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Cabeo, Niccolo


1. Dates: Born: Ferrara, 26 February 1586; Died: Genoa, 30 June 1650; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. He attended the Jesuit college in Parma. Heilbron says Ferrara. I did not find any mention of university study. He clearly received the equivalent of a B.A. within the order and as a full Jesuit he would have had a theological degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Jesuit, having entered as a novice in 1602.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Magnetism; Natural Philosophy; Elc; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics. Cabeo is remembered partly because he was acquainted with Giovanni Battista Baliani, who experimented with falling weights, and wrote about Baliani's experiments. His interpretation that two different weights fall in the same length of time without regard to the medium became the indirect cause of other experiments conducted by Vincenzo Renieri. He experimented with pendulums. He published two major works, Philosophia magnetica (1629) and In quatuor libros meteorologicorum Aristotelis commentaria (1646), an anti-aristotelian work.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Cabeo taught theology and mathematics in Parma until 1622, and was then a preacher in various Italian cities. He was in Genoa for a time. He was for a time in the service of the Dukes of Mantua and of the Este in Ferrara. Ultimately he returned to the Jesuit college in Genoa where he taught mathematics.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; Service with the Gonzagas in Mantua and the Este in Ferrara. He dedicated the first book of his Meteorology to Carlo II, Duke of Mantua, the second book to Card. Spada, and the fourth book to Vincenzo Caraffa, General of the Jesuits.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; He was employed by the Gonzaga on hydraulic projects. He differed with Castelli on the management of the Po at Ferrara.
10. Scientific Societies: He was a friend of Baliani and of Riccioli.

SOURCES:
Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 2, 376-84. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G. Tiraboschi, Storia della letteratura italiana, 8, pt. 1, 249f.
Caverni, 2, 257-265-71; 4, 237, 279; 5, 9, 27. S. Magrini, 'Il 'De magnete' e i primordi della magnetologia in Italia,' Archivo di storia della scienza, 8.2 (1927), 17-39. L. Thorndike, History or Magic and Science, 7, 61, 422f, 685; 8, 204, 207, 430. J. Heilbron, Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries, (Berkeley, 1979), pp. 180-3.

Not Available and Not Consulted:
L. Barotti, Memorie di letteratura ferraresi, 2, 262-9.


Caius [Keys, Kees], John



The books at Gonville and Caius spell his name ten different ways. All end in the s sound; there is no foundation then for the sometimes offered Kay or Kaye.

1. Dates: Born: Norwich, 6 October 1510; Died: London, 29 July 1573. Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Unknown; We know only that his name was Robert Caius. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. University of Padua; M.D. Cambridge University, 1529-33; Gonville Hall; B.A., 1533; M.A., 1535. Created M.D. in Cambridge in 1558 on the occasion of the refoundation, through his endowment, of his college as Gonville and Caius. University of Padua, 1539-41; M. D., 1541. At Padua he studied under Montanus and Vesalius, and lived in Vesalius' house for a number of months.
5. Religion: Catholic. He remained a Catholic despite the increasing pressure during the Elizabethan reign.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Zoology; Anatomy; Natural History; Caius was a firm Galenist who believed that Galen had settled medical knowledge once and for all. He collected and published Galenic texts and, in 1544, he published a Galenic treatise, Methodus medendi. He also restored a couple of Hippocratic treatises, and he collated a printed work of Celsus with manuscripts in Italy. His Boke or Counseill Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate, 1552, was a classic study of a single disease. As an anatomical demonstrator, Caius made contributions to the development of anatomy in England. De rariorum animalium atque stirpium historia, 1570, was a description of flora and fauna around London. De canibus britannicis, 1570.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Scientific Organization; Academic; In 1533, Principal of Physwick's Hostel, an annex of Gonville Hall. Also in 1533, Fellow of Gonville Hall; he continued to hold the fellowship until his return from Italy. 1541-2, Professor of Logic and Philosophy (in Greek) at Padua. Caius remained on the continent, first in Italy and then in Basel, until at least 1544. Appointed anatomical demonstrator to the Company of Barber Surgeons, 1546-63. (The beginning date is in question; possibly it was 48 or 49.); Medical practice in London from c. 1548, gaining considerable wealth. In his practice he was frequently called out of London by the aristocracy and gentry. Appointed physician succesively to Edward VI, Mary and Elizabath. Caius was Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University, 1559-73. The college itself was Caius' benefaction; he accepted no salary.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Ecclesiastic Official; Medical Practioner; Caius began to lecture on anatomy in London in 1546 on the express command of Henry VIII. He dedicated Galeni libri aliquot Graeci, 1544, to Henry. He dedicated Galeni de tuenda valetudine libri sex, 1549, to Edward VI. He was physician succesively to Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Elizabeth by royal commands. The appointment with Elizabeth was terminated in 1568 because of Caius' Catholicism. (Source on patronage: C.D. O'Malley, English Medical Humanists, pp. 26-46, R489 .C3O5); Caius dedicated A Boke Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate, 1552, to the Earl of Pembroke. He dedicated the Latin edition, 1556, to the Bishop of Arras. He dedicated Galenus de propriis libris, 1556, to the Bishop of Chichester. Caius was called to attend the aristocracy and gentry in the neighborhood of London-e.g., the Countess of Oxford and a son of Sir John Baker of Kent in 1557. He dedicated his first book, Methodus medendi, 1544, when he was returning to England to set up practice, to Dr. Butts, physicians to Henry VIII
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: friendship with Gesner, Framingham, Parkhust, Claymound, Bullock. The College of Physicians of London, 1547-73; Elect, 1550; Consilarius, 1550-1; President, 1555-60, 1562-63, 1571. Caius made a major effort to extend the College's control over medical practice throughout England.

SOURCES:
C. D. O'Malley, English Medical Humanists, (Lawrence, Kan., 1965), pp. 26-46. C. Raven, English Naturalists from Neckam to Ray, (Cambridge, 1947), pp. 138-40, 148. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 37-49. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 3, 673-7. John Venn, 'John Caius,' in E.S. Roberts, ed. The Works of John Caius, M.D., (Cambridge, 1912), pp. 1-78. John Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1897-1901), 1, 27; 3, 30-63. John Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from the Revival of Literature to the Time of Harvey, (London, 1780), pp. 103-36.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: John L. Stender, 'Master Doctor Caius,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 8 (1940), 133-8. Paul Wohlfarth, 'Dr. Caius, a French Physician,' Sudhoff'sArchiv, 40 (1956), 97-105.


Campani, Giuseppe



1. Dates: Born: Castel San Felice (near Spoleto), 1635; Died: Rome, 28 July 1715; Datecode: Lifespan: 80;
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; The only information is that Campani came from a peasant family. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Non; Campani had no university education. He followed his two brothers to Rome, where one was a cleric and the other a clockmaker. He learned clockmaking from his brother, essentially as an apprentice it would appear. He was friendly with the Jesuit Daniello Bartoli, and there is one report that he studied optics at the Collegio Romano. However, it is clear that he was never enrolled as a student there.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed, from ample evidence).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instruments; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Campani is known primarily for his optical instruments, primarily telescopes (for which he made the best composite eyepieces available and also lenses of longer focal length than any other optician), but also for microscopes. According to Bedini he was also a pioneer in the development of the pendulum clock. Campani, who was more than an illiterate artisan, also made some significant observations with his own instruments.
7. Means of Support: Instruments; Campani made outstanding instruments. A night clock that the two (or maybe even three) brothers made for Pope Alexander VII brought him into prominence in 1656. In 1663-4, he invented or developed a compound eyepiece that established him as the outstanding optician of the day. Later he was able to grind lenses of longer focal length than any other artisan of the age. He also made microscopes. There were claims that he also developed a lens grinding machine that could grind and polish lenses without the use of molds. Van Helden is convinced that such a machine never existed.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Sci; The silent night clock, presented to Pope Alexander VII established his reputation. The Pope and his nephew, Card. Flavio Chigi, remained some of his most important patrons. His lenses and telescopes won the patronage of Ferdinand II of Tuscany and Prince Leopoldo. In a relation that remains unclear to me, Card. Antonio Barberini seems to have acted as sort of Campani's PR agent in Paris. Card. Barberini had the first Campani telescope sent out of Italy, and he showed it around in Paris to win favor for Campani. Early on, Cassini became convinced that Campani's telescopes were better than Divini's. All of Cassini's discoveries were made with Campani telescopes. Because of Cassini, Campani's telescopes equipped the Royal Observatory in Paris. Bedini also lists the Kings of Poland, Spain, and France, and the Landgrave of Hesse as Campani's patrons.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; See above. Campani ground lenses of up to about 150 feet in focal length. And he designed mountings to hold them, so that they could be used.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
S.A. Bedini, 'The Optical Workshop Equipment of Giuseppe Campani,' Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 16, (1961), 18-38. Maria Luisa Righini Bonelli and Albert Van Helden, Divini and Campani, Supplement to Annali dell'Istituto e Museo de Storia della Scienza, 1981. Incredibly, Campani does not appear in Dizionario biografico degli italiani.

Not Available and Not Consulted:  S.A. Bedini, 'Die Todesuhr,' Uhrmaker und Goldschmied, no. 12 (1956).


Campanella, Tommaso



1. Dates: Born: Stila (Calabria), 5 Sep. 1568; Died: Paris, 21 May 1639; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Geronimo Campanella, a cobbler. He was very poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italy; French; Death: French
4. Education: Religious Orders; Campanella became a Dominican in 1583 (after a year's novitiate), partly because that was the only avenue by which an impoverished young man could obtain an education. He was sent to the monastery of the Annunciation in San Giorgio Morgeto, where he studied philosophy for three years, and then in 1586 to the monastery of the Annunication in Nicastro where he studied for two more years. After his early philosophical studies, based on Aristotle, Campanella moved to the Dominican house at Cosenza in 1588 to study theology. In Cosenza he discovered the philosophy of Telesio. By 1598 he had completed a general work in Telesio's defense. Campanella certainly had the equivalent of a B.A., although his education was entirely within the institutions of the Dominican order and was not in universities as such. However, Cosenza is called the Studio generale of the Dominicans in Calabria.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; In May 1592 (or perhaps 91) he was denounced to the Inquisition for heresy and was confined to the Convent of San Domenico (in Venice). Thus began a long series of imprisonments, trials, tortures, and other punishment that ended only with his release in 1629. In 1634 the Inquisition discovered yet another plot in Naples by one of Campanella's followers and Campanella was implicated. He fled Rome before he could be arrested. Perhaps it is wrong to list him as heterodox. Campanella always considered himself a Catholic. Nevertheless, he was in trouble with the Inquisition through virtually his entire life.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Occult Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Astrology. Campanella's writings encompass a very broad range of scientific topics, and he was one of the important systematizers of the 17th century. His importance in the history of science was through his animistic, yet empirical, interpretation of the world, which influenced a number of contemporaries and successors. His published works include De sensu rerum et magia (1620), Astrologicorum libri VII (1629), and Civitas solis, which perhaps his best known work. He was a defender of Galileo.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He entered the Dominican order in 1582. In 89 or 90 he left the monastery in Cosenza for Naples and later Florence and Padua. In Padua he lived from the lessons he gave. He was in prison almost continuously from 1592 to 1629, first with the Inquisition, then with the Spanish authorities in Naples, and from 1626 to 29 with the Inquisition in Rome. I do not know how to categorize the long imprisonment, and on the whole I am simply ignoring it since there is no other similar case. (Alas, Bruno.) In Naples he frequently complained of the low amount allotted for his sustenance. In 1627 the Inquisition allowed him a stipend of 120 scudi to support him in its prison. When he was freed in 1629, the stipend was increased to 180 scudi. In Rome, 1529-1534. After he fled Rome, he stayed in Aix-en-Provence, where he was received by Peiresc and Gassedi, for a few months. He arrived Paris in 1635, and stayed in France for the rest of his life. In France Campanella was given a pension, which however, was not always paid.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Government Official; Sci; In Calabria, Campanella met the del Tufo family, the local feudal lords. In Naples he lived with Mario del Tufo, clearly as his client. To him Campanella dedicated Philosophia sensibus demonstrata (composed in 1591). Later he dedicated another composition to del Tufo. When he fled Naples, Campanella went to Florence where he dedicated a composition to the Grand Duke. He received a gift of money but not the university position for which he hoped. However, the influence of the Grand Duke apparently won Campanella's release in 1592 from his first imprisonment. In 1595 Campanella, who had been concerned almost entirely with natural philosophy, began to write on the authority of the Church and on the role of the Spanish monarchy. Blanchet suggests that he owed his temporary liberation in 1595, despite the very serious charges against him before the Inquisition, to Lelio Orsini, who was influential in Rome, to the Emperor Rudolf, and to Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria. As Blanchet says, once the possibility of an academic appointment in Tuscany was closed to him, Campanella had to turn to other potential patrons and to compose works that would appeal to them. The political conspiracy in Calabria in 1599, which landed him in jail for the next thirty years, had the patronage of the Marquis of Arena, Scipione Concublet. While he was in prison, Campanella addressed his plans for the reformation of Church and society to the likes of the Pope, various Cardinals, the King of Spain, the Archduke of Styria, and Maximilian of Bavaria, dedicating the compositions to them of course. In many ways these futile appeals are the most revealing; Campanella did have a clear perception of the organization of power in society, and however wild his schemes, and however unlikely the status quo was to institute them, he addressed them to those in charge. Thus in 1618 he proposed to Pope Paul V the publication of a two volume collection of Christian apologetics, to be dedicated to Paul of course. In 1616 Pedro Giron, Duke d'Osuna, became the viceroy of Naples. He was fascinated with Campanella from the beginning. Soon after he arrived in the realm, he arranged an interview with Campanella, and soon he eased considerably the rigor of the conditions of imprisonment. Although Osuna temporarily rescinded these measures, Campanella did regain his favor. During the final eight years of imprisonment in Naples, Campanella lived under relatively humane conditions instituted by Osuna. Gaspard Schopp, a Catholic champion in Germany, became convinced of Campanella's importance and did much to aid his cause during the long imprisonment. He got Ferdinand of Styria (later the Emp. Ferdinand II) interested in Campanella's cause, and Ferdinand intervened several times on his behalf. The more lenient circumstances of the imprisonment apparently followed these interventions, which may thus have had a role in Osuna's actions. Obviously the Holy Office had a hand in permitting the more lenient treatment, and Ferdinand's interventions may have helped there. When Campanella was moved to Rome in 1626, he learned of Urban's ill health and of his fear of astrological predictions of his imminent death. Campanella immediately played on this, insisting on his own knowledge of astrology and winning the favor of the Pope. Campanella composed an astrological refutation of Urban's near death, and he even composed a long commentary on Urban's poetry. Urban was clearly responsible for his release in 1629, although he became disillusioned with Campanella soon thereafter. In 1629, after his liberation, Campanella was allowed to publish Quod reminiscentur, which he dedicated to Urban. Recall that he was living at this time on a pension from the Church. In 1631, at the request of Jean de Brassac, the French ambassador to Rome, he composed an exposition of Chapter 9 of Paul's Epistle to the Romans, to expound his view of predestination. In the early 30's the French intellectual Naudé was instrumental in gaining recognition and support for Campanella among the learned and the powerful in France. When Campanella was implicated (apparently unjustly) in a new conspiracy in Naples in 1634, the French ambassador (now Noailles) helped him to escape to France. Peiresc and Gassedi enthusiastically received him when he reached Aix-en-Provence, where he stayed for a few months as Peiresc's guest, in November 1634. When he arrived in Paris in 1635, Cardinal Richeieu came to his aid and helped him in various ways for the rest of his life. He was also received at the court of Louis XIII. He was called in to compose the horoscope of the infant Louis XIV, and he composed a poem in honor of the birth. Campanella dedicated his Philosophia rationalis to the two Noailles brothers. He composed political writings now which abandoned his former support of Spain and the Hapsburgs and favored France. He dedicated a volume to Louis XIII, the second edition of De sensu rerum to Richelieu (who gave him a gift of one hundred coins), a new edition of Philosophia realis to Pierre Seguier, the Chancellor of France, the Metaphysics (1638) to Claude Bullion de Bonolles, the minister of finance. It appears, however, that although Campanella gained enough to live, he did not exactly thrive in Paris, where he lived out the rest of his life.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: In 1589 Campanella went to Naples, where he met Giambattista della Porta and a Jewish astrologer named Abraham. He became active in della Porta's group, participating in its protoexperimentalism. Through Abraham he became acquainted with the astrological and pseudo-scientific traditions, which were important factors in his later thought. I have indicated something of his correspondence above, which was not primarily with other members of the scientific community. However, he did correspond with Galileo, as is well known.

