707; He became a member of the Academy in 1673, and when it was reorganized he was among the first group of titulaires named directly by Louis XIV.

SOURCES:
B. de Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Dodart', Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences pour l'année 1707, (Paris, 1708), pp. 226-39. Romand d'Amat, 'Dodart', Dictionnaire de biographie francaise, 11, (Paris, 1967), cols. 417-418. CT1003 .D55 RF; J.A. Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus célèbres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 135-8.


Dodoens, Rembert



1. Dates: Born: Malines (Belgium), 29 June 1516. Varenbergh and Van Leersum give the date as 29 February 1517. Died: Belgium, 10 March 1585; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Merchant; Dodo Joenckema (Dodoens name derived from his father's first name) was probably a merchant. Though not noble, the household was comfortable, and the family was connected to the Frisian nobility through a number of marriages. I take the world 'comfortable' to mean affluent. Dodoens did inherit enough property to generate a living income.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium; Career: Belgium; Death: Belgium
4. Education: Lou, M.D. He studied at the municipal college of Malines and went from there to the University of Louvain, where he studied medicine under Arnold Noot, Leonard Willemaer, Jean Heems, and Paul Roels. He graduated as licenciate in medicine in 1535. Between 1535 and 1546 he traveled in Italy, Germany, and France. In Paris he met the anatomist Jean Gunther d'Andernach. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed from all sort of evidence during his career). The only serious evidence against his Catholicism would be his late appointment to Leiden. Van Leersum asserts categorically that at that time an appointment in Leyden did not yet demand Calvinism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Medicine; Pharmacology; Among his many publications, the Stripium historiaepemptades sex sive libri XXX, published in full in 1583, was the most important scientific work. In this work, he divided plants into 26 groups and introduced many new families, adding a wealth of illustration. Initially Dodoens' interest in plants was weighted heavily toward their medicinal uses, and this aspect never completely left his botany.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Academic; 1548-74, municipal physician of Malines. In 1572, with the sack of Malines, Dodoens lost his holdings. 1557, the city of Louvain courted Dodoens with a chair in botany at the university, but negotiations fell through. They offered a salary of 200 florins. At this time, Dodoens' private holdings generated enough income for a decent living, and he also had a prosperous practice. All of this was destroyed in the sack of Malines in 1572. 1574-80, physician to the emperor Maximilian II, and then to Rudolf II, in Vienna. His salary was 200 ducats. He was also named counsellor 'aulique.'; 1580-1, he lived in Cologne treating a wealthy clientele. 1581-2, he lived in Antwerp, presumably practicing medicine. 1582-5, professor of medicine in Leiden University at the high salary of 400 florins.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Court Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He was one of the three municipal physicians of Malines for 26 years. His first book, Historia frumentorum, was dedicated to Viglius, president of the Council of State, Dodoens' friend and protector. His second book was dedicated to Joachim Hopperus, master of petitions and counsellor to Philip II of Spain. When Philip needed a new physician, Dodoens was the first choice. Hopperus wrote to Viglius on his behalf. But Dodoens did not want to move so far away. The offer to be Philip's physician was repeated periodically. Dodoens dedicated his third book, Purgantium aliarumque (1574) to Philip. He dedicated his Cruydeboeck, 1534, to Marie of Hungary, regent of the Low Countries. He dedicated other books the the Elector Daniel, Archbishop of Mainz, and to Lambert Gruterus, Bishop of Naples and Chaplain to the Emperor. He was appointed physician to the emperor Maximilian II and then to Rudolf II.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
E. Varenbergh's article in Biographie nationale publiée par l'Académie Royale des Sciences,des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, 4, (Brussels, 1878), cols. 85-112. E.C. Van Leersum, 'Rembert Dodoens', Janus, 22 (1917), pp. 141-152. F.W.T. Hunger, 'Dodonée comme botaniste', Janus, 22 (1917), pp.152-162. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Van Meerbeeck, Recherches historiques et critiques sur la vie et les ouvrages de Rembert Dodoens, (Malines, 1841). 


Doerffel, Georg Samuel



1. Dates: Born: Germany, 1643; Died: Germany, 1688 Datecode: Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Pastor; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Germany
4. Education: University of Leipzig; B.A., B.Th. University of Jena; M.A. School in Plauen. 1662, bachelor's degree, Leipzig. Studied theology. 1663, master's degree, Jena. Studied mathematics and astronomy under Erhard Weigel. Defended his thesis on the motion of heavy bodies. 1668, Bachelor of Theology, Leipzig.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. 
7. Means of Support: ecclesiastical position; 1667, substitute pastor, Plauen, Germany. 1672, suceeded to the post. Close to the end of his life he became the Lutheran Superintendent at Weida.
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Corresponded with Weigel and Gottfried Kirch.

SOURCES
Angus Armitage, 'Master Georg Doerffel and the Rise of Cometary Astronomy,' Annals of Science, 7 (1951). 303-315. [Q1.A47]; Rudolf Gerloch, 'Doerffel,' Neue deutsche Biographie, 4 (1959), 30-31.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.G. Kaestner, 'Nachrichten von Georg Samuel Doerfeln' etc. Sammlungen einiger ausgesuchten Stuecke der Gesellschaft der freyen Kuenste zu Leipzig (Leipzig, 1754-56), teil 3, 252ff. C. Reinhardt, Mag. Georg Samuel Doerffel (Plauen, 1882). 