SOURCES:
L.Firpo's article in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, XVII (1974), pp.372-401. L.Firpo, Ricerche campanelliane, (Florence, 1947). G. Spini, Ricerca dei libertini, (Rome, 1950). Leon Blanchet, Campanella, (Paris, 1920).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: L.Amabile, Fra Tommaso Campanella, la sua congiuria, i suoi processi e la sua pazzia, 3vols., Naples, 1882. (2vols, Naples,1887. B785 .C24A47) This is clearly the most detailed account of Campanella. It was clear that Firpos's outstanding account in the DBI and Blanchet's drew directly on Amabile, so that I did not try to digest such a lengthy work.
Italo Palmieri, Tommaso Campenella: Note sulla vita e l'opera, (Lamezia Terme: Gigliotti, 1986).


Camerarius (Camerer), Rudolf Jakob



1. Dates: Born: Tübingen, Germany, 12 February 1665; Died: Tübingen, Germany, 11 Sep 1721
2. Father: a professor of medicine; I assume that all such are at least prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Tübingen; M.A., M.D. Tübingen university: studied philosophy and medicine. BA 1679, MA 1682, (Studienreise 1685-7), MD 1687.
5. Scientific Disciplines: botany; Subordinate Disciplines: medicine
6. Religion: Lutheran (assumed)
7. Means of Support: Academic position; 1688, appointed extraordinary professor of medicine and director of botanical garden at Tübingen. 1689-95, Professor of physik. 1695, father died, C. succeeded him as full professor and first professor of the University; when he died in 1721, his son succeeded him.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; The family succession in the university is inconceivable without the patronage of the ruling family of Wurtemberg. As I find further, it was a literal academic dynasty-every generation and every in-law.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: corresponded with Michael Bernhard Valentini, a professor at Giessen.

SOURCES:
K. Mägdefrau, Geschichte der Botanik, (Stuttgart, 1973), pp. 108 -11. J. Mayerhöfer, Lexikon der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, 1, (Vienna, 1958), 595. - nothing new; J. Sachs, Geschichte der Botanik, (Munich, 1875), pp. 416-21. - primarily about his science. Neue Deutsche Biographie.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon ..., 1, (1929), 808-809, and supp. (1935) 155. World Who's Who in Science, Chicago, 1968, p. 291. Alexander Camerarius, 'Memoria Camerariana comprehendens programma funebre B. Rud. Jac. Camerarii,' in Acta physico-medica exhibentia ephemerides, 1, (1727), pp. 165-83. L. W. O. Camerer and J. F. W. Camerer, Geschichte der Tübinger Familie Camerer 1503 - 1903, (Tübingen, 1903).


Canano [Canani, Cannano], Giovanni Battista



1. Dates: Born: Ferrara, 1515; Died: Ferrara, 29 January 1579; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Lawyer; His father, Ludovico Canano, was a notary. His grandfather was lecturer in medicine at Ferrara and physician at court. The family came to Italy from Greece in the 15th century. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy, France; Death: Italy
4. Education: Fer; MD, Ph.D. Canano matriculated at the University of Ferrara in 1534, and graduated (i.e., a doctorate) in philosophy and medicine in 1543. While he was at the university, Canano, together with his cousin Anton Maria Canano, held an anatomical academy in their home which was attended by the leading physicians of the city and even by the Duke.
5. Religion: Catholic. His brother was a Cardinal.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Surgery; His only published work was Musculorum humani corporis picturata dissectio, c. 1543, a small book but of outstanding importance for its originality. Based exclusively on direct observation of structures of the human body and of living animals, the Picturata dissectio contained the first anatomical drawings of the lumbricales and of the interossei of the hand, and the first description and drawing of the short palmar muscle and of the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, which Vesalius did not observe and which was unknown to Galen. Another important contribution by Canano was the observation of the valves of the deep veins, and the assertion that they serve to prevent the reflux of the blood. His book on muscles was intended as the first volume of a major work on the whole of anatomy, but Vesalius' De fabrica forestalled him
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Medical Practioner; Lecturer in practical medicine and in surgery at the University of Ferrara, 1543-1552. Ducceschi says that the appointment began in 1541. He was also medical attendant on the Este family. Physician to Francesco d'Este in France, 1544. Physician to Pope Julius III, 1552-1555. The Pope loaded him with the fruits of ecclesiastical benefices. Chief physician of the Este principality, 1555-1579, that is, physician to the Este and protomedico of the state. He was also professor of anatomy at the university. He was held in sufficient regard that in 1576 he was exempted from all taxes.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; The Este. See above. Pope Juluis III. See above. He dedicated his Picturata dissectio to Bartolomeo Nigrisoli, a Ferrarese patrician and professor at the university.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Int. He invented instruments for certain surgeries
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); He received several visits from Andreas Vesalius in his home in 1540, and when he met Vesalius again in 1544 he told him about his observation of the valves of deep veins. He was Prior of the Medical College of Ferrara.

SOURCES:
V.Ducceschi, 'Giambattista Canano', in Gli scienziati italiani, 1, pt. 2 (1923), pp. 285-292. G. Muratori, 'Canano, Giovanni Battista,' Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 2, 43-5. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 247, 392, 395, 399-402, and 416. Prosper Mandosius, Theatrum in quo maximorum christiani orbis pontificum archiatros spectandos exhibit, a separately paginated inclusion at the end of vol. 2 of Marini, (Roma, 1784), pp. 72-5.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Muratori and D. Bighi, 'A. Vesalio, G.B. Canano e la rivoluzione rinascimentale dell'anatomia e della medicina' in Acta medicae historiae patavina, 10 (1964), pp.51-95. G. Muratori and A. Franceschini, 'Nuovi documenti riguardanti l'attivita dell'anatomico ferrarese G.B. Canano', in Atti e memorie Deputazione provinciale ferrarese di storia patria, 3, (1966), pp.89-132. Note that Muratori wrote the article on Canano, which postdates both of these articles, in DBI.


Capra, Baldassar



1. Dates: Born: Italy, 1580; Died: Italy, 1626; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 46
2. Father: an aristocrat; He was the son of Count Marco Aurelio Capra (whose financial situation was anything but solid). A member of a noble family (a count according to Poggendorff), which included Galeazzo Capra, secretary and historian to Duke Francesco II, last Sforza of Milan. Clearly stated that he was rather poor
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D. Studied under Simon Mayr (Marius) at Padua, received his degree in medicine. I assume B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Astrology
7. Means of Support: Medical practice; A practicing doctor (Poggendorff Biographische Woerterbuch zur Geschichte der Exacten Wissenschaften, p. 374 [ref. Z7404.P72 v.1].)
8. Patronage: None Known; Anti-Patronage? At the end of 1620, when he asked to register at the medical college in Milan, he was energeticly opposed by Lodovico Settala because of his behavior against Galileo.
9. Technological Connections: Practiced Medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: None known.

SOURCES:
G. Gliozzi, 'Capra,' Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 19 (Rome, 1976), 106-108. Note: Further sources are listed in the D.S.B., but Gliozzi appears to be best and most accessable.


Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan



1. Dates: Born: Spain, 23 May 1606; Died: Italy, 7 September 1682. Datecode: Lifespan: 76
2. Father: an engineer; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Belgium was where most of his scientific work was done; he went on to Austria, and for his last thirty years to Italy. Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Alcala; University of Salamanca; Lou, D.D. Studied at Univs of Alcala and Salamanca. B.A. at Alcala; D.D. Louvain 1638
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics, Natural Philosophy
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Patronage; Taught at Louvain until he left the Low countries; Planned the defenses of Louvain against Prince of Orange in 35; also wrote on military engineering. This won attention of the Hapsburgs both in Low Countries and in Prague. Dedicated books to Cardinal-Infante who governed Low Countries; became court preacher; Also won favor and assitance of Marie de' Medici, then in exile in Low Countries. Published books defending rights of King of Spain to rule Portugal. Won favor of Papal Nuncio, Card. Chigi (who later became Alexander VII). In 45, disappointed at failures to gain sufficient position in Low Countries, to Prague. Wholly in service of Ferdinand III; got several ecclesiastical appointments. He quickly became prominent in the imperial court. Further aided by heroic actions at seige of Prague. In 55, when old patron Chigi became Pope, to Rome. In Italy he obtained successively two minor bishoprics. The second of the bishoprics, Vigevano near Milan, he owed to the intervention of the Hapsburgs.
8. Patronage: Court, Ecclesiastical officials; Caramuel would be a great study for patronage. He was pursuing it all his life but never quite getting all he wanted. He won the favor of the Hapsburgs and of Chigi, but clearly Chigi also though that he was a bit crazy, as indeed he was. Pastine has quite a bit of detail and references to sources one could pursue.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineering, Navigation. In regard to latter, developed a system to determine longitude via lunar position.
10. Scientific Societies: In; Attended Accademia degli Investiganti, dedicated to the study of physical nature through experimentation, in Naples while Bishop of Campania

SOURCES:
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedadespanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). Dino Pastine, Juan Caramuel, (Firenze, 1975). David F. Dieguez, 'Juan Caramuel,' Revista mathematica hispano-americano, 1 (1919), 121-7, 178-89, 203-12.


Carcavi [Carcavy], Pierre de



1. Dates: Born: Lyon, c. 1600 (Index says c. 1603); Died: Paris, April 1684; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 84
2. Father: Merchant; His father was a banker. Carcavi had enough wealth to purchase an office of counsellor in the Grand Conseil in Paris in 1636. Later he had to sell it to pay his father's debts, but I do not see how to doubt that he grew up in circumstances at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French
4. Education: Non
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Personal Means; Patronage; Counsellor of the Parlement of Toulouse, 1632-1636. Member of the Grand Conseil at Paris, 1636-1648. (He bought the office in 1636, and was forced to sell it in order to pay his father's debts in 1648.); Served the Duke of Liancourt, 1648-1663. Classified Colbert's library, 1663. Custodian of the Royal Library, 1663-1683. Member of the Académie from 1666 until death.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Duke of Liancourt. He was in the service of the Duke for 15 years (1648-1663). Colbert in 1663 charged him with the classification of his library and made him custodian of the Royal library. Amable de Bourzeis, a protegé of the Duke of Liancourt, presented him to Colbert.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; In 1668, Colbert charged Carcavi, along with Huygens, Roberval, Auzout, Picard, and Gallois, to judge the feasibility of the method to determine longitude submitted to the Academy by a German noble.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1684. He had many friends, including Huygens, Fermat, and Pascal, and carried on an extensive correspondence. He was probably the first to recognize Fermat's extraordinary scientific abilities. His friendship with Fermat began from 1632 when both were members of the Parlement of Toulouse. After Carcavi went to Paris, Fermat sent him many treatises. In 1650, Fermat sent Carcavi a treatise entitled Novus secundarum et ulterioris radicum in analyticis usus, which contained the first known method of elimination, and asked Pascal and Carcavi to publish his paper. Carcavi tried very hard, through Huygens, to publish this paper and his collection of Fermat's papers, but failed. After the death of Mersenne in 1648, Carcavi offered Mersenne's correspondence to Descartes. In 1649 he informed Descartes of the publication of Pascal's barometer experiments and also of Roberval's objections to his Geometrie. He was also a friend of Pascal, who gave him his calculating machine. When in 1658 Pascal sent all mathematicians a challenge, he lodged the prizes and his own solutions with Carcavi, who, with Roberval, was to act as a judge.

SOURCES:
Charles Henry, 'Pierre de Carcavy, intermediaire de Fermat, de Pascal, et de Huygens,' Bollettino di Bibliografia e storia delle scienze mathematiche e fisiche, 17 (1884), 317-391. Index biografique (Académie des sciences), p. 172. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 7, 1114-15. P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.

Not Consulted: Carcavi's letters can be found in the collections of the correspondence of Galileo, Mersenne, Torricelli, Descartes, Fermat, Pascal, and Huygens.


Cardano, Girolamo



1. Dates: Born: Pavia, 24 September 1501; Died: Rome, 21 September 1576; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Law; His father was a jurist of considerable learning, a friend of Leonardo da Vinci. He is said to have been of noble descent, but I gathered that the line was so attentuated as hardly to exist. Cardano was born out of wedlock, and the father, who did eventually marry the mother, did not live with the family until Cardano was seven. While not poor, the family hardly seems to have been wealthy-more affluent than poor, however.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Pavia; M.D. University of Padua; Cardano began his university studies in 1518 at Pavia and completed his B.A. at Padua. He returned to Pavia for the M.D. in 1526.
5. Religion: Catholic. In 1570 he was imprisoned for a few months by the Inquisition. He was accused of heresy, Particularly for having cast the horoscope of Christ and having attrbuted the events of His life to the influence of the stars. He was sentenced to abjuration and agreed to give up teaching.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Medicine; Occult Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology; Physics; . Cardano wrote more than 200 works on medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music. His fame rested on his contributions to mathematics. His major work in mathematics was the Ars magna, in which many new ideas in algebra were systematically presented. Among them are Cardano's rule and the linear transformations that eliminate the second degree terms in a complete cubic equation. De subtilitate, 1550, created a big stir. De astrorum iudiciis, 1554, contained a horoscope of Christ. His chief claim to fame in mechanics was his affirmation of the impossibility of perpetual motion, except in heavenly bodies. In his Opus novum de proportionibus, Cardano tried to apply quantitative methods to the study of physics. He also made important contributions to hydrodynamics.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Already in 1521-2 he was substituting for professors in Pavia, in geometry, philosophy, and medicine. His father died in 1524, leaving him a house and some inheritance. Practiced medicine in Saccolongo, a small town near Padua, 1526-1532. He was aided in these years by Francesco Buonafede, a physician. According to Bellini, he went to Milan in 1532, and early in 1534 to Gallarate, a nearby village, to practice medicine, but he did poorly. He was rebuffed by the College of Medicine in Milan because of his illegitimate birth. Capparoni has a slightly different account of the early years. Unable to establish himself in Milan, Cardano lived poorly in Pieve del Sacco and Gallarate practicing medicine until 1534, then to Milan to teach mathematics. He also taught medicine in Milan. In 1535 he became physician to the Augustine Friars. Teacher of mathematics in the Piattine schools of Milan, 1534-36, and practiced medicine. Once he was able to practice, Cardano apparently quickly won reputation. The cure of a Borromeo helped greatly. 1537, physician to Senator Sfrondati, treating among others the future Pope, Sfrondati's son. In the period 1540-42 he was winning a gold piece every day in gambling with Antonio Vimercati, a Milanese patrician. Professor of medicine at Pavia, 1543-51 and 1559-60. His salary was 240 gold crowns initially, and was raised to 400 in 1547. In Milan during the 1550's, when he was famous from his publications, Cardano gave private lessons in medicine. Professor of medicine at the University of Bologna, 1562-70 with a salary of 800 scudi. In Bologna, all of the 'best' citizens were his patients, and he was called for consultations by such people as Cardinal Morone in Modena and the Gonzagas in Mantua. Received a lifetime annuity from Pope Gregory XIII in 1573 after Pius V refused. Cardano, who had left both Pavia and Bologna under heavy clouds, stayed in Rome for the rest of his life. It appears that he was still practicing medicine some in these final years.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Senator Filippo Archinto, who I gather was a friend of Cardano's father, obtained the appointment for him as a teacher of mathematics in the Piattine school, and perhaps also the appointment as physician to the Augustin Friars. Cardano dedicated a work on medicine to him. Cardano effected a cure of a member of the Borromeo family and won their protection. Likewise for a son (the future Pope) of Senator Sfrondati. Senator Sfrondati and other friends forced his entrance into the Milanese College of Physicians. Cardinal Borromeo helped Cardano to get the chair in Bologna. Before this, already about 1536, Cardano was offered a chance to enter the service of Pope Paul III. In the late 30's, Cardano won the favor of the Marquis D'Avalos, an important figure in Milan. I think he may have been the governor of Milan. About 1536 Cardano had the chance to enter the service of Charles de Cossé, the lieutenant (in northern Italy, during the wars) of the King of France. About 1550 another offer from the Pope and one from the King of Denmark, both of which Cardano refused. The King of Denmark offered him 800 crowns annually plus living expenses for himself and five servants and forage for three horses. Cardano refused because of the cold northern climate and because Denmark was not Catholic. In 1552, he did accept the offer of the Archbishop of Edinburgh, John Hamilton, who suffered from asthma. He journeyed to Edinburgh, where he stayed for two and a half months and did effect a cure. Beyond expenses for the trip, Cardano received 400 gold crowns. a necklace worth 120 crowns, and many gifts. All along the voyage to and from Scotland, Cardano was greeted by the learned, who knew his reputation from his books. There were offers from the King of France, from Charles V, and from the Queen of Scotland. The Duke of Mantua (Gonzaga) offered him a stipend of 3000 crowns. Note that Cardano's mathematical work, Practica arithmetice, 1539, had won him a reputation throughout Europe, and this undoubtedly influenced the various offers above. Luidi Birago, a Milanese soldier in French service, wanted Cardano to enter the service of the French Viceroi (in northern Italy), Charles de Cossé, not as a physician, but as a military engineer-all because of Cardano's publications in mathematics. When things began to go sour in Bologna, Cardinals Morone, Cesi, Mandruzzo, and Amulio were Cardano's protectors. They urged him to give up the professorhip, to leave Bologna, and to place himself under the protection of the Papacy, which Cardano did in 1571. Pius V would have none of him; he had just been found guilty by the Inquisition. However, Gregory XIII, a general patron of learning (see Bellini, p. 271), soon succeeded Pius, and at the beginning of 1573 he gave Cardano a pension sufficient to maintain him. Recall that Gregory is also the one who insisted that Borro be freed from the dungeons of the Inquisition despite his obvious heterodoxy. Cardono dedicated his Practica arithmetice (1539) to the Prior of Sant-Ambrogio, Francesco Gaddi.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Int. I hardly know how to classify the Cardano suspension. It is the set of three concentric rings, able to rotate in three perpendicular planes, that one sees supporting globes (what we call gimbels).
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); The medical colleges of both Milan and Rome.