Dominis, Marko Antonije



1. Dates: Born: island of Rab (in what is now Jugoslavia), 1560; Died: Rome, 8 September 1624; Datecode: Lifespan: 64; 2. Father: Law; Jerko de Dominis received his doctorate in law from Padua and worked as a lawyer in Venice.
3. Nationality: Birth: Yugoslavia; Career: Italy, Yugoslavia, England; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; Religious Orders; D.D. He graduated from the Jesuit Collegium Illyricum in Loreto. He completed his studies in Padua (which sounds like a B.A. to me), where he entered the Jesuit order. Dominis later left the order (and ultimately became an apostate), but not before he completed the full training, which would have included a doctorate in theology. Later, as a bishop, he arranged to receive a doctorate in theology, I gather from a university as opposed to a Jesuit college.
5. Religion: Catholic, Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics, Optics He published two works in physics. The De radiis visus et lucis (Venice, 1611) deals with lenses, telescopes, and the rainbow, and the Enripus seu de et refluxu (Rome, 1624) [obviously something is wrong with this title] is concerned with the tides.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; After finishing his studies in Padua, he lectured on mathematics, logic, and philosophy at Verona, Padua, and Brescia until 1596 (surely all in Jesuit colleges). In 1596 he taught mathematics at the Collegio Romano. Jesuit discipline never sat well with de Dominis, and about this time he was discharged from the order. In 1596 he became administrator of the bishopric of Senj and in 1600 was appointed bishop of Senj. (These appointments came through the Emperor Rudolf II. In that year (1600) he was promoted to Doctor of Theology in Padua. In 1602 he became archbishop of Split with the title 'Primat of Dalmatia and Croatia.' He arranged this thru the curia in Rome. In 1615 he moved to Venice, and the following year he left Venice for London, publishing his blast against the Catholic Church and the Council of Trent for which he was excommunicated. In 1617 he published De republica ecclesiastica, dedicated to James I, and in 1619 he was named Deacon of Windsor. In 1622 he returned to Rome with a justification of his stay in England. He died in 1624 while in the hands of the Inquisition.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official;
9. Technological Connections:
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Encyclopaedia moderna, 5-6, (1967), pp.84-140. Stanko Hondl, 'Mirko Antonij de Dominis kao fizicar,' Vienac, 36, no.2 (1944)pp.36-48. Dizionario biografico degli uomini illustri della Dalmatia, ed. Simeone Gliubich, (Vienna, 1856). 


Doppelmayr, Johan Gabriel



1. Dates: Born: Nuremberg, Germany 30 September 1677; Died: Nuremberg, Germany 1 December 1750; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Merchant in Nurenberg; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Altdorf; University of Halle; University of Utrecht; University of Leiden; Oxford University; Secondary Means of Support: began with tutors. 1689, entered Aegidien Gymnasium in Nuremberg. 1696, entered U Altdorf, studied jurisprudence, math, and physics. No mention of a degree. 1700, briefly attended U Halle. Then gave up law, spent 2 years traveling and studying in Germany, Holland, and England, especially Utrecht, Leyden, Oxford, and London. I find no mention of a degree in all of this.
5. Religion: Lutheran, by assumption
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy, math, physics; Doppelmayr made no discoveries for which he is known. He published works that were very useful in disseminating scientific knowledge.
7. Means of Support: academic; 1704-death: professor of math at Aegidien Gymnasium in Nuremberg. The institution had been founded by Zwingli, but Nuremberg was a Lutheran city.
8. Patronage: unknown (but there were no appointments like that above without patronage)
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Lp, Berlin Academy; Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Royal Society (London); Member of Academia Caesarea Leopoldina, Berlin Academy, St. Petersburg Academy, Royal Society of London.

SOURCES
Cantor, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 5, 344 - 345 - only a little more about his education; J. H. von Mädler, Geschichte der Himmelskunde, 1, (Brunswick, 1873), 129 - Microprint Q111 . L2 #M31 - nothing new; J. G. Meusel, Lexikon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1880 verstorbenen teutschen Schriftsteller (Leipzig, 1802 - 1816), 2- ref room Z 2230 . M 58 - primary and secondary bibliography
Neue Deutsche Biographie, 4, 76

Not Available and Not Consulted: G.A.Will, Nürnbergisches Gelehrter Lexicon, 1 (Nuremberg, 1755). 


Dorn, Gerard



1. Dates: Born: Belgium ? (someone described him as 'Belga'); flourished: Basel, Switzerland and Frankfurt, Germany, 1566 - 1584 (ADB also mentions Strassbourg); Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: No information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: birth, Belgian; career, German and Swiss; death, unknown
4. Education: Unknown; M.D. Student of Adam of Bodenstein. Received doctorate, unclear where. I therefore assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. The situation is unclear. On the one hand Adam of Bodenstein was apparently Protestant, and Dorn did talk of the need of a reform in philosophy, like that in religion earlier in the century, to make philosophy more Christian. On the other hand his dedications were relentlessly to Catholic princes, and this has seemed most important to me.
6. Scientific Disciplines: primary: Alchemy; Iatrochemistry; Occult Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Pharmacology; Dorn was an early follower of Paracelsus, whose works he translated and edited in Latin.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; Pub; For several years worked, perhaps on commission, as a translator for the Basel publisher Peter Perna.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He dedicated his first book to Adam of Bodenstein. (I'll leave this in, but with misgivings.); He dedicated a work of 1568 and a 1584 commentary on Paracelsus to Duke Frederick of Bavaria. He dedicated another 1584 commentary on Paracelsus to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. He dedicated a work of 1570 to Duke Ludwig of Wurtemberg. He dedicated a translation of Paracelsus to Charles, Margrave of Baden.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; He was a physician, and he wrote on Paracelsian remedies.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Hirsch, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 5, 351. J.R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 4 vols. (London, 1961), 2, 159 - 160. L. Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 8 vols. (New York, 1923-58), 5, 630 - 635. R.P. Multhauf, The origins of Chemistry, (London, 1966), 241 - 243, 288 - 289. W. Pagel, Paracelsus: an Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance, 2nd ed. (Basel, 1982), pp. 31, 156, 191, 228, 284, 308, 330. _____, Das medizinische Weltbild des Paracelsus, (Weisbaden, 1962), pp. 19-20, 92, 107, 111. Gnudi (DSB) and Hirsch say little is known about him. I dutifully looked up all of these references to him hoping that I would find more; Gnudi and Hirsch seem to be right.

Not Consulted: DSB lists other 'minor' sources. 


Douglas, James



1. Dates: Born: Baads (or Badds), near Edinburgh, March 1675; He was baptized on 21 March. Died: London, 2 April 1742; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Gentry; William Douglas was the largest landowner in the district. Nothing explicit is said about his financial status. Nevertheless, in addition to his status as the largest landowner in the district is the fact that all the sons in a large family (12 children) received education for a professional career. I do not see how we can imagine him less than affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Edn; University of Rheims; M.D. M.A. likely in Edinburgh, 1694. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. M.D. from the University of Rheims, 1699. No evidence shows he studied medicine there. As in such cases, I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. His own papers whow that he was in Utrecht in 1698. Though he may have studied medicine there, the university records contain no trace of him.
5. Religion: Anglican; By assumption; I found nothing whatever said about his religion except that he was buried in an Anglican church in London.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Surgery; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; Zoology; In 1707 Douglas published a handbook on comparative myology, probably related to the anatomical lectures he was delivering at that time-Myographiae comparatae specimen. He also did a number of other anatomical works (some as papers in the Philosophical Transactions), and in 1730 his most important work, A Description of the Peritoneum. Several anatomical features still bear his name, especially the pouch of Douglas. His Bibliographiae anatomicae, 1715, was a list of writers on anatomy. A large work Osteographia, manuscripts for which survive, would apparently have been a landmark. A paper delivered to the Royal Society defined the possibility of the so-called high operation for the stone, which his brother then performed. Douglas wrote a History of Lithotomy (in manuscript) and The History of the Lateral Operation (for the stone), published, 1726. He wrote some works, which remain in manuscript form, on medicine, especially diseases of women, and he kept extensive case histories, many of which survive. Index materiae medicae, 1724-his own prescriptions, but not, I gather, important in the history of pharmacology. Douglas wrote a number of papers on specific plants, on their growth and their anatomy. He also published some on animal specimens, especially one on the flamingo.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; Org; Medical and obstetrical practice in London, 1699 (perhaps 1700)-1742. By all accounts he was quite successful. He gave private lessons in anatomy, 1706-42. He became the physician to a number of aristocrats and in 1727 the private physician to the Queen. For attending the royal couple's daughter in a pregnancy in 1735, he received a pension of L500. In 1707 Douglas was the paid anatomy demonstrator at the Royal Society. For reasons unknown he arrangement did not become permanent.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Medical Practioner; He was acquainted with the royal family in 1720s, and became physician extraordinary to the Queen in 1727. He was sent to the Netherlands in 1735 to attend Anne, the daughter of George II and the Princess of Orange, in a pregnancy (or, as it turned out, suspected pregnancy). The King bestowed a pension of L500 on him as a reward. George II gave Douglas a gratuity of L500 to encourage his publication of Osteographia. The work was in fact never published. By 1712 Douglas' practice included a large number of aristocrats. He dedicated Description of the Peritoneum to Dr. Richard Mead. Like other prosperous men, Douglas became a small patron himself. His younger brother dedicated a book to him. (The letter of dedication is a nice specimen of the art.) So did two pupils in anatomy. Douglas collected Horace, and in 1741 a translation of Horace was dedicated to him.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; See above.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: Strong influence on William Hunter, his resident, pupil, and close friend, 1741-2. After Douglas' death, Hunter lived in his home for 7 years and continued his master's anatomical research. Association with Hans Sloane, William Cowper, Richard Mead, and especially with Cheselden in 1720s and 1730s. Some of the correspondence with Sloane, at least, survives. Friendship with A. Pitcairn, his medical teacher, 1690s. He was in correspondence with a number of botanists and naturalists. Royal Society, 1706-42. On the Council 1726-9 and 1741-2. Croonian Lecturer, 1741. Royal College of Physicians, 1721-42. Douglas delivered the Gale Osteology Lecture to the Company of Barber Surgeons in 1712.

SOURCES
K. Bryn Thomas, James Douglas of the Pouch and his Pupil William Hunter, (London, 1964). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 1234-5.
William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 2, 77-9. Helen Brock, 'James Douglas of the Pouch,' Medical History, 18 (1974), 162-72.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C.H. Brock, 'James Douglas (1675-1742), Botanist,' Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 9 (1979), 137-45. _____, 'The Rediscovery of James Douglas,' The Bibliotheck, 8 (1977), 168-76. Wilhelm Overhoff, John Douglas, Chirurg und Lithotomist, (Leipzig, 1937). Note that this is primarily about the brother, not about James Douglas. 


Drebbel, Cornelius



1. Dates: Born: Alkmaar, 1572; Died: London, 1633; Datecode: Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; His father, a burgher of Alkmaar, was apprently a well-to-do farmer. I'll list him as prosperous. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: English; Dutch; Czechoslovak; Death: English 
4. Education: None Known; He probably only had elementary education, which would have included Latin. He had not university education. As a young man he was apprenticed to the famous engraver Hendrik Goltzius (who incidentally practice alchemy and undoubtedly intoduced Drebbel to the Art). 
5. Religion: Anabaptist 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instrumentation, Alchemy; Subordinate Disciplines: Engineering; In the strict sense he was not a scientist but an inventor or practicing technologist. He left very few writings of his own, and None of them is concerned with his invention. His most famous work was Ein kurzer Tractac von der Natur der Elemetum (Leiden, 1608), an alchemical tract on the transmutation of the elements. Engineering seems the best category for his general activity.
7. Means of Support: Engineer; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; Instruments; In 1595 he settled at Alkmaar, where he devoted himself to engaving and publishing maps and pictures. He soon turned to mechanical invention, for in 1598 he was a granted a parent for a pump and a clock with perpetual motion. In 1602 he was granted a patent for a chimney. He was also an instrument maker. About 1605 he went to London, and soon entered the special service of Henry, the Prince of Wales, in the castle at Eltham as a mechanic especially associated with displays of fireworks. He won attention with a perpetual motion device and with other spectacular devices that seized attention. Payments to him of L20 in both 1609 and 1610 are recorded. Nevertheless Jaeger makes a compelling case that Drebbel never quite made it; he remained at the level, not of a Galileo (who produced spectacles of a different order), but or court entertainers (among whom Drebbel walked at the King's funeral). Largely on the basis of the perpetual motion device, and perhaps his known involvement in alchemy, he was invited to visit Emperor Rudolf II in 1610. Jaeger argues again that he never made it big in Prague. After the death of Rudolph he returned to England in 1613. During the next several years he lived mostly in London. About 1620 he began to devote himself to the manufacture of microscopes (there is controversy here also as to his role in the development of the microscope), and to the construction of a submarine (one of his most famous projects, about which there is pronouced disagreement). For the next several years he was employed by the British navy, partly in connection with the submarine, but mostly to make explosive devices with which to attack other ships, at a fairly high salary. He was involved in a drainage project in East Anglia. Again the extent of his involvement and the extent of his technical expertise is under debate. From 1629 until his death he was extremely poor and earned his living by keeping an alehouse.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He was taken into the special service of Henry, the Prince of Wales, and was installed in the castle at Eltham, where he was visited by Emperor Rudolf II (although this is asserted, it seems extremely doubious) and by the Duke of Wurttenberg. He dedicated his book on the Nature of the Elements to James I. He was invited to visit Rudolf in 1610. When Rudolf was deposed by his brother, Drebbel was imprisoned. Through the intervention of Prince Henry, he was set free to return to England in 1613. (Again there is disagreement about the particulars.); Drebbel clearly attracted attention by appearing to work wonders. His case then is instructive as to what patronage was about. Jaeger's argument that he never rose above the level of court entertainers must enter into consideration here. Buckingham appears to have been the source of Drebbel's employment by the British navy in the late 20's. When the expedition to LaRochelle was a dismal failure and when Buckingham was assassinated, Drebbel went down the tubes.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Chemistry; Hydraulics; Dev. Drebbel is hard to categorize, both as to discipline and in regard to this category. He devoted his whole life to practical devices of various sorts; what is hard to determine is the role of science in any of it. Among his best-known inventions are: 'Perpetual mobile', the elaborate toy operated on the basis of changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure. He extended the basic idea to the operation of clocks (though I have not succeeded in understanding this). Thermostats and a thermoscope. He applied the principles used in the perpetual mobile to a temperature regulator for ovens and furnaces. He also applied the same idea to an incubator for hatching duck and chicken eggs. Optics. He invented (or is said to have invented) the microscope with two sets of convex lenses. He made compound microscopes as early as 1619. He also made telescopes, and he developed a machine for grinding lenses. He constructed a camera obscura with a lens in the aperture, and he had some sort of magic lantern that projected images. The submarine. He built a submarine that could carry a number of people in 1620s. There is much discussion about this; apparently it was a set of diving bells, and was thus open at the bottom. Chemical technology. His most important contribution was his discovery of a tin mordant for dyeing scarlet with cochineal. Jaeger argues that in fact Drebbel had no role in this; here I am not sure that I find his case convincing. Drebbel was involved in a project to drain the fens. Earlier he had taken a patent on a pump, and he had constructed fountains.
10. Scientific Societies