SOURCES:
Angelo Bellini, Girolamo Cardano e il suo tempo, (Milan, 1947). Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 2, 39-42. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 145-6.

Not Consulted: Henry Morley, The Life of Girolamo Cardano of Milan, Physician, 2 vols. (London, 1854). O. Ore, Cardano, the Gambling Scholar, (Princeton, 1953).


Casal Julian, Gaspar R. F. N.



1. Dates: Born: 31 December 1680; Died: 10 August 1759; Datecode: Lifespan: 79
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: Sig; Somewhat late (1713) he earned a B.A. from the University of Siguenza. There is no record of his study of medicine at a university. Lopez Pineiro says that he did earn an M.D. Canella appears to think he had to have one for the positions he held, but has no evidence. Otherwise authorities seem agreed that he learned medicine by apprenticeship to an apothecary.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Casal Julian wrote a natural and medical history of Asturias, a major work.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice; Secondary Means of Support: Governmental position, Patronage; After his B.A., Casal Julian practiced successfully in Madrid until 1717, including members of the court in his practice. He left for Oviedo, Asturias, in 1717 because Madrid did not agree with him. In Oviedo he built a great reputation. In 1720, the Duke of Parque secured his appointment as the city's physician. Later he was physician to local hospitals. Returned to Madrid in 1752 as physician to the Chamber of Ferdinand VI (i.e, physician to the court). He received a salary of 60,000 reals. He was appointed Protomedico of Castile. (I gather from Canella that there was a board of three Protomedicos who licensed physicians in the province.)
8. Patronage: Court and Aristocracy
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Member of the Royal Academy of Medicine

SOURCES:
Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Ralph Major, 'Don Gaspar Casal . . .,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 16 (1944), 351-61. Fermia Canella, biographical introduction to Casal Julian, Historia natural y medica del principada de Asturias, (Ovieda, 1900-republished in 1959). By all accounts, this is the leading authority on Casal Julian. Note after reading Canella: well over half of it is devoted to speculations about his medical degree. It is not really much.


Casseri [Casserio], Giulio



1. Dates: Born: Piacenza, ca. 1552; Died: Padua, 8 March 1616; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Unknown; Luca Casseri, humble and quite poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D., Ph.D. Enrolled in the Facolta Artista and received his doctorate in medicine and philosophy at Padua in 1580. He studied with Fabrizio and Mercuriale. He probably went to Padua as the servant of a wealthy student. In Padua he became the servant of Fabrizio, whom he assisted in dissections.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology; Embryology; His achievemens are collected in three anatomical works: De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica (Ferrara, 1600-1601), Pentaestheseion, hoc est de quinque sensibus liber (Venice, 1609), and Tabulae anatomicae LXXIIX, omnes nec ante hac visae (Venice,1627). He left important illustrations of the formation of the foetus.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Academic; Medical prectice in Padua, 1580-1616, from which he amassed a fortune. Public lecturer in surgery, 1609-1616; Lecturer in anatomy, 1614-1616; Early, after his degree, Casseri gave private lessons, with dissections, in Padua, until 1586. As Fabrizio began to decline with age and suspended his lectures in 95, the students urged Casseri to replace him, which he did (privately) with enough success that Fabrizio resumed lectures. I gather that from about this time Fabrizio's envy of Casseri mounted and changed into hostility. The students wanted Casseri and privately supplied him with cadavers for dissection. Fabrizio continued to get legal prohibitions of the private dissections, and when he finally could lecture no more he blocked Casseri's appointment to replace him. Capparoni says that in 1604 the Riformatori officially approved Casseri as a substitute for Fabrizio when he was unable to lecture. Finally in 1609 the Riformatori separated surgery from anatomy, reserved anatomy to Fabrizio, and appointed Casseri to the chair in surgery. Eventually he did succeed Fabrizio, even though Fabrizio was still alive. The rivalry blocked the publication of Casseri's Tabulae during his life (Fabrizio outliving him).
8. Patronage: Scientist, City Magistrate; Court Patronage; He served Girolamo Fabrizio, public lecturer in anatomy and surgery at the University of Padua, from 1565, in performing dissections. At that time Fabrizio encouraged Casseri's talent. As Casseri became an indepedent and rival authority, the two fell into conflict. Venice made Casseri a knight of San Marco. Casseri refused offers to leave Padua for Turin and Parma. However, he did dedicate De vocis to the Duke of Parma. I assume that this is what lead to the offer.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
P.Capparoni, 'Giulio Casseri', in Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani del secolo XV al secolo XVIII, II, (Rome, 1928), pp. 61-3. G. Poggiali, Memorie per la storia letterata di Piacenza, (Piacenza, 1789), 2, 91-102. G. Sterzi, Giulio Casseri, anatomico e chirurgo, (Venezia, 1909).

Not Available and Not Consulted: D.Bertelli, 'Giulio Casseri da servo a professore universitario', in Settimo centenario della Universita di Padova, Padua, 1922, pp.9-10. A. Portal, Histoire de l'anatomie et de la chirurgie, (Paris, 1770), 2, 229-36.


Cassegrain



1. Dates: fl. 1672; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Un; Career: France; Death: Un
4. Education: Non
5. Religion: Unknown;
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics, Optics; Cassegrain's appearance on the scientific scene was occasioned by a memoir on the megaphone published in February 1672. Having his own thoughts on the subject, he submitted them to the Paris Academy of Sciences. His fame rested on his design of a reflecting telescope.
7. Means of Support: Unknown; One tradition credits him with a professorship of physics at the College de Chartres; another identifies him with a man who served Louis XIV as a sculptor and founder.
8. Patronage: None Known;
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He conceived the arrangement of telescope mirrors that bears his name. The real virtue of his design-partial concellation of the spherical aberration introduced by the two mirrors-was established by Ramsden a century later.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
'N. Cassegrain' in Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie generale, (Paris, 1855). 'Guillaume Cassegrain' in La grande encyclopedie, 9, 696. Essentially nothing is known about Cassegrain, not even (with assurance) his first name.


Cassini, Gian Domenico [Cassini I]



1. Dates: Born: Italy, 1625; Died: France, 1712; Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy, France; Death: France
4. Education: None Known; Studied at Vallebone, then at Jesuit college in Genoa and at abbey of San Fructuoso. Later tutored by Jesuits Giovan Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi. I gather there was no university and no B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: optics, hydraulics, cartography
7. Means of Support: Academic, governmental position, personal (see his marriage listed under patronage). Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; 1648-69, observed at Panzano Observatory. 1650, Professor of Astronomy at Bologna. 1669-, supported by Académie des Sciences at the Paris Observatory.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Court, Ecclesiastical; The Marquis Cornelio Malvasia, senator of Bologna, an amateur astronomer who calcualted ephemerides for astrological purposes, invited Cassini to work at his observatory at Panzano, because of the latter's great knowledge of, though not belief in, astrology. 1650, the senate of Bologna, at Malvasia's instigation, designated Cassini to chair at Bologna. Dedicated his work on the comet of 1652-3 to the Duke of Modena. Dedicated his Specimen observationum Bononiensium... (1656) to Queen Christina of Sweden, then in exile in Italy. Later he dedicated another book, on the comet of 1664-5, to her also. Turned down request of Pope to take holy orders, see 8. But he had other favors from the Pope. 1667, Colbert offered Cassini membership as regular correspondent of the Academie Royale des Sciences. 1668, Colbert suggested to Cassini that he come to Paris for a limited period to set up the Paris Observatory. He offered, and Cassini accepted, 9000 livres salary, free lodging, and 1000 ecus travel allowance. The senate of Bologna and the Pope authorized the trip, and continued their salaries, presumably only for the year he was supposed to be away. He never returned, became a French citzen in 1673. Married Genevieve de Laistre, daughter of the lieutenant general of the compte of Clermont, whose valuable dowry of landholdings included the chateau de Thury in the Oise.
9. Technological Connections: Hydaulics, Civil engineering, Military engineering, cartography; An official expert during the negotiations between Bologna and Ferrara on the flooding of the Po. He composed several memoires on the flooding and how to avoid it. 1663, named by the pope as superintendent of the fortifications 'du fort d'Urbain.'; 1663, defended views of the papal authorities before the Grand Duke of Tuscany in the controversy regarding the regularization of the Chiana river. 1665, returned for the same purpose with the title of Superintendent of the waters of the ecclesiastical states. While in Rome he reinforced a bridge across the Tiber. Deeply involved in French mapping endeavors.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Member of the Académie des Sciences, participated in certain meetings of the Accademia del Cimento.

SOURCES:
A. De Ferrari, 'Cassini, Giovan Domenico,' Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 21 (Rome, 1978), 484-487. [ref. CT1123.D62 v.21]; B. Fontenelle, 'Eloge de J.D. Cassini' in Histoire de l'Academie royale des Sceinces [see Q141.F579 (1981) 2, 34-77]; F. Arago, Notices biographiques, 3, (Paris, 1855). [Q141.A72 v.3, 315-318]. M. Prevost, 'Cassini (Jean-Dominique),' Dictionnaire de biographie Francaise, 7, (Paris, 1956), cols. 1330-1331.


Cassini, Jacques [Cassini II]



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 18 February 1677; Died: Thury, Oise, 15 April 1756; Datecode: Lifespan: 79
2. Father: Scientist; Cassini was the son of Jean Dominique Cassini and Genevieve de Laistre. His father was a greatly esteemed astronomer, head of the Paris observatory, an academicien, and active in the cartographical projects of France. It is clear that Jean Dominique Cassini became wealthy as the head of the observatory.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: None Known; Began his studies at Family's home in Paris observatory. Entered the College Mazarin. 1691, defended a thesis in optics under Varignon. Fontenelle wrote that Cassini, at the age of fifteen, dedicated a mathematical thesis to the Duc de Bourgogne. Probably his thesis in optics is meant. 1694, admitted as a student to the Académie des Sciences. There is no record of any university or standard academic degree.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Cartography. Subordinate Disciplines: Electricity; Physics; Optics; He travelled with his father through Italy, Flanders, the Netherlands, and England making numerous geodesic measurements as well as several astronomical observations. He presented a new method for the determination of longitudes by means of the eclipses of the stars and planets by the moon. In 1713 he took the position supporting the hypothesis of the elongation of the terrestrial ellipsoid. In his work, De la grandeur et de la figure de la terre (1722), he presented information confirming his hypothesis. In 1733-34 he undertook the determination of the perpendicular to the meridian of Paris from Saint-Malo to Strasbourg in order to defend his views against those of Desaguliers, Maupertuis, and Poleni. In astronomy Cassini's primary interests were the study of planets and their satellites, the observation and theory of comets, and the tides. Cassini fought continually to defend the work of his father and to reconcile the facts of observation with the theory of vortices. The improvements of instruments and the appearance of new methods were not used to their full extent by this timid Copernican and convinced Cartesian. He gave papers to the Academie on electricity, the recoil of firearms, barometers, and burning mirrors.
7. Means of Support: Government Position; 1699, became an associate in the Académie. 1706, named maitre ordinaire of the chambre des comptes, despite only modest legal training. Before 1710, took over from his father as head of Paris Observatory. 1712, suceeded his father as pensionaire of the Académie. Ten years before his death he became pensionnaire veteran at the Académie. 1716, designated magistrate of the cour de justice, he necessarily obtained title of advocat. 1722, awarded title of consieller d'etat.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; The details of patronage which led to distinctions above are not clear, but cannot, it seems, be independant from his father's position in the Académie and the Paris Observatory.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Instruments; Worked with his father (1700-1701) and himself later finished the measurement of the arc of the meridian through Paris. As an astronomer he improved instruments; especially important was a new micrometer. After 1740 he collaborated with his son, Cassini de Thury (Cassini III) on a map of France.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); Berlin Academy; Instit. Bologna; . Member of the Académie (1694-1756)-Associate, 1699; Pensionnaire, 1712. While on his travels with his father he met Newton, Flamsteed, and Halley and became a member of the Royal Society, c. 1698.

SOURCES:
M. Prevost, 'Cassini (Jacques),' Dictionnaire de Biographie Francaise, VII (Paris, 1956), cols. 1329-1330. Bernard de Fontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Cassini,' Histoire et mémoires de l'Académie des Science, 1756, pp. 134-47. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66).
Michaud, Biographie générale. J.B.J. Delambre, Histoire de l'astronomie au dix-huitieme siecle, (Paris, 1827), pp. 250-75. I am astonished at how little literature I can find on this important man.


Castelli, Benedetto



1. Dates: Born: Brescia, 1577 (or possibly 1578); Died: Rome, 9 April 1643; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 66
2. Father: Aristocrat; Annibale Castelli was from an aristocratic family. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; Studied under Galileo in Padua. There is no mention of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic, a Benedictine
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, hydraulics, physics; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics, Mathematics
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1595, entered Benedictine order, took name of `Benedetto'. Before 1604, moved to the monastery of Santa Giustina, Padua. 1607, monastery of Cava dei Tirreni. By 1610, had returned to native city of Brescia. 1611, moved to Florence, where he stayed in the Badia, which I think was a Jesuit monastery. He gave private lessons in Florence. 1613, Professor of Mathematics at Pisa. Confirmed for life, 1624. Resigned, 1626. 1626, Professor of Mathematics at Rome. He also instructed Taddeo Barberini. He continued to hold ecclesiastical positions. In 1632 he became Abbot of a monastery; ultimately he was abbot of four monasteries, none of which he actually governed.
8. Patronage: scientist, court, ecclesiastical official; 1610, upon receiving copy of Siderius Nuncius from Galileo, his former teacher, he requested and was granted transfer to Florence. Galileo was responsible for his appointment at Pisa. 1613, reported to Galileo on an attack on him at the table of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 1613, at Galileo's instigation he was offered a chair at the university, (see 6 above). While in Pisa he tutored the Medici prince Lorenzo. 1615, Galileo entrusted to Castelli his response to his critics in the polemic on floating bodies. Castelli went to Rome to see how the land lay under the new Pope in 1624 (or 25). It was on that occasion that the Pope sent him to investigate the Po valley with Corsini. About 1626, was called by Urban VIII to Rome to assume chair at the university (see 6 g.), to be a consultant on hydraulics, and to tutor Taddeo Barberini. Castelli received a pension of 150 scudi. The Pope ordered the publication of Castelli's book, which was dedicated to Urban and was published by the Papal press. Nevertheless there is good evidence that Castelli found his position in Rome galling and struggled unsuccessfully to leave. See the final pages of Favaro.
9. Technological Connections: hydraulics, instruments; He suggested to Galileo the method of observing sunspots, really a device. He apparently first suggested a device to measure rainfall. 1626, papal consultant on hydraulics. (Presumably having to do with river management.) Indeed Castelli's entire career was devoted primarily to this practical activity.
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: Knew Galileo very well. Taught Borelli, Cavalieri, and Toricelli.

SOURCES:
A. De Ferrari, 'Castelli, Benedetto,' in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 21 (Rome, 1978), 686-690. A. Favaro, 'Amici e corrispondenti di Galileo Galilei, XXI - Benedetto Castelli,' in Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettre, ed arti, 67 pt. 2 (1907-8), 1-130. G. Abetti, Amici e nemici di Galileo, Milano, 1945. Incidentally I found this awful; don't bother with this work further. G. Arrighi, 'Benedetto Castelli: considerazioni e proposte,' in G. Arrighi et al., La scuola galileiana, (Firenze, 1979), pp. 3-11. _____, 'Benedetto Castelli: il primo discepolo,' in Carlo Maccagni, ed., Saggi su Galileo Galilei, (Firenze, 1972), pp. 625-36. Benedetto Castelli, Carteggio, ed. Massimo Bucciantini (Archivio della corrispondenza degli scienziati italiana), (Firenze: Olschki, 1988). There is no biographical sketch in this volume.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G.L. Masetti Zannini, La vita di Benedetto Castelli (Brescia, 1961).