SOURCES:
Gerrit Tierie, Cornelius Drebbel (1572-1633), (Amsterdam, 1932). L.E.Harris, The Two Netherlanders, (Cambridge, 1961). T40 .B8H3; F.M. Jaeger, Cornelis Drebbel en zijne tijdgenooten, (Groningen, 1922). This is the fundamental book on Drebbel. It throws one big bucket of cold water over the legend. G.C. Gerrits, Grote nederlanders bij de opbouw der natuurwetenschappen, (Leiden, 1948). 


Dubois, Jacques



1. Dates: Born: Amiens, 1478; Died: France, 13 January 1555; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Artisan; Academic; His father was a weaver, but he was reared by his older brother who was a professor. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. He studied medicine informally with members of the Paris Faculty of Medicine and particularly anatomy with Jean Tagault. Later he went to Montpellier, where he was graduated with M.B. in 1529 and M.D. in 1530. He was incorporated M.B. in 1553 (or 1551 according to Thuasne) in Paris. (I am not listing the Paris connection.)I take the M.B. as equivalent to a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; His major contribution to anatomy is presented by the posthumous In Hippocrate et galeni physiologiae partem anatomicam isagoge (1555). It is a systematic account of anatomy, written some time after 1536 and based on the writings of Galen, on a certain amount of human dissection, and on the Anatomiae libri introductorius (1536) of Niccolo Massa. He published many commentaties, and some of them were frequently reprinted and were very influential.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; While studying anatomy informally in Paris, he supported himself by giving private lessons and consultations. The consultations provoked the wrath of the medical faculty. Professor of anatomy at the College de Theguier, 1535-1555. He replaced Vidus as professor of surgery at the Collège royale in 1550. Dubois became rich through a combination of publication, consultation, and extreme parsimony. I assume that consultation is equivalent to practice.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Henry II was responsible for Dubois' appointment to the Collège royale. Dubois dedicated a Latin-French grammar (1531) to Queen Élénore.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: Relationship with Vesalius.

SOURCES:
Louis Thuasne, 'Rabelaesian: Le Sylvius Ocreatus,' Revue des bibliotheques, 15 (1905), pp.268-283. Dictionnaire de biographie Françcaise, 11, 940. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'Vita' prefixed to Rene Moreau's edition of Iacobi Sylvii Opera medica, (Geneva, 1634). 


Duchesne [Quercetanus], Joseph



1. Dates: Born: l'Esturre (or Esturre), Armagnac, c. 1544; Died: France, 20 August 1609; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father Jacques was a physician. DBF says that the father started his life as an assistant to a country surgeon; perhaps physician implies a higher status than he had. While I usually put physicians down as affluent, I think I should put the financial status in this case as unknown. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: France; Swiss; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Montpellier; University of Basel; M.D. He studied first at Montpellier, and received his medical degree at Basel in 1573. DBF does not mention Montpelier; it says that he studied in Bordeaux and Germany, and then Switzerland where he received his M.D. at Basel. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; If Duchesne was not already a Calvinist, he became one under the influence of his wife, Anne Tyre, in Lyon during the 1570's. He left Lyon in 1580, probably for religious reasons.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Iatrochemstry, Alchemy, Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Among his many works, the Sclopetarius (1576), which deals with the cure of gunshot wounds, and the Pharmacopea dogmaticorum (1607) were translated into several languages and went through numerous editions. In his works he offered a large number of remedies prepared from substances of mineral, vegetable, and animal origin. Much of his influence derived from the debate his work initiated at Paris. His De priscorum philosophorum verae medicinae materia (1603) and Ad veritatem hermeticae medicinae ex Hippocratis veterumque decretis ac therapeusi (1604) went through many editions in several languages and did much to publicize his version of the chemical philosophy. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Personal Means; 1572-80, he probably practiced medicine in Lyon, making enough of a name for himslef that he was able to marry Anne Tyre, the daughter of a magistrate and granddaughter of Guillaume Budé, described as a 'very rich heiress.' During this period Duchesne styled himself ordinary physician to François-Hercule, Duke of Anjou. In 1580 he sold his considerable holdings (doubtles stemming from his wife) and bought real estate in Germany and Geneva. He practiced medicine at Kassel for some time, and later moved to Geneva where he was received a citizen in 1584. After election to the Council of Two Hundred in 1587, he was sent on several diplomatic missions. In 1594 he became a member of the council of 60, the small council. In 1598, after the Edict of Nantes, he returned to Paris and was appointed physician in ordinary to King Henry IV. He also had a successful practice. Duchesne is described in DBF as 'sieur de la Violette,' and 'Baron de Morence,' an indication of his position. Upon his death, his daughter settled in Geneva where he had 'a very considerable fortune in real estate.'
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; I am taking the assertion that he was physician to the Duke of Anjou seriously. According to some sources he was appointed physician in ordinary to Henri IV. DBF says only that he had strong connections to the court and spent much time there. In the period 1589-96 he was at the court several times as a secret agent for Bern, Basel, Schaffhausen, and Zurich. In 1601 Brulart de Sillery took Duchesnes along as his personal physician on a diplomatic mission to the Swiss Cantons.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: He was involved in the debate over the value of the new medicine and the extent to which chemistry might be employed by physicians. Jean Riolan, Israel Harvet, Theodore Turquet de Mayerne, Andreas Libavius, and many others paticipated the debate.

SOURCES:
Dictionnaire de biographie française, 11, 1239-40. W.P.D.Wightman, Science and the Renaissance, I, Edinburgh-London-N.Y., 1962, 256-263. AS122 .A2 no.143-144. Antoine L.J. Bayle and _____ Thillaye, Biographie médicale, (Paris, 1855), 1, 386-7. John Ferguson, Bibliotheca chemica,(Glasgow, 1906), 1, 353.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Pierre Lordez, Joseph du Chesne, sieur de La Violette, médecin du roi Henry IV, chimiste, diplomate et poète, (Paris 1944). Something is wrong with this reference from the DSB; neither the NUC, nor the British Library, nor the Bibliotheque nationale has an entry for such a book. J. Dubédat, Étude sur un médecin gascon du XVIe siècle Joseph du Chesne. (1908); 


Dudith [Duditus], Andreas



1. Dates: Born: Budapest, 16 February 1533; Died: Breslau, 23 February 1589; Datecode: - Lifespan: 56; 
2. Father: Aristocrat; His parents were both noble. His father, Jerome, was a Hungarian noble who died in battle against the Turks when Andreas was quite young. His mother was from a Venetian noble family, the Sbardellat. After the family's holdings were overrun by the Turks, Andreas's upbringing was entrusted to his uncle, Augustin Sbardellat, bishop of Vacs and an imperial counsellor, who in turn entrusted him to Henckel, Canon of Breslau. Augustin Sbardellat was taken in battle and Henckel died in 1539. Andreas appears to have grown up in Breslau and at court in Vienna. It is clear that he grew up in wealthy circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Budapest, Hungary. Career: English; Germany; Hu, Yu; Death: Breslau, Germany 
4. Education: None Known; Little of his education is known. It is assumed that it continued in the tradition of Hungarian humanism to which Henckel subscribed. 1550-3, he studied in Verona and Paris. I have found no evidence that he received any degree. Since Verona did not have a university, I have doubts that the reference to Paris means the university.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. He was raised a Catholic and occupied high positions in the Catholic church. However, he believed strongly that priests should be allowed to marry and was unpopularly in favor of reconcilliation with the Lutherans. In 1567 he married a Polish noblewoman and subsequently subscribed to the Lutheran faith. This brought condemnation and excommunication from Rome, but he retained the trust and favor of the emperor.
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: medicine; He did not publish any original works in medicine, nor did he treat patients to my knowledge. However, his correspondence with Crato, the imperial physician, seems significant. Early in his intellectual life he interested himself in astrology, but eventually rejected it and argued strongly against it.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; 1553-7, secretary to the papal legate to England, Cardinal Reginald Pole. His time was divided between London and Paris. 1557, he returned to Hungary and became provost of Overbaden and canon of Strigone. He travelled to Italy, where he spent 1558-1560. It is not clear to me whether he retained the income from these positions then or whether he relied on patrons, like Veranscsis, bishop of Agra, who in 1558 offered him the income from two benefices in his bishopric. He does not appear to have accepted this offer, but there was probably some support from Verancsis or other patrons. 1560-2, he returned to court in Vienna, was granted the bishopric of Tina, Dalmatia, and administered it for two years. 1562-3, he was elected by the Hungarian clergy and served as representative to the council of Trent. 1564-76, he served the imperial court. He was given the bishopric of Chonad, Hungary, and served on ambassadorial missions to Poland. After returning from Poland he was given the diocese of Cinq-Eglises (I am not sure what the German or Hungarian name was). 1567, he married. He attempted to resign from the court, but Maximillian II retained him as ambassador to Poland and secret councillor. 1576, he was finally forced to leave the court and retired as baron of a property he had obtained in Moravia. He also had the title of seigneur de Smigla, which came from another holding in Poland. I do not know whether he held these simultaneously. 1579-89, he retired to Breslau.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; His first major patron was Cardinal Reginald Pole. He probably had other minor ecclesiastical patrons, like Bishop Verancsis, during this period. His major patrons were the emperors Ferdinand I and Maximilian II.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: He cultivated his relationships with Henry and Thomas Savile, the German mathematician Johannes Praetorius, and the imperial physician Crato. He corresponded on astronomical matters with Thadaeus Hagecius.

SOURCES:
Pierre Costil, Andre Dudith: humaniste hongrois 1533-1589, sa vie, son oeuvre et ses manuscrits grecs, (Paris, 1935). [CT950.D8C8]; J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommesillustres, 17 (Paris, 1732), 385-408. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie generale, 15 (Paris, 1861), 44-45. 
Note: Costil is the authoritative source, but I have not nearly exhausted it. I am confident, however, that this report gives the details of his life that we need. 