Cataldi, Pietro Antonio



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, 15 April 1552; Died: Bologna, 11 February 1626; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Unknown; The only information is that Paolo Cataldi was a citizen of Bologna. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; Ph.D., M.D. Cataldi began teaching mathematics in 1567 at the age of seventeen. I assume that there had not been any university degree by that time and probably no university study. Note that he insisted on teaching in Italian. When he return to Bologna in 1584, he took doctorates (sic) in both medicine and philosophy that same year. To say the least, this is perplexing. There is no trace of the medical degree either in his publications or in what is known of his life. I assume, as always in such cases, a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Cataldi is particularly remembered for the Trattato del modo brevissimo di trovar la radice quadra delli numeri, published in 1613. This work represents a notable contribution to the development of infinite algorithms-to wit, continued fractions. Cataldi also has a place in the history of the criticism of Euclid's fifth postulate. In his Operetta delle linee rette equidistanti et non equidistanti, he attempted to demonstrate the fifth postulate on the basis of remainders. In all, Cataldi published more than thirty works on mathematics. In his will be left a bequest to establish a school in Bologna, in his house, for the study of mathematics and other sciences. Fantuzzi says that the school was never in fact established. Cataldi was to teach both mathematics and astronomy in Bologna. One of his works (1613) was tables on the rising of the sun and midday for Bologna.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: School Master.
Although both Fantuzzi and DBI have Cataldi starting his career in Perugia from 1569-84, he himself states explicitly that he taught in Florence in the Academy of Design in 1569-70. Taught mathematics at the University of Perugia, also at the Academy of Design in Perugia, 1569-1584. Taught mathematics and astronomy at the Studio di Bologna, 1584-1626.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; City Magistrate; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; He dedicated Practica aritmetica, 1606-17 (in four parts) to the Senate of Bolgna (although one source says that Cataldi had to print it at his own expense). He also dedicated a number of other works to the Senate, in all about half of all those he published. I suspect that a number of the aristocrats mentioned below, to whom he also dedicated books, were members of the Senate. I assume that these dedications could not have been without some relation to his appointment to the university. He dedicated books to Giacomo Boncompagna, Marquis of Vignola (1577), Pierfranceso Malaspina, Marquis of Edificio [this is what Fantuzzi prints] (1604), and to other similar people. He dedicated one book to the city of Lucca. He dedicated one book to Don Antonio Crosino, canon of the Cathedral of Brescia. He dedicated his Transformatione geometrica, 1611, to the Grand Duke Cosimo II.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; The book of 1613, on roots, was (according to its extended title) specifically directed to military operations, to problems of the range of artillery. Operetta di ordinanze quadre, 1618, was explicitly concerned with the application of algebra to military formations, bizarre as this sounds.
10. Scientific Societies: Cataldi tried to organize an academy for mathematics in Bologna, but it ran into political opposition (which I find difficult to imagine) and lapsed almost immediately.

SOURCES:
G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scrittori bolognese, (Bologna, 1781-94), 3, 152-7. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, (Modena, 1870), 1, 302-10. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. E. Bertolotti, 'La scoperta delle frazioni continue', Bollettino della mathesis, 11 (1919), 101-23, 14-29, 152-62, and 157-188. (Something seems to be wrong or missing in the volume and page numbers above, but I cannot tell what it is in the xerox copy available to me. The volume number appears to be right for all of them, and the page numbers are right. There must be issues within the year that start new paginations.)

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'Cataldi, P.A.,' in Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani, 9 (1931), p.403.


Cavalieri, Bonaventura



1. Dates: Born: Milano, c. 1598. Both Favaro and Abetti think he was born earlier. Died: Bologna, 30 November 1647; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Aristocrat; The father, also Bonaventura Cavalieri, was of a noble family that was not rich. No clear information on financial status beyond the fact that they were not rich.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Pisa; He studied theology in the monastery of San Gerolamo in Milan. Here Card. Federico Borromeo noted his intelligence; he wrote to Galileo introducing Cavalieri in 1617. Through Benedetto Castelli, a lecturer in mathematics at Pisa, he was initiated in the study of geometry. He quickly absorbed the classical works in mathematics, demonstrating such exceptional aptitude that he sometimes substituted for his teacher at the University of Pisa. I do not see any mention of any degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. He entered the Jesuate (sic) religious order in 1615.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Optics; Mechanics. He published eleven books beginning in 1632. Cavalieri's theory, as developed in his Geometria and in other works, related to an inquiry into infinitesimals. Cavalieri made a rational systematization of the method of indivisibles. His view of the indivisibles gave mathematicians a deeper conception of sets: it is not necessary that the elements of a set be assigned or assignable; rather it suffices that a precise criterion exist for determining whether or not an element belongs to the set. He developed a general rule for the focal length of lenses and thought of a reflecting telescope. He worked some on the problems of motion. His appointment at Bologna virtually required that he involve himself somewhat with astronomy, and even astrology, in which he appears to have engaged only from necessity.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He was received into the minor order of the Jesuati in Milan in 1615, and in 1616 transferred to the Jesuati monastery in Pisa. In 1621 he was ordained a deacon to the Cardinal Federigo Borromeo. Taught theology at the monastery of San Girolamo in Milan, 1620-1623. Prior of St. Peter's at Lodi, 1623-1626. Prior of the monastery of the Jesuati in Parma, 1626-1629. Prior of a convent of his own order in Bologna, 1629-; Professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna, 1629-1647. When he was initially rejected for the chair in Bologna in 1619 because he was too young, he gave lessons in mathematics in Florence for a year-to Ascanio Piccolomini, to two nephews of Card. del Monte, and to other. Such lessons appear to have belonged to the entire period (1616-19) of his study in Pisa. In Bologna he continued to give private lessons.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Magistrate; He was encouraged in his study by Benedetto Castelli. Castelli introduced him to Galileo, and he had Cavalieri substitute for him when Castelli had to be absent. Cavalieri tried to get the chair in Pisa when Castelli left for Rome, but the appointment went to Aggiunti. The role of Card. Borromeo in Cavalieri's life is not wholly clear, but he kept popping up, and early he was clearly of importance. Cavalieri owed his teaching position at Bologna to Galileo's influence with Marsili and Cardinals Aldobrandini and Ludovisi. Cavalieri asked Galileo to intervene on his behalf with the men above and with Margherita de' Medici, the wife of Odoardo Farnese. Galileo did so and the appointment went through. Marsili then became one of Cavalieri's strongest protectors. Cavalieri dedicated a table of logs to the Senate of Bologna in 1632 when he was greatly concerned about his re-appointment-which then immediately followed. In gratitude he then published Lo specchio ustorio, also dedicated to the Senate. Favaro state that Cavalieri planned his publications to coincide with times when re-apointments would be necessary. Thus his last book, in 1646, Trattato della ruota planetaria perpetua, 1646, came with his last re-appointment-another work on astrology which he thought pleasing to the patricians of Bologna. He dedicated a book on astrology (1639) to Card. Francesco Barberini. About 1635 (or could this have been 1629?) Urban appointed Cavalieri as perpatual Prior of the Convent of Santa Maria della Mascarella in Bologna. (I think this was a house of the Jesuates.) Cavalieri never had anything to do with the convent; the appointment, engineered by Card. Giulio Sacchetti, the legate to Bologna, was intended to give him support for his work.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Mathematics; Cavalieri constructed a hydraulic pump for his monastery; the Duke of Mantua apparently obtained one like it. Cavalieri emphasized the practical use of logs (which he introduced into Italy) for various studies such as astronomy and geography. He published tables of logs, including logs of spherical trigonometric functions (for astronomers).
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Galileo. He wrote at least 112 letters to Galileo. Galileo said of Cavallieri, in his letter to Marsilli, 'few, if any, since Archimedes, have delved as far and as deep into the science of geometry.'; Friendship with Castelli, and correspondence with many of Galileo's circle-Marsili, Torricelli, Renieri, Viviani-and correspondence with Mersenne and Rocca. It is reported of Stefano degli Angeli, who was a student of Cavalieri near the end of Cavalieri's life, when he was crippled with arthritis, that Angeli helped him with the 'fatiguing difficulty' [faticoso disbrigo] of his correspondence.

SOURCES:
A. Favaro, Amici e corrispondenti di Galileo, 3 vols. ed. Paolo Galluzzi, (Firenze, 1983), 3, 1247-1315. G. Abetti, Amici e nemici di Galileo, (Milano, 1945), 195-210. Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 22, 659.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: U. D'Aviso, 'Vita del P.Buonaventura Cavalieri' in Trattato della Sfera, (Rome, 1682). G. Piola, Elogio di Bonaventura Cavalieri, (Milan, 1844). A. Favaro, Bonaventura Cavalieri nello studio de Bologna, (Bologna, 1855). P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, (Modena, 1870). Fabroni, Historia Academiae Pisanae, 1, 267-301. Bonaventura Cavalieri, Categgio, ed. Giovanna Baroncelli (Archivio della corrispondenza degli scienziati italiani), (Firenze: Olschki, 1987). Enrico Giusti, B. Cavalieri and the Theory of Indivisibles, (1980).


Celaya, Juan de



1. Dates: Born: Valencia, Spain, c. 1490; Died: Turia, Spain, 6 December 1558; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Gentry; A knight who fought in the reconquest of Granada. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: French and Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: University of Valencia; University of Paris; D.D. It is relevant that Celaya was the son of a knight who fought in the reconquest of Granada. Began education at University of Valencia; To University of Paris, (College de Montaigu): B.A. 1509; D.D. 1522
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic Philosophy
7. Means of Support: Academic position; Celaya stayed in Paris, teaching, until 1524. During these years he maintained a prolific output in logic and natural philosophy; his commentary on the Physics is especially important for its discussion of motion. Celaya returned to Spain about 1524. He became the Rector and professor of theology at the University of Valencia. He appears to have stayed in that position until the end of his life.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Ecclesiastical officials, Court; See the dedications of his works. His first one, 1516, is to his magnanimous lord Don Luis de Carros. He second to his 'generous lord' Francois de Fenollet, chevalier de Saint-Jacques. When republished in 1527, this work was dedicated to a Spanish noble. a work in 1521 was dedicated to another 'lord,' the Prince Don Rodrigue de Mendoza Adzanete. He dedicated another to Jeronimo Cavanilles, commander of the King of Spain's Guard and later Spanish ambassador to France. He dedicated works to Estaban Gabriel de Merino, the Papal Nuncio to France, and one to Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, Archbishop of Burgos. He dedicated a theological work on the Sentences to Charles V, who later invited Celaya to live at the court. When the University of Valencia urged that Charles rather name Celaya Rector of the university, he did so.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None. Note that he was part of the Spanish group prominent in Paris in the early 16th century.

SOURCES:
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedadespanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). Pierre Duhem, Etudes sur Leonarda da Vinci, 3, passim, esp. pp. 135-41, 242-6, and 543-55. Hubert Elie, 'Quelques maitres de l'université de Paris vers l'an 1500,' Archives d'historie doctrinale de littéraire du moyen age, 25-6 (1950-51), 193-243. William Wallace, ' The Enigma of Domingo de Soto,' Isis, 59 (1968), 384-401. _____, 'The Calculatores in Early 16th Century Physics,' British Journal for the History of Science, 4 (1968-9), 221-32. Ricardo G. Villoslada, 'Juan de Celaya,' La Universidad de Paris durante los estudios de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 14 of Analecta Gregoriana, Series Fac. Hist. Ecc. Sectio B, num. 2 (Roma, 1938), pp. 384-401.


Cesi, Federico



1. Dates: Born: Rome, 13 March 1585; Died: Acquasparta (about 80 km north of Rome), 1 August 1630; Datecode: Lifespan: 45;
2. Father: Aristocrat; Federico, Duke of Acquasparta. The Cesi family had risen into the nobility during the 16th century on the basis of service to the Church. In all, five Cesis were cardinals during the 16th and early 17th centuries. Especially Card. Federico Cesi, in the mid 16th century, built a fortune from his service to the church and used it to endow the family. His nephew, also Federico and father to Federico the Lincean, was elevated to Marquis, then Duke, and ultimately Prince. The mother of Federico (the Lincean) was Olimpia Orsini (of the noble Roman Orsinis). Although the profligacy of the father ultimately ruined the family, it appears to me that one has to say that Federico (the Lincean) was reared in wealthy circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Non; He was educated by private tutors.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Org; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Cesi will always be remembered primarily for his Accademia dei Lincei, which is often cited as the first modern scientific society-though it appears to me more as the expression of his aspirations to be a great patron of learning. He made the principal function of the Accademia the preparation of a precis of the Spanish physician, Francisco Hernandez's Nova plantarum et mineralium mexicanorum historia (a work referred to under various titles, in one of which the word thesaurus is central) for publication. A preliminary version of this was published in 1628; the complete version appeared only in 1651, more than twenty years after Cesi's death. It contained Cesi's own Phytosophicae tabulae, a pioneer effort at a classification of plants. Using a microscope (which he received from Galileo), Cesi discovered the spores of cryptogams. The final table (of the Phytosophicae tabulae) concerned the medicinal uses of plants. Cesi was a leading simpler of the age, and his herb garden was known as one of the best in Italy.
7. Means of Support: Per
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Though a patron himself, Cesi found himself in need of protection during the final decade of his life as the family's fortunes collapsed from the extravagance of his father and as other members of the family attacked him with law suits that threatened instant ruin. In this situation he turned to the Papacy for protection. The Accademia dedicated Galileo's Assayer, which it published as a letter to Virginio Caesarini, to the newly elected Urban VIII. It published the first microcopical observations (of bees), a sheet entitled Melissographia, which was an elaborate offering to Urban, whose family emblem was the bee. Cesi dedicated the first installment of the Thesaurus (or Historia) to Urban. His correspondence makes it clear that he was depending on the protection of the Papacy in his struggle to survive.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: Acad dei Lincei Leopoldina; Cesi organized the Accademia dei Lincei originally in 1603, although its significant years came later when he had long since passed beyond adolescence. The Accademia is remembered primarily because Cesi enrolled Galileo in it, and Galileo referred to himself in his major works as the Academician. In addition to Galileo's Letters on Sunspots and Il Saggiatore, the Accademia published some minor works by Porta and others.

SOURCES:
I have composed this report largely from extended reading about Cesi and the Accademia over a number of recent years. I list below major items from that reading, but this does not begin to exhaust the sources. Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 24, 256-8. Giuseppe Gabrieli, 'Il carteggio linceo della vecchia accademia di Federico Cesi,' Memorie della R. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, classe di scienze morali storiche e filologiche, ser. VI, 7, 2 vols. (1938-41). Giuseppe Gabrieli, 'Verbali delle adunanze e cronaca della prima Accademia Lincea (1603-1630),' Memorie della R. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, classe di scienze morali storiche e filologiche, ser. VI, 2 (1926). Giuseppe Gabrieli, 'L'orrizonte intellettuale e morale di Federico Cesi illustrato da un suo zibaldone inedito,' Rendiconti della R. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincie, classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, ser. VI, 14, (1879-80). Baldassare Odescalchi, Memorie istorico critiche dell'Accademia de' Lincie e del Principe Federico Cesi, (Rome, 1806). Edoardo Martinori, Genialogia e cronistoria di una grandefamiglia umbro-romana i Cesi, (Roma: Compagnie nazionale pubblicità, 1931). Christian Hülsen, Römische Antikengärten des XVI Jahrhunderts. (Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, IV), Heidelberg: Winter, 1917). Domenico Carutti, 'De Giovanni Eckio e della instituzione dell'Accademia dei Lincei, con alcune note intorno a Galileo,' Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, memorie delle classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, ser. III, 1, 45-77. Michele Maylender, 'Accademia dei lincei,' in his Storia delle accademie d'Italia, 5 vols. (Bologna: Cappelli, 1926-30), 3, 430-503. G. Govi, 'Intorno alla data di un discorso inedito pronunciato da Federico Cesi e da esso intitolato: 'Del natural desiderio di sapere et istitutione de lincei per adempimento di esso',' Memorie della R. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche, ser. III, 5 (1879-80), 244-61.