Duverney [Du Verney], Joseph-Guichard



1. Dates: Born: Feurs, Loire, 5 August 1648; Died: France, 10 September 1730; Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Jacques, was a village doctor. Perhaps I should pause with that designation as village doctor, but I will stick with the general proposition that physicians were affluent when there is no evidence to the contrary. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Avi, M.D. He went to Avignon to study medicine in 1662 and received his medical degree in 1667. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Zoology; Subordinate Disciplines: Entomology; Embryology; The only major work written by Duverney alone and published during his lifetime was his Traité de l'organe de l'ouie (1683), the first thorough, scientific treatise on the human ear. He read numerous papers to the Academy of Sciences, of which the most important are a group dealing with the circulatory and respiratory systems in cold-blooded vertebrates. After his death a number of anatomical works were published from his papers. Three anatomical structures are sometimes given Duverney's name. They are an incisura in the cartilage of the external auditory meatus, the pars lacrimalis musculus orbicularis oculi and the one commonly known as Bartholin's glands. He was involved in the study of generation, and in his old age he studied insects.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Shortly after 1667 he went to Paris, where he jointed the 'Parisians', a group of anatomists, and probably assisted Claude Perrault in dissections. He was elected to full membership of the Académie des Sciences in 1676. He was appointed to the chair of anatomy at the Jardin du Roi in 1679. He taught anatomy to the Dauphin and then, for a year, to leading aristocratic members of the court. The dauphin arranged for Duverney's admission to the Académie. Duverney had a gift for making medical issues comprehensible to the general public, especially the female public. Duverney did not practice medicine.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He occasionally gave lessons in anatomy to the Dauphin and to aristocratic members of the court. Through the influence of the Dauphin he gained admission to the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; Virtually all of the sources agree in saying that Duverney consistently refused to practice medicine because it would divert him from his anatomical studies.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1676-1730; He began to attend the weekly scientific meetings at the house of the Abbé Bourdelot. At these meetings he often spoke on anatomical subjects. He was an important member of the 'Parisians', a group of anatomists, who collaborated with each other to an uncommon degree, regularly performing dissections as a group and collectively reviewing both the text and plates before publishing their collaborative work. He was a close friend of Claude Perrault, the leader of 'Parisians.'; He began to connect with the Académie des Sciences in 1674, and was elected to full menbership in 1676. He corresponded with Malpighi, Bidloo, Boerhaave, and Pitcairne. 

SOURCES
Renauldin, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. XII, (Paris, 1855). Fontenelle, 'Eloge', Oeuvres, new ed., vol. VI, (Paris, 1742). Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, 15, 552-4. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres se la Faculte de Medecine en l'Universite de Paris, Paris 1778, pp. 151-7. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 12, 1038-9. 


Dudley, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Sheen House, Surrey, 7 August 1573; Died: Florence, Italy, 6 September 1649; Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: Aristocrat; Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. It is dubious that our Robert Dudley was legitimate, although his father was very fond of him and certainly reared him as his heir. Wealthy
3. Nationality: Birth: En Career: English; It; Death: It
4. Education: Oxford University; Oxford University, Christ Church, 1588-c.90. Dudley, to whom a degree had no significance, did not earn a B.A.
5. Religion: Anglican; Catholic. When he left England, Dudley converted to Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation; Cartography; Dudley's Dell'arcano del mare, 1646-7, was a major work on navigation and cartography. It contained an appendix (made into a preface in the second edition) 'Delle scienze matematiche che entrano nell'opera dell'Arcano del mare.'
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; He inherited the bulk of Leicester's estate, which included Kenilworth, 1589. In 1594-5 Dudley commanded a privateering expedition, which appears to have been his personal undertaking, to the West Indies and the northern coast of South America. A year later, 1596, he served, as the commander of a vessel, in the expedition to Cadiz; he was knighted for his bravery here. When he failed legally to establish his legitimacy in 1605, Dudley left England (abandoning his family and taking along a beautiful young woman, Elizabeth Southwell, whom he married bigamously). He embraced Catholicism, and settled in Florence under the protection of the Grand Duke. Obviously he sacrificed his considerable estate in England. Eventually he was able to salvage something by selling Kenilworth to Prince Henry, but only at a price well beneath its value. He lived primarily on a pension from the Grand Duke, for whom he performed all sorts of services, mostly connected with his naval expertise. He also held the office of Grand Chamberlain to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany, 1606-1620s.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Church Living; Knighted by the Earls of Essex and Nottingham in 1596. The Grand Duke of Tuscany (first Ferdinand I, then Cosimo II, and finally Ferdinand II) put him in charge of several engineering projects, granted him a pension said to have been of nearly L1000, and provided him with a country estate. The influence of the Grand Duke and Duchess with the Emperor (the Grand Duchess was his daughter) helped to secure Dudley's titles. Apparently Leader's book (which I have not seen) prints an interesting letter of c. 1606 in which Dudley appealed to the Grand Duke for protection and told him about the services (of a naval sort) which he could render in return. He dedicated the Arcano to the Grand Duke (Ferdinand II). His assumed titles, Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland, (to him, his justly inherited titles) were confirmed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II. The Pope granted him a dispensation to marry Elizabeth Southwell (though he was legally married and the father of three daughters) and in 1630 entered him in the ranks of the Roman nobility. 
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Cartography; Civil Engineer; Architecture; Military Engineer; Hydraulics; Pharmacology; Instruments; Dudley should be seen as a practical man, able in mathematics, who entered into all of the technological activities that demanded mathematical expertise. He published a large book on navigation, the Arcano del mare, based in the first place on his experience as a navigator at sea. He was also involved in shipbuilding, designing several new classes of warships. Already on the expedition to the West Indies he prepared a map of Trinidad and of the coast of South America. Book 6 of his Arcano was on cartography, and it contained maps (charts for navigators) of the entire world. These maps are considered milestones in naval cartography. Dudley himself drew them up; they were not mere copies of the maps of others. The Grand Duke put him in charge of building the port of Livorno. He designed the mole for its harbor. Although I did not find references to specific buildings he had designed, contemporary descriptions of Dudley emphasized his skill in architecture. Wood says that the Grand Duke consulted him on all major buildings. He functioned partly as a military engineer in Tuscany, and the Arcano contained a section on the fortification of ports. He drained the swamp between Pisa and Livorno. Dudley also developed a powder of supposedly (in the 17th century style) extraordinary medicinal power (but apparently used primarily as a purge), which made it into all the pharmacopaeias. He was involved also with instruments. About 1598 he invented and made what he called an azimuth dial, essentially similar to Oughtred's horizontal instrument (and possibly copied from it, for Oughtred's manuscript was around at that time).
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: His report on the expedition to the West Indies was printed by Hakluyt, to whom he was distantly related. When he was young, he had a close association with Thomas Cavendish. He maintained a connection with his tutor Thomas Chaloner and his instructor Mathew Baker, master-shipwright. Note that with the possible exception of Hakluyt, these are generally practical men like Dudley himself.

SOURCES
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 6, 122-4. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 258-62. George F. Warner, 'Preface,' The Voyage of Robert Dudley . . . to the West Indies, 1594-1595, (London, 1899), i-lxvi. J.F. Schütte, 'Japanese Cartography at the Court of Florence: Robert Dudley's Maps of Japan, 1606-1636,' Imago mundi, 23 (1969), 29-58. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 5, 469-78. A.J. Turner, 'William Oughtred, Richard Delamain and the Horizontral Instrument in Seventeenth Century England,' Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienze, Firenze, 6.2 (1981), 115.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Vaughan Thomas, The Italian Biography of Sir Robert Dudley, (Oxford, 1861). J. Temple Leader, Life of Sir Robert Dudley, (Florence, 1895). Alberto Viviani, 'Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, at the Grand Ducal Court,' Florence, 12.4 (1961), 32-3.