Cesalpino, Andrea



1. Dates: Born: Arezzo, 5 June 1525. Old sources as well as DSB say 1519. Viviani documents the necessity that this be an error, and establishes 1525 to my satisfaction. DBI says 1524 or 25, and is explicit in rejecting 1519. Died: Rome, 15 March 1603. Datecode: Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Artisan; Giovanni de Andrea Cesalpino was a mason. Viviani, noting that the father was able to send a son to the university, doubts that he was by then a simple mason. Let me add that Cesalpino inherited what appears to have been considerable property in Arezzo. I do not see how we can avoid concluding that the circumstances were prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Pisa; M.D., Ph.D. He studied philosophy and medicine at Pisa, where he received his M.D. and Ph.D. (in the typical Italian mode) in 1551. He studied under Vesalius, Colombo, Guido Guidi, and Luca Ghini.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; Cesalpino's philosophical views tended toward naturalism. He was frequently denounced for heretical ideas, though he was careful and was therefore never prosecuted.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Physiology; Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Medicine; Mineralogy; Cesalpino's principal contribution to science lies in botany. He wrote the first true texbook of botany, De plantis libri XVI (1583), elaborating for the first time a system of plants based on a unified and coherent group of notions. His most important medical studies concern the anatomy and physiology of the motion of the blood. He gave a good decription of the cardiac valves and of the pulmonary vessels connected to the heart, as well as of the minor circulation. In Quaestionum peripateticarum (1571) he set out his philosophical views, which formed the framework of his medical and botanical works and which show that he was a follower of Aristotle, although he partially reformed the latters's theories. He published De metallis in 1596.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Professor of Simples and director of the botanical garden at Pisa, 1556-1570 and then Professor of Medicine until 1591. He must have practised medicine. He lived in Pisa from 1551 to 55 on something. Cosimo valued him as a physician. In Rome later he was physician to Philip Neri, and it is reported that he generally applied himself to medicine during the period in Rome. While there he published Speculum artis medicae hippocraticum, 1601, with medical observations drawn from his practice, and his final work, from the Roman period, was Praxis universae artis medicae, 1602-3. Physician to the Cavalieri di Santo Stefano in 1582. There were tensions within the university at Pisa by 1589; apparently Cesalpino was accused of spreading heretical teachings. And the Grand Duke appointed another physician to the university with a salary considerably higher than Cesalpino's. Cesalpino took umbrage and actively sought an appointment in Rome; this is documented. He was physician to Pope Clement VIII, and professor at the Sapienza, 1592-1603, with a total salary of 1000 scudi (600 from the city and 400 from the Pope). There is documentary evidence that he held a fair bit of property in Arezzo.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; He was a client (or personal physician) to Cosimo I, and following him to both Francesco I and Ferdinando I. He dedicated works to both Francesco I and Ferdinand I. In 1570 he was collecting plants in Tuscany on the orders of Pius V who intended to establish a botanical garden in Rome. In 1592 he was called to Rome as physician to Pope Clement VIII, and, simultaneously, professor at the Sapienza with a combined stipend of 1000 scudi. He dedicated De metallis and another work to Clement. Marini is explicit in stating that Mercati engineered Cesalpino's appointment in Rome. Bishop Tornabuoni is described as his patron. He dedicated the second part of Ars medica to Card. Petro Aldobrandini. (This work was published after Cesalpino's death, though in the same year, 1603. He appears to have composed the dedication.); He dedicated Daemonum investigatio to Giovanni de' Tonsi, a Milanese patrician, and he dedicated De saporibus and later another work to Baccio Valore, a Florentine patrician.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology;
10. Scientific Societies: He was in close communication with his former student and friend Michele Mercati. He corresponded with Aldrovandi and with botanists abroad such as Belon and L'Obel.

SOURCES:
G.P. Arcieri, The circulation of the blood and Andrea Cesalpino of Arezzo, (New York, 1945). A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), 1, 866-8. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 49 and 27 (1901), 30. Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 24, 122-5. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 24-7. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical.
U. Viviani, Vita ed opere di Andrea Cesalpino, (Arezzo, 1923). (This work, or perhaps a slightly different version of it, appeared also in Rivista di medecina legale e medecina degli infortuni nel lavoro, 1915). This appears to me definitely to be the leading source on Cesalpino.
Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 485-6.

Not Available and Not Consulted: C. Ceconi, 'Andrea Cesalpino, Physiologist, Naturalist, Philosopher,' Revista di storia critica di scienze mediche e naturali, 3 (1912).


Cestoni, Giacinto [Diacinto]



1. Dates: Born: Montegiorno, Ancona, 13 May 1637. There is disagreement on an inconsequential detail: some place the date of birth as 10 May. However, Baglioni publishes the baptismal record which states that 13 May was the date of birth. Died: Livorno, 29 January 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 81;
2. Father: Unknown; Of his occupation I find nothing, only his name: Vittorio Cestoni. It is said explicitly that the parents were poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: Non; His education terminated where he was eleven; he was then apprenticed to a pharmacist (i.e., apothecary).
5. Religion: Catholic. Cestoni was tepid in his religious practice, to the extent of becoming suspect of libertinism. However, he died in the Catholic faith.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Entomology; Microscopy; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Zoology; Above all, Cestoni was a natural historian devoted to detailed observation-e.g., of the metamorphic cycle of the flea. He was interested in the generation of insects. In connection with his observations in entomology, he discovered (or discovered in connection with the Livornese physician Bonono) the acarid etiology of mange. Cestoni used the microscope systematically. He did experimental work on pharmacology, and his observations in natural history included things like shell fish and chameleons. The estimation of Cestoni seems to be constantly rising, and some historians are even touting him as the most important Italian scientist (perhaps they mean in the field of the life sciences) in Italy during his age.
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Pharmacology; Secondary Means of Support: Medical Practioner; 1650-6, Cestoni was in Rome in the service of a pharmacist. 1656-60, working for a pharmacist in Livorno. 1660-6, he was travelling, partly outside of Italy, much of this time, although he was back in Livorno with the pharmacist part of this time. For about four months he worked for a pharmacist in Geneva. 1666, he settled as a pharmacist in Livorno where he spent the rest of his life. Cestoni was employed by one Salamoni, who owned the pharmacy but lacked the professional qualifications to run it. Cestoni married a relation of Salamoni, and it appears that he became more than a mere employee. It seems clear that he ended up as a prominent figure in Livorno. Cestoni is called a skillful surgeon as well as a pharmacist, and the epigraph on his tomb called him a physician.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Prince Ferdinando de' Medici, son of Cosimo III, had Cestoni named protospeziale [official or principal apothecary?] of Livorno. Ferdinando loved to converse with him, and apparently Cosimo did also on occasion. It is stated, however, that Cestoni did not try to profit from his relation with the ruling family.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner;
10. Scientific Societies: When the court was in Livorno in 1680, Cestoni met Redi, with whom he corresponded regularly after that time. (The letters from Redi to Cestoni are published in Redi's Opere; Cestoni's have not been found.) Upon the death of Redi in 1695, Cestoni found the publications of Vallisnieri and sought out a correspondence with him that lasted until Cestoni's death twenty years later. Cestoni wrote regularly once a week during most of this time; more than 580 of the letters survive. (With the rising interest in Cestoni, they have been published.) Vallisnieri published some of Cestoni's observations on natural history, giving credit to Cestoni. Cestoni corresponded also with Malpighi, Bellini, Ricciardi, Zambeccari, and Magliabechi, as he tried to rise above his provincial setting. In Livorno there was a circle of scientifically interested men which included especially the physician Bonono.

SOURCES:
G. Stefanini, 'Giacinto Cestoni,' in Aldo Mieli, Gli scienziati italiani, (Roma, 1923), pp. 122-7. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 (1895), 50 and 27 (1901), 31. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. S. Baglioni, intoduction to G. Cestoni, Epistolario ad Antonio Vallisnieri, ed. S. Baglioni, 2 vols. (Rome, 1940-1).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres (1700s), 15, 13. A. Vallisnieri, 'Necrologio,' Giornale de' letteratura d'Italia, 30 (1718), 327-37. A. Emiliani, Giacinto Cestoni. Studio biografico, (Fermo, 1876). A Corsini, 'Giacinto Cestoni,' Revista di storia critica delle scienze mediche e naturale, 8 (1918), 413-26. R. Friedman, 'G.C. Bonono: the 250th Anniversary of his Discovery,' Medical Life, 44 (1937), 3-62. A. Razzauti, Diacinto Cestoni ed it suo epistolario ad A. Vallisnieri, (Livorno, 1941). S. Baglioni, 'Giacinto Cestoni (1637-1718), parassitologo,' Revista di parassitologia, 6 (1942), 1-13.


Ceulen, Ludolph van



1. Dates: Born: Hildesheim, Germany, 28 January 1540; Died: Leiden, 31 December 1610; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Father: a merchant; Bosmans says that his father was in very modest condition, so that Van Ceulen's education stopped with elementary. I interpret this as poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Dutch; Death: Du
4. Education: Non; No evidence of any university education.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Nothing whatever is said; he must have conformed to the Calvinist church of the Netherlands.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Van Ceulen computed pi to 20 decimal places, and later, using Archimedes method (to which he added devices to speed things up) to 33 and ultimately to 35 places. In this he made himself an expert in trigonometry.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Academic; 1580: in Delft he was a fencing master and a teacher of mathematics. 1594: he received permission to open a fencing school in Leiden. 1600-10: he was appointed a teacher of arithmetic, surveying, and fortification in the engineering school that Maurice established in Leiden (with a salary of f400, later raised somewhat). Willibrord Snel was his student, and Snel later translated at least two of his works into Latin.
8. Patronage: Scientist, Magistrates. Van Ceulen formed friendships with powerful figures in the intellectual and scientific community of the Netherlands, including Jan Cornets de Groot, Stevin, and Adrien Van Roomen. They clearly helped his career. He dedicated his book, On the Circle, to the Magistrates of Leiden.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Although he had that appointment in the engineering school, nothing whatever is said about the exercise of such functions. Nevertheless this seems entirely analogous to writing books on the subjects.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: he was friendly with Jan de Groot, Snel, and Stevin. De Groot translated Archimedes into Dutch expressly so that van Ceulen could read it. In the late 80's there was a lively exchange of pamphlets in the Netherlands on the value of pi-which involved, in addition to van Ceulen, Simon van der Eycke, Coignet, Stevin, and others. Soon after that there was another on the calculation of interest. I do not recall an earlier example of this sort of a nascent scientific community.

SOURCES:
Nieuw nederlandsche biografische woordenboek. H. Bosmans, 'Ludolphe van Ceulen,' Mathésis. Recueil mathematique à l'usage des écoles speciales (Ghent), 39 (1925), 352-60.

Not Available and Not Consulted: David Bierens de Haan, Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der wis- en natuurkundige wetenschappen in der Nederlanden, (Amsterdam, 1876-8), nos. 8, 9, 17. (Reprinted from Verslagen en mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen Amsterdam.); H. Bosmans, 'Un émule de Viète,' Annales de la SociétéScientifique de Bruxelles, 34, pt. 2 (1919), 88-139.


Ceva, Giovanni



1. Dates: Born: Milano, 1647 or 1648 (DBI and Loria say probably December 1647); Died: Mantua, 3 or 13 May 1734; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Unknown; I find only that Carlo Francesco Ceva was rich and famous. I accept the information: wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian
4. Education: University of Pisa; He received his first education in a Jesuit college in Milano. He studied then in Pisa where he was a student of D. Rossetti and A. Marchetti, both students of Borelli. There is no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Hydraulics; Ceva's most important mathematical work was De lineis rectis (Milan, 1678). In this work he used the properties of the center of gravity of a system of points to obtain the relations of the segments. He also published Opuscula mathematica (Milan, 1682), Geometria motus (Bologna, 1692), De re numeraria (Mantua, 1711), and other works. Much of his mathematical work had a practical bent-e.g., hydraulics. This became more pronounced as the years passed. His final work, and his most important one, was Opus hydrostaticum, 1728.
7. Means of Support: Government Position; Possibly taught at the University of Pisa. He must have done something before 1686 (when he was nearly forty). However, there does not seem to be any documentary evidence. He went to Mantua about 1686 in the service of the Gonzagas, and he continued to serve the city government after the Austrians took over (which I think was 1707). At the time of his death his name was carried in a register of the salaried employees of the royal court as 'Commissario dell'arciducale Camera et mathematico cesareo'. Loria says also that he was Commissario Generale dell'Acque. Obviously this is ambiguous. I could list his support as patronage; with personal physicians I do that. Nevertheless it appears to me that Ceva was more a technical employee than a client.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Magistrate; He was in the service of the Mantuan court as a technical expert, at least by 1686. His first book after he went to Mantua concerned hydraulics, building on Castelli's work. Even before he moved to Mantua, he dedicated his first book (1678) to Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga. Although I found no explicit statement, I cannot believe that this did not have some relation to his ultimate appointment. I do not know the details of Austrian administration after they took over ultimate control of Mantua; I suspect that they retained some Dukes, though apparently not the Gonzaga, as their puppets. At any rate, Ceva immediately made his peace with the new order. A later work is dedicated to the president and quaestors of the Mantuan Camera. He was on the Mantuan Commission of Water. He dedicated other mathematical works to Card. Ricci.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Mathematics; De re numeraria attempts to solve the conditions of equilibrium in a plurimetallic monetary system in a small territory (such as Mantua)-a pioneering work in mathematical economics. As the spokesman for Mantua, he opposed the plans of Bologna and Manfredi to divert the Reno into the Po early in the 18th century. Ceva's opposition succeeded in stopping the project.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Dizionario biografico degli italiani. F. Argellati, Bibliotheca scriptorum mediolanensium, 1, 542-3. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, (Modena, 1870), 1, 542-3. Gino Loria, 'Per la biografia de Giovanni Ceva', Rendiconti dell'istituto lombardo di scienze e lettere, 48 (1915), 450-452.


Ceva, Tomasso



1. Dates: Born: Milano, 20 December 1648; Died: Milano, 3 February 1737 (Ramat puts the two dates as 1649 and 1736, but others, including Sommervogel, do not agree.); Datecode: Lifespan: 89
2. Father: Unknown; I find only that Carlo Francesco Ceva was said to be wealthy and famous. I accept the information: wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. In 1663 entered the Society of Jesus. Apparently he was educated entirely within the order. It seems clear that he had the equivalent of a B.A. As a full Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. Entered the Society of Jesus in 1663. He spent the whole of his adult life within the order.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Ceva's Opuscula mathematica(1699), summarizing all of his mathematical work, dealt with gravity, arithmetic, geometric-harmonic means, the cyloid, division of angles, and higher order conic sections and curves. Ceva's contribution to mathematics was, however, modest. His first scientific work, De natura gravium (1669), dealt with physical subjects-such as gravity and free fall-in a philosophical way. If I have understood some rather opaque prose, he accepted some Newtonian ideas. However, he was later the author of Philosophia novo-antiqua (1704), which tried to yoke experimental philosophy to Scholasticism, anti-Copernicanism, and anti-Cartesianism. (Recall that he was a Jesuit.) Ramat calls the Philosophia one of the last efforts of Scholasticism against the new philosophy. Ceva was a fairly important literary and theological figure, and much more into these fields than into science.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He entered the Society of Jesus in 1663. At an early age he became professor of mathematics and rhetoric at Brera College in Milan (a Jesuit college), and he taught there for more than forty years.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; He lived in Milano, enjoying the protection of the Spanish and later the imperial authorities. Ceva was more of a Jesuit humanist than a mathematician, and he ground out lots of Latin prose celebrating various official events staged by the ruling authorities in Milano. He dedicated his Latin poem, Iesus puer (which was translated into at least German and Italian and was much republished), to Joseph I, King of the Romans (the later Emperor). Joseph named Ceva Caesarian Theologian early in the 18th century. (Ceva dedicated other editions of Iesus puer to prelates.) It appears that like his brother in Mantua, Ceva adapted to imperial rule immediately, and among his compositions were lives of members of the Hapsburg family. He dedicated works also to Signora Teresa Borromeo, Guzman (the Spanish governor of Milan), the Marquis Ottavio Gonzaga, and Card. Giovanni Badoaro.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He designed an instrument to divide a right angle into a specified number of equal parts. He also prepared stage effects, such as artificial fire, for official pageants in the early 18th century. Frankly I do not known how to categorize this, and I am far from sure that I want to call it technology.
10. Scientific Societies: He had a close friendship with the mathematician P.P. Caravaggio and his son. G. Saccheri was his student. Ceva frequented the Accademia dei Vigilanti, promoted by the Countess Clelia Borromeo, and through her he was in correspondence with Viviani and G. Grandi. He was made a fellow of the Arcadia in 1718.

SOURCES:
R. Ramat, 'La critica del padre Ceva,' Civilta moderna, 10 (1938), 385-95, and 11 (1939), 139-66. (Reprinted in Sette contributi agli studi di storia della letturatura ilatiana, (Firenze, 1947), pp. 5-44. Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 2, 1015-24. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. F. Argellati, Bibliotheca scriptorum mediolanesium, pp. 417-20. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 543-4.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Guido Grandi, Geometrica demonstratio theorematum Hugenianum circa logisticam, seu logarithmicam lineam, addita epistola geometrica ad P. Thomam Cevam, (Florence, 1701).


Charleton, Walter



1. Dates: Born: Shepton Mallet, Somerset, 2 February 1620; Died: London, 24 April 1707. If it matters, DSB, different from everyone else, gives 13 February and 6 May as the dates of birth and death. Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Church Living; Walter Charleton [sic] was the rector in Shepton Mallet. No clear information on financial status. On the one hand, Biographia Britannica says that the father was indifferently furnished with the goods of fortune. Nevertheless, on the other hand, Charleton does not appear to have matriculated in Oxford as a servitor. On the first hand again, it is made clear that he studied medicine because he needed to think in terms of a remunerative career.
3. Natonality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.D. Oxford University, 1635-43; Magdalen Hall; M.D., 1643. In Magdalen Hall he was the pupil of Wilkins, who influenced him. The M.D., rather early, was bestowed upon mandate from Charles I.
5. Religion: Anglican; Charleton is described as a high churchman.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physiology; Natural History; Anatomy; Charleton was not a leader of English medicine; nevertheless he did publish a number of works on medicine. His most important work was in general natural philosophy. He entered the world of learning as a disciple of van Helmont (Spiritus gongonicus, a Helmontian theory of the formation of stones in the human body, and A Ternary of Paradoxes, mostly a translation from Helmont, both in 1650. Then three works in the atomist tradition: The Darkness of Atheism, 1652; Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charletoniana, 1654; The Immortality of the Human Soul [sic], 1657. The Natural History of Nutrition, Life and Voluntary Motion, 1659, was one of the first books in English on physiology. Onomasticon zoicon, 1668, was a work more or less in taxonomy. He also published some anatomical lectures and Onomasticon contained anatomies of two animals that he had dissected.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Org; Medical practice, from 1643. Physician in ordinary to the King, 1643. Charleton, a royalist, left Oxford no later than 1650 for London, where he opened a practice. Upon the Restoration, he because physician in ordinary to Charles II. Very little is said of this, and it is not clear what income he derived from it. Toward the end of Charleton's long life, when his royalist patients had died off, his practice dwindled. He had to leave London for a time. When he returned to London, the Royal College of Physicians helped him, by appointing him in 1706 Harveian Librarian of the College, with a salary of L20. He is said to have died destitute.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Gentry; Medicine; Merchant Patronage; In The Darkness of Atheism Charleton acknowledged his debts to John Prideaux, who was an important and influential figure in Oxford while Charleton was a student and who became a Bishop later. This is very vague, and it is not clear that he referred to anything more than the help a teacher owes to a student. In 1643 Charleton was created M.D. through the favor of Charles I, and he was then almost immediately appointed physician to Charles. During the Interregnum he was appointed physician in ordinary to Charles II in exile. Most accounts have taken this appointment to have been merely nominal since Charleton remained in London, but Sharp's account, the most recent and most detailed, thinks that Charleton was in Paris during 1655. The crown rewarded him for his service and loyalty; there was a marked upturn in his fortune in 1660. (One source on patronage: Biographia Britannica, 3, 443-9.) Charleton published An Imperfect Pourtraicture of His Sacred Majesty Charles the II in 1661, a pretty shameless encomnium. He also dedicated Exercitationes pathologicae, 1661, to Charles. Charleton was a prolific writer and a liberal dedicator. Thus Darkness of Atheism to Sir Francis Prujean, a successful court physician who was President of the Royal College of Physicians at the time and who had helped Charleton register as a Candidate in 1650. He dedicated Natural History of Nutrition to Viscount Fauconberg and Dr. George Ent; he also dedicated another work to Ent. He dedicated the 1680 edition of Natural History, reworked and retitled Enquiries into Human Nature, to Sir John Cutler. He dedicated Immortality of the Human Soul, 1657, and Oeconomia animalium 1659, to the Marquis of Dorchester. In 1650 Lord Brouncker, a friend at Oxford, was forward in urging Charleton to publish A Ternary of Paradoxes, and to Brouncker he dedicated Disquisitiones duae anatomicae-physicae, 1665. Physiologia, 1654, was dedicated to Mrs. Elizabeth Villiers, wife of Sir Robert Villiers, at whose home he was then staying.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: friendship with John Wilkins, W. Cavendish, Hobbes, Evelyn, and others. Royal Society, 1660-1707. Royal College of Physicians, 1650-1707; President, 1689-91. Charleton was a Candidate in 1650, an Honorary Fellow in 1664 (a status that allowed him to pay dues and to practice), and ordinary Fellow in 1676.

SOURCES:
Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 4, 116-19. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 3, 443-9. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 390-3. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses, 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 4, 752-6. Humphrey Rolleston, 'Walter Charleton, D.M., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 8 (1940), 403-16. Lindsay Sharpe, 'Walter Charleton's Early Life, 1620-1659, and Relationship to Natural Philosophy in Mid-Seventeenth Century England,' Annals of Science, 30 (1973), 311-40. This is easily the best account for the period it covers.


Cheyne, George



1. Dates: Born: Methlick, Aberdeenshire, 1673? Most sources list the birth as 1671, but the record of Cheyne's baptism in 1673 survives, and there is one other piece of evidence to support that year. Died: Bath, 13 April 1743; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Although the information is not certain, it appears that James Cheyne was a farmer who rented the land he farmed, but called himself a gentleman. In support of this, the family had a long, distinguished history in the region, and George Cheyne was related to Bishop Burnet. A half brother who was much younger was an Anglican clergyman near Bath. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Scotland Career: England Death: England
4. Education: Abr, M.D. Cheyne studied initially for the ministry; it is fairly well established that he was a student in Marischal College, Aberdeen. Apparently he did not earn a B.A., and the nature of his M.D. does not incline me to claim the equivalent of a B.A. Then he was apparently a tutor for a period. Beyond this the record becomes unclear. In her early article, Guerrini asserts categorically that he was Pitcairn's student (in medicine) in Leiden, which had to have been in 1692. By her later work she is extremely skeptical that Cheyne was ever a student at Leiden. Older accounts have him studying medicine with Pitcairn in Edinburgh. All agree that he studied with Pitcairn, but as Pitcairn never had a university appointment in Edinburgh, this had to have been informal study. M.D., 1701, from King's College, Aberdeen; it is clear that he did not return to study medicine in Aberdeen, however, and that he received the degree entirely on the recommendation of Pitcairn.
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; Cheyne's first book was A New Theory of Fevers, 1701; in the tradition of iatromechanics. In 1703 Fluxionum methodus inversa, a pedestrian work on the calculus; he did not further pursue mathematics. Philosophical Principles of Natural Religion, 1705, and in 1715 the other half as it were, Philosophical Principles of Revealed Religion. Both of these drew heavily on Newtonian natural philosophy. All of his later medical books contained discussions of natural philosophy, a mechanistic philosophy influenced by Newtonian concepts of force, and in his old age with a vitalistic principle added. In his years in Bath Cheyne became one of England's most widely read medical writers, propounding a life of pious moderation (in contrast to his own early behavior, which left him weighing about 450 pounds.)
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Pub; During his first years in London Cheyne supported himself as a tutor (in mathematics) to William Ker, the younger brother of the Duke of Roxburgh. Medical pactice, 1702-43, initally in London, after 1720 in Bath. Cheyne had many eminent patients, including Samuel Richardson, Alexander Pope, John Wesley, Samuel Johnson, David Hume, and members of the squirarchy and aristocracy such as Richard Tennison, Sir Joseph Jekyll, and the Countess of Huntingdon. There is solid evidence in his correspondence with Richardson of his earnings from his medical publications.
8. Patronage: Medicine; Gentry; Aristocratic Patronage; Cheyne's connection with Pitcairn is well established; he himself acknowledged his debt to Pitcairn. His New Theory of Fevers was published as the work of a client defending his master in a local dispute, and he then replied to Pitcairn's continuing assailants. He dedicated Fluxionum methodus inversa to Pitcairn. He composed his Philosophical Principles of Natural Religion, 1705, for the use of John Ker, later Duke of Roxburgh, who may also have been Cheyne's pupil, and dedicated it to him. He composed Observations Concerning . . . Gout, 1720, for his 'friend,' Richard Tennison, and similarly An Essay on Health and Long Life, 1724, for Sir Joseph Jekyll. He dedicated The English Malady, 1733, to Lord Bateman. He correspondend extensively (1730-9) with the Countess of Huntingdon, largely on medical advice to her, his patient. This correspondence is published and ought to be a good source on the relations of a physician to his patron. Cheyne dedicated his Essay on Regimen to the Earl of Huntingdon. He dedicated Natural Method of Curing the Diseases of the Body and Disorders of the Mind, 1742, to Lord Chestefield. Cheyne's correspondence with Samuel Richardson (published) in the 30s may help illuminate the economics of publishing in the period when authors began to support themselves in that way in place of patronage. See Mullett's discussion of the economics of publishing.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: At least a peripheral member of a prominent circle of medical and scientific writers that included David Gregory, Edmund Halley, Richard Mead and John Arbuthnot. Friendship with Samuel Richardson. Correspondence with the Countess of Huntingdon. Fellow of the Royal Society in 1702.

SOURCES:
C.F. Mullet, Introduction to The Letters of Dr. George Cheyne to the Countess of Huntingdon, (San Marino, CA, 1942), R489 .C5; C.F. Mullet, Introduction to The Letters of Doctor George Cheyne to Samuel Richardson (1733-1743), (University of Missouri Studies, 18, No. 1), (Columbia, MO, 1943). W.G. Hiscock, David Gregory, Isaac Newton and their Circle, (Oxford, 1937). Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 3, pp. 494-8. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 4, 217-19. R.S. Siddall, 'George Cheyne, M.C., Eighteenth Century Clinician and Medical Author,' Annals of Medical History, 3rd ser. 4 (1942), 95-109. Anita Guerrini, 'James Keill, George Cheyne, and Newtonian Physiology, 1690-1740,' Journal of the History of Biology, 18 (1985), 147-66. _____, 'The Tory Newtonians: Gregory, Pitcairne, and their Circle,' Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986), 288-311. _____, Natural Philosophy; Medicine and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain: George Cheyne and Some Contemporaries, forthcoming. I have read the first two chapters in manuscript. Henry Viets, 'George Cheyne, 1673-1743,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 23 (1949), 435-52.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Geoffrey Bowles, 'Physical, Human and Divine Attraction in the Life and Thought of George Cheyne,' Annals of Science, 31 (1974), 481-2. (I think these pages cannot be for the whole article.) T.M. Brown, The Mechanical Philosophy and Animal Oeconomy, Ph.D dissertation, Princeton University, 1968, pp. 249-67


Childrey, Joshua



1. Dates: Born: Rochester, 1623; Died: Upwey, Dorsetshire, 26 August 1670; Datecode: Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Unknown; We know only that his name was Robert Childrey. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England
4. Education: Oxford University; Rochester Grammar School. Oxford University; Magdalen Colleger, B.A., 1646. Childrey was expelled by the Parliamentary Visitors in 1648. M.A., 1661; D.D., 1661. Both of these degrees were mandated upon the Restoration; I am not listing either.
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology; Mtr; Childrey's first books were on astrology: Imago astrologica, 1652, and Syzygiasticon instauratum, 1653. In attempting to elaborate an experimental astrology, he confirmed an old idea that there was a 35 year cycle in the weather. He made numberous observations on the weather and the tides. His most important book was Britannia baconia, 1660, in natural history.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Clerk of Magdalen College, 1640-8. Schoolmaster of Faversham, 1648-61. Appointed chaplain to the Lord Herbert, 1660-4. Archdeaconry of Sarum, 1664, and a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral that same year. Rector of Upwey, 1664-70.
8. Patronage: Aristocrat; Lord Herbert offered him a chaplainship in 1660. It is clear that he languished until the Restoration and then received a living. (Source on patronage: DNB)
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Childrey made and improved telescopes.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: correspondence with Oldenburg.

SOURCES:
A.R. and M.B. Hall, The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg, 1, 301, and 5, 384-386, 454-456. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950) [ref. CT773.D51], 4, 250-1. Anthony à Wood, Athenae oxonienses (Fasti oxonienses is attached, with separate pagination, to the Athenae), 4 vols. (London, 1813-20), 3, 903-5; Fasti, 2, 90, 246, 244.


Christmann, Jacob



1. Dates: Born: Johannesberg, Reingau, Germany, November 1554; Died: Heidelberg, Germany, 16 June 1613; Datecode: Lifespan: 59
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: Hei; He studied oriental subjects at Heidelberg. He must have earned a B.A.
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: mathematics
7. Means of Support: Academic position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Christmann became a teacher at Heidelberg in 1580, but had to leave shortly thereafter because he would not subscribe to the Lutheran concordat-formulary; travelled for some time ca. 1582 taught in a Reformed school in Neustadt, Pfalz; Returned to Heidelberg; 18 June 1584, appointed professor of Hebrew at Heidelberg. From 1591 on taught Aristotelian logic. 1602, made rector of university. 1608, Frederick IV appointed him professor of Arabic.
8. Patronage: Unknown; Court Patronage; One Konrad Marius, of whom I know nothing, recognized Christmann's ability when Christmann was a young man, and paid for his education. Frederick IV appointed him professor in 1608.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Christmann developed an instrument which involved a telescope to take the altitude of stars.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: corresponded with Kepler. He inherited a large library form Valentine Otho.

SOURCES:
Melchior Adam, Vitae Germanorum Philosophorum, (Heidelberg, 1615), pp. 518-522. M. Cantor in Algemeine Deutsche Biographie. Robert McKeon, 'Le debuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 14, 222. Verdonk (DSB) lists other works on his science and oriental scholarship.


Clarke, Samuel



1. Dates: Born: Norwich, 11 October 1675; Died: London, 17 May 1729 Datecode: Lifespan: 54
2. Father: Merchant; Magistrate; Edward Clarke was a cloth manufacturer, who was much respected in the city of Norwish and became an Alderman. He was also chosen to represent the city in Parliament. Since he was an M.P., he must have been prosperous at the least.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A., D.D. Norwich Free School. Cambridge, 1690-5; Gonville and Caius College; B.A., 1695; M.A., 1698. D.D., 1709.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; Clarke's Arianism became evident in his Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity, 1712. He was nearly defrocked by Convocation until he recanted and agreed to remain silent on the question. The book aroused a controversy that lasted until his death. He had a handful of followers who defended him, and in fact, despite his promise, he entered the controversy anonymously a couple of times. No one doubts that he continued to hold Arian views.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Clarke drew heavily on Newtonian ideas, and on Leibnizian ones as well, in theological controversies. The famous exchange with Leibniz stemmed from Leibniz's criticism of Clarke's views. Late in life he entered into the vis viva controversy and published a paper on it in the Philosophical Transactions in 1728.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Fellow of Gonville and Caius, 1696-1700. Bishop Moore's chaplain, 1698-1710. Rector of Drayton, 1701. Boyle Lecturer, 1704 and 05; these lectures established Clarke's reputation. Rector of St. Benet's in London, 1706. Chaplain-in-Ordinary to Queen Anne from about 1706. Rector of St. James's, 1709. St. James's was in the most fashionable area of London, and the income from the position was about L600 per year. The Master of Wigston Hospital (in Leicestershire), 1718 income about L200 per year. Although this position demanded a cleric, I list it under patronage.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; He was named chaplain of Bishop Moore in 1698, and Moore made him the rector of Drayton in 1701. Through Moore, who introduced him to the court, he was known by Queen Anne who later became his patron. Clarke's entire career was dependent on this relationship. Bp. Moore recognized his ability early, and Clarke's career flowed directly out of Moore's patronage. Anne's patronage undoubtedly stemmed directly from Clarke's support by the Whig establishment, but this included Moore. Queen Anne granted him the rectorship of St. Benet's in 1706 and the rectorship of St. James in 1709, but Moore's influence stood behind both appointments. Early in his career Clarke dedicated his edition of Rohault's Physics to Moore and later his Paraphrases of three of the Gospels. He dedicated his Paraphrase of St. Mathew's Gospel to Archbishop Tenison. Tenison was instrumental in Clarke's appointment as Boyle lecturer, and to Tenison (and the other three Boyle trustees) he dedicated the published versions. As is well known, he translated Newton's Opticks into Latin and received L500-L100 for each of Clarke's children. Later he stood in Newton's stead in the famous exchange with Leibniz. Clarke dedicated a translation of Caesar's Commentaries, 1712, to the Duke of Marlborough. Note that to this point, the year of Scirpture-Doctrine, Clarke's career was almost vertically in the ascendent, and he was furthering it by dedicating to all the powerful. According to Whiston, Clarke's intention, when he published Scripture-Doctrine, which he realized was apt to stir up a furor, was to resign his positions if it led to his official condemnation. He was in fact dismissed as a chaplain to the Queen. When he was charged before Convocation, however, and began to realize what he was about to lose, he weakly recanted and agreed to be silent on the Trinity. If he held on to his wealthy positions, this was effectively the end of his preferment. In 1718 Lord Lechmere presented him with the Mastership of Wigston's Hospital in Leicester, a position that did not require a new subscription to the 39 Articles. Princess Caroline became Clarke's patron after the accession of George I. Voltaire asserted that Caroline wanted to appoint him Archbishop of Canterbury, but his heterodox reputation blocked it. After Clarke's death she bestowed a pension on his widow. Ferguson asserts that Clarke was offered the Mastership of the Mint when Newton died; I am highly dubious about this. By royal command he translated the Iliad for the Prince, the Duke of Cumberland, and dedicated the publication of the first twelve books, 1729, (all that appeared during his lifetime) to the Prince. Because of his prominence, Clarke became a minor patron; his influence was sufficient to have his supporter/disciple, John Jackson (like him a clergyman in the Church of England) installed as Confrater of Wigston Hospital. Also he appointed A.A. Syckes as Assistant Preacher at St. James and to other positions. He was able to aid the career of Robert Clayton by introducing him to the court. (One source on patronage: Clarke, Works, 1, preface. Lilly Library)
9. Technological Connection: None
10. Scientific societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Newton. Earlier the friendships evdent in the edition of Rouhault.