Durer, Albrecht



1. Dates: Born: Nuremberg, 21 May 1471; Died: Nuremberg, 6 April 1528; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Artisan; His father was Albrecht Duerer, the elder, a goldsmith who had emigrated from Hungary and settled in Nuremberg. He received his master's qualification in 1468, became weigher and tester of minting blanks in 1470, and a juryman (Geschwornener) and foreman of his profession in 1482-1488. In 1482 he became a local government official (Gassenhauptman). In 1483, he was registered as holding a share of the mine at Goldkronach. (See N.d.B., 4:163a-164b); No clear evidence of his financial status. Panofsky calls the father hard working and not particularly prosperous. He also calls him lower middle class. However, Duerer's godfather was the greatest printer in Germany, and Duerer's closest friend, from youth until death, Willibald Pirckheimer, was a wealthy patrician.
3. Nationality: German; German; German; Birth: Nuremberg, Germany. Career: Nuremberg, Germany. Death: Nuremberg, Germany.
4. Education: None Known. He attended Latin school at St. Lorenz and then learned goldsmithing as an apprentice to his father. 1486-9, he studied as an apprentice in the workshop of the painter Michael Wolgemut, learning painting, wood- and copper-engraving. 1490-4, he did his Wanderjahre in accordance with the customs of the painting guild, travelling through the Upper Rhine, Colmar, Basel, and Strasbourg. 1494-5, visted Venice to learn about the new Renaissance philosophy and art techniques. 1495, started to study mathematics and architecture from ancient classics by himself. 1505-7, returned to Italy. He stayed in Venice, but also visited Bologna. 1520-1, travelled to the Netherlands where he saw the work of the early Flemish masters.
5. Religion: Catholic. Lutheran. Some sources say that he remained a Catholic, though he was sympathetic with the reformers, especially in 1524. Panofsky, however, asserts without reservation that Duerer converted to Lutheranism (if one can use the term that early) in 1519, and for good. I am accepting Panofsky.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Toward the end of his career Duerer published Underweysung der Messung, a book in practical geometry.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; During his Wanderjahre (1490-1494) he presumably worked as a draftsman for various printers along his journey. 1494, his father arranged his marriage with Agnes Fey, the daughter of Hans Fey, a prosperous mechanician and instrument maker. This brought Duerer increased social standing and a generous dowry. 1495, he set himself up as a master in his own workshop, working mostly as a draftsman doing wood- and copper-engraving, but also making altar pieces. We can infer that he was successful from the fact that he adopted his distinctive AD monogram in 1497 to prevent counterfeiting of his work.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Merchant; Court Patronage; Government Official; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; A good freind and patron of Duerer's was Willibald Pirckheimer, an almost exact contemporary of Duerer who was a member of the Nuremberg patriciate. Duerer executed a portrait of him, and had access to his extensive library. He also accompanied him on a diplomatic mission to Switzerland in 1519, and he dedicated his Underweysung to Pirckheimer. However, there is every indication of a true friendship of equals here; I cannot count this as patronage. In 1505 while in Venice he undertook various work, including a large altar painting for the church of the German merchants. Johannes Werner, the mathematician; Johann Tscherte, the imperial architect; and Nicholas Kratzer, the court astronomer to Henry VIII of England are also mentioned as patrons of Duerer, but I have as yet found no more specific information regarding their relationships. In 1512, Duerer was called on to do a series of drawings of the Emperor Maximilian I, who came through Nuremberg (4-15 February 1512). In 1515, Duerer requested and received a life-long pension of 100 gulden per year. In 1518, Duerer was sent with other representatives of Nuremberg to the Reichstag, where he made a charcoal sketch of the Emperor which laid the foundation for his portrait and etchings of the Emperor. He acted quickly to secure the money due him and the continuation of the pension by Charles V after Maximilian died in 1519. Christian II of Denmark had his portrait done in 1521. Duerer subsequently attended the banquet that Christian gave to honor the Emperor and Margaret of Austria. This event is noted as an early example of the higher social standing of artists. Frederick the Wise of Saxony commissioned a number of paintings from Duerer over an extensive period of time and was an enduring patron. Duerer did paintings as one time or another for a number of German merchants including a portrait of Jacob Fugger. The city of Nuremberg commissioned 'portraits' of Charlemagne and Sigismund in 1512. In 1526 he completed paintings of the four apostles which he gave to the city; he received in return 100 guilders for himself plus twelve for his wife and two for his servant. He also did portraits of some of the Nuremberg magistrates. He did a portrait on a woodblock of Ulrich Varnbueler, Protonotarius of the Emperorl and an oil portrait of Lorenz Stern, a tax collector of Brabant. He did engravings of Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg and of Melanchthon. It is clear from the list above that Duerer's patronage was for his art, not for his learning. However, it appears to me that I need to list it.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Instruments; Duerer was, of course, a talented artist and engraver. Many of his works are devoted to the mathematical aspects of art. Duerer also wrote Befestigungslehre. Etliche underricht zu befestigung der stett schloss und flecken (1527) which summarizes the science of fortification. Many of his suggestions were incorporated by the city of Nuremberg. This work is said to have been dictated by fear of a Turkish invasion. He also worked on globes, celestial charts, and armillary spheres. He invented a device to aid in doing perspective for pictures.
10. Scientific Societies: None; He maintained a long friendship with the humanist Pirckheimer, and he had some association with Conrad Fuchs.

SOURCES
Hans Jantzen, Neue deutsche Biographie4, 164b-169b. E. Panofsky, Albrecht Duerer, 3rd ed. (Princeton, 1955). Note: Needless to say, there is an abundance of literature about Duerer which I have not attempted to exhaust.


Duhamel, Jean-Baptiste



1. Dates: Born: Vire (France), 11 June 1623 (DBF says 1624); Died: France, 6 August 1706; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 83
2. Father: Law; Nicolas DuHamel was a lawyer. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Caen; University of Paris; He began his studies in rhetoric and philosophy in Caen and completed them in Paris. I take this to mean a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization; Anatomy; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Natural Philosophy; His fame is due primarily to the high office that he held from 1666 to 1697 in the first French Académie. Being the secretary of the Académie Royale des Sciences, he assisted in preserving the Academy, and published the first printed summary of its history. He published several works in anatomy and in astronomy. In the latter field: Elementa astronomice (1642) and Astronmia physica (1659). Also, De meteores . . .
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Org; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Admitted to the Institution de l'Oratoire in Paris in 1643. Taught philosophy at the Collège Universitaire of Angers, 1644-1652. Instructed the young Oratorians in positive theology in the rue St.Honore, 1652-1653. Parish priest in Neuilly-sur-Marne, 1653-1663. Royal chaplain, 1656- . Prof. of Greek and Latin Philosophy at the Collège Royale, 1657. Chancellor to the bishop of Bayeux in Paris, 1663-1666. Secretaty of the Académie Royale des Sciences, 1666- 1697. Pensionary anatomist of the Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1699-1706. Professor of Greek and Latin philosophy at the College de France, 1682-1706.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; He was appointed royal chaplain in 1656. He was chancellor of the bishop of Bayeux after 1663.  It was Colbert who proposed him for the Académie in 1666. Cardinal Antoine Barberin, Grand Almoner of France, made Duhamel almoner to the king in 1656. The Cardinal was apparently a continuing patron. In 1668 Colbert de Croissy, plenipotentiary of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, took Duhamel to England, where de Croissy was ambassador. Duhamel also spent some time in the Netherlands.
9. Technological Connections: None Known. 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1706; Secretary of Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1697; Pensionary anatomist, 1699-1706

SOURCES:
Fontenelle, 'Éloge de Mr. du Hamel', L'Histoire et mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences, pt.1, (Paris, 1707), pp.142-153. 'Mémoire sur la vie et les écrits de J.B. du Hamel, prieur de St. Lambert', Journal des scavans, supp. (February 1707), pp.88-94. Microprint. Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 12, 15-16,; P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Louis Battarel, Memoires domestiques pour servir à l'histoire de l'Oratoire, Bonnardet-Ingold, ed., (Paris, 1904), 3, 142-55. Abbé Augustin Vialard, Le premier secrétaire perpetuel de l'Académie des sciences: J.-B. Du Hamel, (Paris, 1884).


Dullaert of Ghent, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Ghent, c. 1471; Died: Paris, 19 September 1513; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Noble family; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgian; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: University of Paris; M.A., D.D. Son of a noble family, he was sent to Paris to study at the age of 14, in the Collège de Montaigu. I assume B.A. because he earned M.A. He went on to study theology, was received into the Sorbonne and earned the degree of Bachelor in theology. I gather he was cut short before the actual doctorate.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic philosophy; A student of John Major, the Terminist, he published quite a bit of scholastic philosophy. Especially important is his treatment of motion, following the calculatores, in his Questiones on the Physics and De caelo.
7. Means of Support: Academic; An Augustinian friar; It is known that in 1510, after teaching in the Collège de Montaigu, he became a master at the Collège de Beauvais. There he taught Celaya, Juan Martinex Siliceo, and Luis Vives.
8. Patronage: Academic; He dedicated his exposition of Aristotle's Meteorology to his master, Jean Gemellus, and an edition of Buridan on the Physics to Robert Jacquinot, who seems to have been an academic colleague. 
9. Technological Connections: None Known. 
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Hubert Elie, 'Quelques maitres de l'université de Paris vers l'an 1500,' Archives d'historie doctrinale de littéraire du moyen age, 25-6 (1950-51), 193-243. Ricardo G. Villoslada, 'Juan de Celaya,' La Universidad de Paris durante los estudios de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 14 of Analecta Gregoriana, Series Fac. Hist. Ecc. Sectio B, num. 2 (Roma, 1938), pp. 384-401.
Biographie nationale.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A short biographical sketch by Vives prefaced to an edition of Dullaert's commentary of the Meteorology of 1514.


Duverney [Du Verney], Joseph-Guichard



1. Dates: Born: Feurs, Loire, 5 August 1648; Died: France, 10 September 1730; Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Medical Practioner; His father, Jacques, was a village doctor. Perhaps I should pause with that designation as village doctor, but I will stick with the general proposition that physicians were affluent when there is no evidence to the contrary. 
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: Avi, M.D. He went to Avignon to study medicine in 1662 and received his medical degree in 1667. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Zoology; Subordinate Disciplines: Entomology; Embryology; The only major work written by Duverney alone and published during his lifetime was his Traité de l'organe de l'ouie (1683), the first thorough, scientific treatise on the human ear. He read numerous papers to the Academy of Sciences, of which the most important are a group dealing with the circulatory and respiratory systems in cold-blooded vertebrates. After his death a number of anatomical works were published from his papers. Three anatomical structures are sometimes given Duverney's name. They are an incisura in the cartilage of the external auditory meatus, the pars lacrimalis musculus orbicularis oculi and the one commonly known as Bartholin's glands. He was involved in the study of generation, and in his old age he studied insects.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Shortly after 1667 he went to Paris, where he jointed the 'Parisians', a group of anatomists, and probably assisted Claude Perrault in dissections. He was elected to full membership of the Académie des Sciences in 1676. He was appointed to the chair of anatomy at the Jardin du Roi in 1679. He taught anatomy to the Dauphin and then, for a year, to leading aristocratic members of the court. The dauphin arranged for Duverney's admission to the Académie. Duverney had a gift for making medical issues comprehensible to the general public, especially the female public. Duverney did not practice medicine.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; He occasionally gave lessons in anatomy to the Dauphin and to aristocratic members of the court. Through the influence of the Dauphin he gained admission to the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: None Known. Virtually all of the sources agree in saying that Duverney consistently refused to practice medicine because it would divert him from his anatomical studies.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1676-1730; He began to attend the weekly scientific meetings at the house of the Abbé Bourdelot. At these meetings he often spoke on anatomical subjects. He was an important member of the 'Parisians', a group of anatomists, who collaborated with each other to an uncommon degree, regularly performing dissections as a group and collectively reviewing both the text and plates before publishing their collaborative work. He was a close friend of Claude Perrault, the leader of 'Parisians.'; He began to connect with the Académie des Sciences in 1674, and was elected to full menbership in 1676. He corresponded with Malpighi, Bidloo, Boerhaave, and Pitcairne. 

SOURCES
Renauldin, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. XII, (Paris, 1855). Fontenelle, 'Eloge', Oeuvres, new ed., vol. VI, (Paris, 1742). Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, 15, 552-4. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres se la Faculte de Medecine en l'Universite de Paris, Paris 1778, pp. 151-7. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 12, 1038-9. 





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
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