SOURCES:
Benjamin Hoadly, 'Some Account of the Life, Writings, and Character of Dr. Samuel Clarke,' in Clarke, Works, 1, (London, 1738). A.G. Alexander, Clarke and Leibniz Correspondence, (Manchester, 1956). James P. Ferguson, An Eighteenth Century Heretic, Dr. Samuel Clarke, (Kineton, 1976). BX5199 C52F47; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 4, 443-6.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J. Rodney, 'Samuel Clarke and the Acceptance of Newtonian Thought,' Research Studies, 36 (1968), 351-60.


Clavius [Klau], Christoph



1. Dates: Born: Bamberg, c. 25 March 1538; Died: Rome, 6 February 1612; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Coimbra; Collegio Romano; D.D. Studied for a time at the University of Coimbra (Portugal). One statement indicates that he was there in 1559. From ca. 1563, studied theology at the Collegio Romano in Rome. From subsequent career I assume a B.A., and as a Jesuit who had taken all four vows, he had to have had a degree in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic, a Jesuit. He entered the Jesuit order in 1555.
6. Scientific Disciplines: mathematics, astronomy. 1574: Elements of Euclid, which contained thoughts of his own. Also an Algebra in 1608. Clavius was a supporter of the Ptolemaic system. He was the major technical advisor on the calendar reform.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; 1555, entered Jesuit order. 1565-1612, for all but two years on the faculty of the Collegio Romano either as Professor of Mathematics or Scriptor. I will list this as an ecclesiastical position, in keeping with my policy on Jesuits in Jesuit institutions. 1595-6, stationed in Naples. In 1597 he was in Spain, apparently at the behest of the king, but nothing else is known about this.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastical official, Court, Aristocracy; An important force in the calendar reform of 1577-1582, Clavius was given the assignment by Popes Gregory XIII and Clement VIII of commenting on the new calendar and defending it against the attacks of the protestants, which he did in Novi calendarii romani apologia (Rome, 1595). Philips mentions his dedications, and the letters of acknowledgment he received: Rudolf II, Ferdinand II the Archduke of Austria, the Duke of Urbino, various ecclesiastical officials. See the reference to the King of Spain above.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He improved upon, by simplifying, a precursor to the vernier that made it possible to measure fractions of angles. He also made a calculating device similar to Galileo's compass. He also developed a form of the quadrant useful for surveying. He wrote on sundials and developed new forms of them.
10. Scientific Societies: Corresponded with Galileo (who was also a personal friend), Tycho, Ricci, Magini, Ursus, von Roomen, Ghetaldi, Welser, and del Monte, among others (see Philips for catalogue). His correspondence holds enquiries he received from about 110 diff men, mostly in Italy but also from the rest of Europe, consulting him on scientific questions. However, these enquiries did not lead to sustained discourse.

SOURCES:
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. E.C. Philips, 'The Correspondence of Father Christopher Clavius, S.I.,' Archivum historicum Societas Iesu, 8 (1939), 193-222. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 176,; E. Knobloch, 'Sur la vie et oeuvre de Christopher Clavius,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 41 (1988), 331-56. Charles Naux, 'Le pere Christophore Clavius (1537-1612). Sa vie et son oeuvre,' Revue des questions scientifiques, 154 (1983), 55-67, 181-93, 325-47.

Not Available and Not Consulted: O. Meyer, 'Christoph Clavius Bambergensis,' Fraenkisches Land, 9 (1962), 1-8. There must be something wrong with this reference from DSB; such a journal cannot be found. Ugo Baldini, 'Christoph Clavius and the Scientific Scene in Rome,' Gregorian Reform of tahe Calendar. Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversay 1582-1982, G.V. Coyne, M.A. Hoskin, and O. Pedersen, eds. (Vatican City, 1983), pp. 137-69.


Clersellier, Claude



1. Dates: Born: 1614; Died: 1684; Datecode: Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Government Position; His father was adviser and secretary to the king, and to Marguerite l'Empereur. The family is said to have been distinguished but not wealthy. I take this to mean at least affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: Non; No Information
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Com; His fame rests solely on his unswerving admiration and boundless devotion to Descartes. Clerselier was responsible for the first edition of the French translation of the Meditations (1647); He himself translated the 'Objections' and the 'Reponses.' He completely revised and corrected the second edition (1661). After Descartes' death he published three volumes of Lettres (1657-1667). In 1659 he brought out in the same volume L'homme and the Traité de la formation du foetus. In 1667 he published a second edition, to which he added Le monde ou Traité de la lumière, based on the original manuscript.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Lawyer; Government Position; In 1630 he married Ann de Virlorieux, who brought a considerable dowry. He was a counsel (avocat) to the Parlement of Paris and proxy for Pierre Chanut, treasurer general of Auvergne, who had been sent to Sweden by the king as his representative.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; This is my interpretation of the position as proxy.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Relationship with Descartes. He devoted himself to publishing Descartes' works (see above). Descartes himself said of Clerselier that Clerselier had been 'at once his translator, his apologist, and his mediator.'

SOURCES:
Charles Adam, 'Clerselier éditeur des lettres de Descartes 1557-1559-1567', Séances et travaux de l'Académie des sciences morales et politiques, 145 (1896), p.722-54. Rene Descartes, Oeuvres, Charles Adam and Paul Tannery eds., Paris, 1896-1913, esp. Correspondence, passim. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 10, 846-7. Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 8, 1524.


Coiter, Volcher



1. Dates: Born: Groningen, 1534; Died: France, 1576; Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Aristocrat; Lawyer; From a patrician family; his father was a jurist. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Netherlands; Career: Italy, Germany; Death: France
4. Education: Padua, Rome, Bologna, M.D. He had an excellent education in his native city, Groningen, at St. Martin School. In 1555 the city fathers reward him a stipend for five years of study at foreign universities. (This was only a small stipend-more pocket money than serious cash.) He may have studied with Leonhard Fuchs at Tübingen, but this seems very dubious. In 1556 he was briefly at Montpellier (which I am not listing). Gabriele Falloppio taught him at Padua, and Bartolomeo Eustachi at Rome. By 1560, he was at Bologna, where he received M.D. in 1562 and where his researches were guided by Ulisse Aldrovandi and Giulio Cesare Aranzio. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic, Calvinist; In 1566 Coiter was arrested and imprisoned for his Protestantism and his offense to the Inquisition. As I look at the dates, he must have converted from an original Catholicism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Embryology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Pharmacology; Coiter was the first to raise comparative anatomy to independent status in biology. His research covered almost the entire vertebrate series. His studies on the development of the chick were epochal. Based on observations made on 20 successive days, they presented the first systematic statement since the three-period description provided by Aristotle.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1562-6, lectured on logic and surgery at Bologna. Sometime during this period he lectured in Perugia for a year. 1566-9, served Pfalzgraf Ludwig VI at Amberg and taught there. 1569-76, physician to the city of Nürnberg. His contract (published in Herrlinger) specifies an annual salary. If I understand the old German of the contract, he was permitted to practice as well with patients who were not citizens of Nürnberg. It seems clear that Joachim Camerarius, whom Coiter had known as a student in Italy, engineered this appointment. Late in 1575 Pfalzgraf Ludwig appointed Coiter physician to his army for an expedition into France, the expedition on which Coiter died.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Medicine; Magistrate; The stipend awarded in 1555 by Groningen for five years of study at foreign universities was pocket money and not worth inclusion here. He served Pfalzgraf Ludwig VI as personal physician at Amberg from 1566 to 1569. And in 1575-6 he attended him (or perhaps Johann Casimir) on the expedition into France. Joachim Camerarius was apparently responsible for Coiter's appointment in Nürnberg. Coiter dedicated his work of 1572 to the senate of Nürnberg.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: He associated with Camerarius, Georg Palm, Heinrich Wolff, Melchior Ayrer, Franz Renner and Thomas Esastus when he was at Nürnberg. From this group came the Nürnberg College of Medicine after Coiter's death.

SOURCES:
Robert Herrlinger, Volcher Coiter, 1534-1576, (Nuremberg, 1952). Dorothy M. Schullian, 'New Documents on Volcher Coiter' Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciencec, 6 (1951), 176-94. B.W.Th. Nuijens,'Doctor Volcher Coiter, 1534-1576', Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 77 (1933), pp. 5383-401.


Colombo, Realdo



1. Dates: Born: Cremona, c. 1510 (DBI says between 1510 and 1520, and probably very little after 1510.); Died: Rome, 1559; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Pharmacology; His father was an apothecary. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Military; University of Padua; M.D. He received his undergraduate education at Milan. He was then in Venice for seven years of training, as a sort of apprentice, in surgery. By 1538 (or perhaps 1540) he had gone on to study at the University of Padua where he was a student and then friend (for a time) of Vesalius. He probably received his M.D. in 1544 at Padua.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Pharmacology; Colombo is best known for his discovery of the pulmonary circuit of the blood, which he made through vivisectional observations. He particularly emphasized that it is in the lungs, rather than in the heart, that the venous blood is mixed with air and converted to arterial blood. Through his studies in vivisection Colombo also made considerable progress in understanding the heartbeat. His only published work, De re anatomica (1559), enjoyed considerable popularity during the later 16th century.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Pharmacology; Patronage; Before 1538, he pursued his father's trade for a short time, and then apprenticed to Lonigo, a leading Venetian surgeon at Venice, for 7 years. 1542-3, assisted Lonigo at Venice. 1543, appointed as Vesalius' temporary replacement at Padua. 1544-5, professor of surgery and anatomy at Padua. 1545-8, taught anatomy at Pisa. 1548-59, taught at the Sapienza, Rome, with a salary of 220 ducati. 1550, one of the surgeons to the Pope. His works contain many clinical observations from his practice.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Medical Practioner; Colombo had gained the favor of Giovanni Antonio Schilino, one of the Riformatori of Padua, who had him appointed professor of surgery in 1541. However, Vesalius (the incumbent in the chair) had enough influence with the Senate that this appointment did not in fact go through. At the invitation of Cosimo I de'Medici, he left Padua in 1545 to teach anatomy at Pisa. Pope Paul IV brought Colombo to Rome. Colombo dedicated the final book of De re anatomica to Dr. Jacob Bonus, the personal physician to Paul IV, who appears to have been instrumental in arranging Colombo's move. Colombo gained favor at the papal court and performed autopsies on a number of leading ecclesiastics, including Cardinal Cibo and Ignatius of Loyola. Colombo started the publication of De re anatomica in 1558, dedicating it to Pope Paul IV. Colombo died just as publication was being completed, and so did the Pope. Colombo's sons retrieved the few copies that had been issued and printed a new title page, dedicating the work to the new Pope, Pius IV.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Colombo worked with Lonigo for more than 8 years. He regarded Lonigo as his most important teacher in anatomy and as well as in surgery. The relationship with Vesalius. Colombo was the first anatomist to criticize Vesalius for his own anatomical errors. In his published letters written at Padua, Pisa, and Rome, he made numerous additional corrections and discoveries. In 1541 Colombo made an unsuccessful bid to obtain one of the two chairs of surgery held by Vesalius. In 1543 Colombo, in his public demonstrations, pointed out some errors in Vesalius' teaching. Late in 1543 Vesalius visited Padua, and on learning of these criticism he became quite incensed. He publicly ridiculed Colombo, and in his China Root letter (1546), he denounced him as as ignoramus and a scoundrel.

SOURCES:
E.D.Coppola, 'The discovery of the Pulmonary Circulation: A New Approach,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 21 (1957), pp.44-77. H. Tollin, 'Matteo Realo Colombo,' Pflüger's Archiv fur die gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere, 22 (1880), pp. 262-290. R.J. Moes and C.D. O'Malley, 'R. Colombo, 'On Those Things Rarely Found in Anatomy.' An Annotated Translation from De re anatomica,' Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 34 (1960), 508-28. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici enaturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 2, 32-4. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Gaetano Luigi Marini, Degli archiatri pontifici, 2 vols. (Roma, 1784), 1, 372 and 392.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G.J.Fisher, 'Realdo Colombo,' Annals of the Anatomical and Surgical Society of Brooklyn, 2 (1880), pp. 279-284. K.F. Russell, 'The De re anatomica of R. Colombo,' Australian and New Zealand Journal of Survery, 22 (1953), 225f. M. Ionescu, 'R. Colombo, cremonensis, precursor al lui Guglielmo Harveius angli in descrierea circulatici singelui,' Revista medico-chirurgicala, 76 (1972), 207-13.


Commandino, Federico



1. Dates: Born: Urbino, 1506. Baldi says 1509 and virtually everyone has followed him. Nevertheless, the epithet on Commandino's tomb, composed by close relatives, attributed 69 years to him. Died: Urbino, 5 September 1575; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Aristocrat; Eng; Commandino came from a noble family prominent in Urbino. His grandfather was secretary to Duke Federico of Urbino. His father, Battista Commandino, designed the fortifications of the city. No explicit information on financial status. Although it is nearly impossible to believe that the family was less than affluent, I have to list the financial status as unknown.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; University of Ferrara; M.D. He studied Latin and Greek for some years with a humanist, G. Torelli of Fano. Baldi asserts that Commandino studied philosophy and medicine at Padua from 1534 to 1544, but then took his M.D. from the University of Ferrara. (Rose says there is every little evidence for these ten years of study-though he then proceeds to accept them.) I assume a B.A. or its equivalent.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; He was the most important figure in the translation (mostly from Greek into Latin) and publication of the classics in mathematics (for example, Euclid and Archimedes). He also translated Euclid into Italian. He added his own essay, On the Calibration of Sundials, to Ptolemy's Planisphere, which was edited by him and published in 1562. His only other original work, dealing with the center of gravity of solid bodies, was published in 1565 at Bologna.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Private secretary to Pope Clement VII, June 1534-Dec. 1534, when Clement died. At this point he is said to have gone to Padua. Apparently there was a period of medical practice from 1544 until at least 1546 and perhaps as long as 1552. Private tutor and medical adviser, and then personal physician, to the Duke of Urbino, beginning perhaps in 1546 and perhaps as late as 1552. Card. Ranuccio Farnese, a relative by marriage of the Duke of Urbino, met Commandino there and promptly took him in his retinue, as personal physician, to Rome sometime in the early 1550's. In Rome Card. Marcello Cervini became acquainted with Commandino and was preparing to load him with favors after he [the cardinal] was elected Pope Marcello II in 1555. However, the Pope died very soon after his election, so that the favors never in fact transpired. Apparently Commandino returned to Urbino (there are letters that place him there during the decade 1555-65) and perhaps to the service of the Duke, though it is manifest that his relation with the Farnese continued. He refused at accept a university appointment. In 1665, when Card. Ranuccio Farnese was appointed Bishop of Bologna, Commandino joined him there. The Cardinal proceeded to die that same year, and Commandino returned to Urbino, where the duke gave him a pension.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Pope Clement VII, Pope Marcello II, Card. Ranuccio Farnese-see above. His tutor, who became a bishop, obtained for him the appointment as private secretary to the Pope in 1534. The Duke of Urbino-see above. Commandino was the tutor to the heir of Urbino. As Duke Francesco Maria, this man ordered the publication of the Latin Euclid, and received the dedication. Commandino dedicated his first work, and later ones, to Card. Ranuccio Farnese, and he dedicated one to Ranuccio's brother, Card. Alessando Farnese. He dedicated an edition of Archimedes to Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Commandino received a subvention for the publication from the duke. A letter relevant to this publication survives. Before publication the duke was told that Commandino planned to dedicate the work to him, and at that point he furnished the subvention. In a letter of 3 November 1560 to Duke Ottavio, Commandino outlined plans for other mathematical publications (Ptolemy's De analemmate and an edition of Apollonius). He told the duke that he had just married off one daughter and would soon marry off another, and that this was taking nearly all of his assets. Thus he needed assistance for the publication, and especially he wanted assurance that he [Commandino] would receive from his patron [the cardinal was meant] sufficient emoluments to support him in his old age. (See Rose, 'Letters,' for the text of both of these letters.); He dedicated a translation of Aristarchus to Alderano Malaspina, Marchese of Carrara (Alderano Cibo, a young courtier at Urbino, in another account).
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; At the request of the anatomist Eustachio (note this, not at the request of a military figure) Commandino improved on the reduction compass apparently invented by Fabricio Mordente, developing it into the polimetric proportional compass, the forerunner of Galilio's compass. (Despite what I say above about Eustachio, I gather than Mordente's device was for military purposes.)
10. Scientific Societies: He maintained relations and correspondence with a number of mathematicians, including Maurolico and Clavius. John Dee visited him, on mathematical business, in 1663.

SOURCES:
C. Grossi, Degli uomini illustri di Urbino commentario, (Urbino, 1819), pp. 53-7. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 185-221. This is undoubtedly the best account of Commandino now available. _____, 'Letters Illustrating the Career of Federico Commandino,' Physis, 15, (1973), 401-20. Stillman Drake and I. Drabkin, Mechanics in Sixteenth-Century Italy, (Madison, Wis., 1969), pp. 41-4.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Bernardino Baldi's biography of Commandino was published in Giornal de'letterati d'Italia, 19 (1714), pp.140-175, and reprinted in Versi e prose di Bernardino Baldi, F. Ugolino and F.-L. Polidori, eds., (Florence, 1859), pp.513-537. Giuseppe Mammiani, Elogi storici di Federico Commandino, G. Ubaldo del Monte, Giulio Carlo Fagnani, letti all'Accademia Pesarese, (Pesaro, 1828), pp. 4-42. M. Clagett, 'Archimedes in the Late Middle Ages,' in Duane H.D. Roller, ed. Perspectives in the History of Science and Technology, (Norman, Ok., 1971), pp. 253-6.


Copernicus, Nicolas



1. Dates: Born: Torun, Poland, 19 February 1473; Died: Frauenburg, Poland, 24 May 1543 Datecode: - Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Merchant; Church Living; Father: Niklas Koppernigk, a merchant and baker from Cracow, who migrated to Torun not later than 1458. He prospered there and was appointed magistrate for life. He married Barbara Watzenrode, daugther of a wealthy Torun merchant. He died in 1483. Uncle: Lucas Watzenrode (1447-1512) assumed responsibility for Copernicus after the death of his father. He was a churchman, and became Bishop of Varmia (Ermland), one of Prussia's four diocese, in 1489. The circumstances were wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Torun, Poland; Career: Frauenburg, Poland; Death: Frauenburg, Poland
4. Education: Cra; M.A., University of Bologna; University of Padua; L.D. He first attended school at Turon and then Wloclawek. 1491-4, University of Cracow. 1496-1500, University of Bologna. He enrolled and became a member of the German nation in 1496. Though he was officially studying canon law, he was taught and maybe also lodged by Domenico Maria de Novarra (1454-1504). He did take an M.A. 1501-3, University of Padua, studying medicine. 1503, took a doctorate in canon law at the University of Ferrara.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy
7. Means of Support: ecclestiastical position. Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Patronage; He spent the year 1500 in Rome teaching mathematics privately. In 1497 he received a canonry at the cathedral in Frauenburg. This supplied ample support for the rest of his life. 1506-12, he acted as medical advisor and secretary to his uncle the Bishop of Ermland, and lived at the Bishop's castle in Heilsberg. In the years that followed, he was occasionally called back to Heilsberg to tend to ailing bishops. 1516-19, appointed to administer some outlying estates belonging to the chapter, and lived at Allenstein castle. This assignment was interupted by war. After it was safe to return, Copernicus assisted in resettling the estates for about six months (1520-1521). 1523, he was appointed Administrator-general in the interregnum of about six months between Bishops.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; His most important patron by far was his uncle Lucas Watzenrode, who arranged for the canonry at Frauenburg, and appointed Copernicus to a trusted position as his medical advisor for 6 years. Copernicus accompanied or respresented his uncle on a number of diplomatic missions. Tiedemann Giese, Bishop of Kulm, was an old friend of Copernicus's from the chapter, who entertained Copernicus and Rheticus when he visted. Copernicus entrusted his manuscript of De revolutionibus to Giese, who sent it on to Rheticus. There is some speculation that Copernicus supported Giese in an unsucessful bid for the Bishoporic of Ermland and suffered some backlash as a result. The Duke of Prussia at one point summoned Copernicus to Koenigsberg to attend to a councilor. Copernicus also submitted a work on the debasement of Prussian coinage to the Prussian Landestag in 1528. Copernicus was invited by the Lateran council to assist in calendar reform in 1514. The papal sectretary Johann Widmansted read a Copernican lecture to Clement VII in 1533. In 1536, Cardinal Schoenberg, nuncio in Poland and Prussia, wrote from Rome urging Copernicus to publish.
9. Technological Connections: practiced medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Angus Armitage, Copernicus: The Founder of Modern Astronomy (New York: Thomas Yoreloff, 1957). Leopold Prowe, Nicolas Coppernicus. Full detail not extracted from Prowe when the work seemed unlikely to yield much biographical information.


Cordus, Euricius



1. Dates: Born: Simtshausen bei Marburg (Siemershausen), Hesse, 1486 (DSB, Greene, Leake) or 1484 (Neue deutsche Biographie); Died: Bremen, Germany, 24 December 1535. Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; Magistrate; A farmer in the village of Frankenberg, of which he was Burgermeister; He is said to have been well to do; I'm willing to accept prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Erfuhrt; M.A. University of Ferrara; M.D. Secondary Means of Support: probably attended schools in Wetter and Frankenberg. University: ca 1505-7 studied at Erfurt. after interruption, MA Erfurt 1516. after interruption, MD Ferrara 1521 or 1522.
5. Religion: Catholic, then (by 1527) ardent Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: botany
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1511, headmaster of a school in Kassel. 1514, married pharmacist's daughter; occupation unknown, in great poverty (within a year had second son). 1517, studied and lectured at Leipzig, then; 1517, became rector of the Abbey School of St. Mary in Erfurt, which he had founded with the humanists Eobanus Hessus and Joachim Camerarius. 1521, the school closed, and because 'his income was not nearly adequate' he decided to study medicine; an Erfurt physician named Sturtius lent him the money to go to Italy. Returned to Erfurt, practiced medicine for 4 - 5 years. 1523, accepted an appointment as municipal physician for Brunswick. 1527, Hessian Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous made him professor of medicine at newly founded University of Marburg. Twice rector of the Philippina. 1533, resigned from Marburg to accept appointment as municipal physician in Bremen; also professor at the Gymnasium there.
8. Patronage: court and magistrates; Landgraf Phillip the Magnanimous of Hesse. Dedicated his Botanilogicon to the Senate and Citizens of Bremen.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Informal contact with various humanists. Formal: None

SOURCES:
Helmut Dolezal, Neue deutsche Biographie, 3, 358 - 359. E. L. Greene, 'Landmarks of Botanical History,' in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 54.1 (1909), 263-314. C. D. Leake, 'Valerius Cordus and the Discovery of Ether', Isis, 7 (1925), 14 - 24.

Not Available and Not Consulted: All other sources in DSB not in library. (He is sometimes mentioned in sources about his son, Valerius, not all of which I have yet read.)


Cordus, Valerius



1. Dates: Born: Hesse (maybe Erfurt) Germany, 18 February 1515; Died: Rome, Italy, 25 Sep 1544; Datecode: Lifespan: 29
2. Father: physician and professor; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Born: German; career: German; Died: Italy
4. Education: University of Marburg; University of Leipzig; University of Wittenburg; M.D. 1527 - 1533, studied botany and pharmacy under his father, Euricius Cordus. 1527, enrolled in University of Marburg. 1531, BA Marburg. 1533 - 9? completed his training at his uncle Johannes (or Joachim) Ralla's apothecary shop in Leipzig, where he enrolled in the University. 1539-44, studied medicine and lectured on materia medica at U Wittenberg; his lectures were very popular; received MD from University of Wittenberg. 1542-4, made trips to Italy to study.
5. Religion: Protestant ('evangelisch')-i.e, Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: botany and pharmacy
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Academic; 1533-9? worked in an apothecary shop. 1539-44, 'developed close ties to apothecary shop of Lucas Cranach.'; Lectured on materia medica at University of Wittenberg; his lectures were very popular.
8. Patronage: city magistrates; 1542, made a short visit to Nuremburg to present his Dispensatorium to the city council, which gave him 100 gold guilders and published the book in 1546.
9. Technological Connections: pharmacology; Worked with apothecaries. Wrote first official Dispensatorium north of the Alps.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: much admired by contemporaries; visited various scholars in Italy. Konrad Gesner published many of Valerius' works after he died. Formal: None

SOURCES:
E. L. Greene, 'Landmarks of Botanical History,' in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 54.1 (1909), 263-314. C. D. Leake, 'Valerius Cordus and the Discovery of Ether', Isis, 7 (1925), 14-24. Rudolf Schmitz, DSB, 3, 413 - 415. Hermann Ziegenspeck, Neue deutsche Biographie, 3, 359

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: O. Bessler, 'Valerius Cordus und der medizinisch-botanische Unterricht,' in 450 Jahre Martin-Luther-Universität Halle Wittenberg, (Halle Wittenberg, 1952), 1, 323 - 333 - LF 2763 . A53; T. Irmisch, 'Einige Mittheilungen über Valerius Cordus,' Botanische Zeitung, 22 (1864), 315-17. Bio Lib QK1 . B76; H. Peters, 'Die älteste Pharmakopoee in Deutschland,' in his Aus pharmazeutischer Vorzeit (Berlin, 1886), pp. 129 -153. - Stacks Royal Society (London); 61 . P 482; T. Robinson, 'On the Nature of Sweet Oil of Vitriol,' Journal of the History of Medine, 14 (1959), 231-3. R151.T48; R. Schmitz, 'Zur Bibliographie der Erstausgabe des Dispensatoriums Valerii Cordi,' Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, 42 (1958), 260 - 270. Q3 . S 94
Most of the sources listed in the DSB are not in the library.


Coronel, Luis Nuñez



1. Dates: Born: Segovia, second half of 15th century; it must have been close to 1480, for he went to Paris as at student about 1500. death: Spain or Canary Islands, 1531. Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: 0
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Sp; Career: France; Be,Sp; Death: Sp
4. Education: University of Paris; D.D. Early education in Salamanca. To University of Paris (College de Montagu) about 1500. Student of John Major. I assume B.A. D.D., 1514
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic philosophy; Like the others in the Spanish group in Paris at that time, Nuñez Coronel wrote on logic and Aristotelian physics, especially the problem of motion.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Patronage; Taught theology in the Sorbonne from 1504. He attracted to the College de Montagu students from some of the leading families of Spain, including the Larquis Inachus Lopez de Mandocia, the grandson of Pierre Ferrand de Velasco, the Count de Miranda, and Pierre de Stunica. Left Paris about 1517 for Low Countries. In 1520 in Flanders as preacher and adviser at the court of Charles V. He was received in the court by the Emperor. Served on Inquisition of Brussels in 1521 or 22. Back to Spain in 1525 or 27. Secretary to Alfonso Monrique, Archbishop Seville and Inquisitor General. In 1527 appointed Bishop of Las Palmas in the Canaries.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocracy, Ecclesiastical official; He dedicated his work on the Physics to 'the illustrious man Inacho de Mandocia. See also above.
9. Technological Connections: None; 
10. Scientific Societies: None, though he must have had informal relations with the group, especially the Spanish group, in Paris.

SOURCES:
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedadespanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). Pierre Duhem, Etudes sur Leonaro da Vinci, 3, passim, but especially 135-41,242-6, 543-55. About him as a philosopher; very little biographical material. Hubert Elie, 'Quelques maitres de l'université de Paris vers l'an 1500,' Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen age, 25-26, (1950-51), 193-243. Some biographical material. William Wallace, 'The Enigma of Domingo de Soto,' Isis, 59 (1968), 384-401. _____, 'The Calculatores in Early 16th Century Physics,' British Journal for the History of Science, 4 (1968-9), 221-32. Ricardo G. Villoslada, 'Juan de Celaya,' La Universidad de Paris durante los estudios de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 14 of Analecta Gregoriana, Series Fac. Hist. Ecc. Sectio B, num. 2 (Roma, 1938), pp. 404-7.


Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria



1. Dates: Born: Venice, 15 August 1650 (DBI and Armao make it 16 August, if that matters); Died: Venice, 9 December 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Artisan; Maffio Coronelli was a taylor. It is asserted that the family was of rather modest means. I take that to be a euphemism for poor. Vincenzio was apparently orphaned at ten and lived for five years with an elder brother in Ravenna. He was apprenticed to a joiner, and later he learned the trade of engraving. He entered a religious order at age fifteen as a means whereby a poor boy could obtain an education.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career:Iy, French; Death: Italian
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. After Coronelli joined the Franciscans, they sent him to Rome to the College of S. Bonaventua in 1670. He received his doctorate in theology at Rome in 1674, only three years later. Here again is the problem of education within a religious order. I will list him as having the equivalent of a B.A. and with the advanced degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. He became a Minorite friar (i.e., a Franciscan) in 1655. Indeed he was later the Minister-general of the order. Coronelli was later suspect because of supposedly unorthodox material in his encyclopedia (the Biblioteca universale). However, he had had a dispute with the Pope just before this, leading to his being dismissed as Minister-general. Armao considers the charges to have been trumped up, and they certainly appear so to me.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geography; Cartography; Subordinate Disciplines: Hydraulics; Coronelli's work includes more than 100 large and small globes that have survived, several hundred maps, printed separately and as parts of atlases, an incredible number of geographic and cartographic publications, and seven volumes of a projected forty-five volume encyclopedia (Biblioteca universale). It is partly for his globes that Coronelli is remembered: their accuracy, the wealth of information displayed, and their artistic excellence distinquish their maker as one of the leading geographers and cartographers of the baroque period. In the early 80's he made two famous globes, one celestial and one terrestrial, for Louis XIV-four meters in diameter. He later made a globe three meters in diameter for Innocent XII, and for the Duke of Parma he made globes of about four feet in diameter. He made a host of smaller ones, down to one inch. He also published on geography, with special attention to Venetian conquests (not then known to be temporary) from the Turks. His Atlante veneto, 1690f, included 1,200 maps. His maps incorporated the latest discoveries. At the end of his life he published a work on hydrostatics, Effete naturali delle acque.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Church Living; After his degree in theology, Coronelli was an official in his order for three years, 1674-7, after which he devoted himself primarily to geography and cartography. However, he lived in a house of the order in Venice most of his life. He built his first pair of globes for the duke of Parma, about 1674. (DBI makes this 1680; Armao says before 1680.); Constructed globes for Louis XIV at Paris, 1681-1683. He remained in France until 1684, and later he returned a second time for a short period. Upon his return from France, now famous, he was named Cosmographer of the Republic of Venice, 1685, with a pension of 400 florins. The Venetians founded a universita alle Procuratie on the basis of Coronelli's Accademia degli Argonauti. As nearly as I can make out, Coronelli, as professor of geography, (with a salary of 200 ducats) constituted this university. As an official of Venice, its cosmographer, Coronelli was sent on a mission through Germany to England in 1696-7; in 1699 Venice was planning to send him on a mission to Constantinople, but he managed to beg off. In the convent dei Frari in Venice he set up a superbly equipped cartographic workshop and his own press. He had about ten engravers at work there. 1685, he was elected Provincial of the Province of Hungary for the Franciscans. He renounced the post in 1686, but was named perpetual definitor of the province. Minister-general of the Minorite order, 1701-1704, when he was deposed by the Pope following a conflict which is, at least for me, ill-defined. He lived the rest of his life in the Minorite convent in Venice, 1705-1718. Coronelli was called to Vienna by the Emperor in 1717 and named Commissioner of the Danube and the other rivers of the empire.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Magistrate; He built his first pair of globes for the Duke of Parma (in Parma) sometime before 1680. His work impressed the French ambassador to the Holy See, and in 1681 he was invited to Paris to construct globes for Louis XIV. Coronelli received a gold necklace from Louis and a pension of 300 ecus. In 1686, Louis gave him a privilege of fifteen years for the publication of his works. In 1687 he published Roma festeggiante, Rome's celebration of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, dedicated to the Marquis of Croissy, Secretary of State, a sort of repayment for the support and protection he had enjoyed in Paris. Upon his return to Venice, Coronelli organized his Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti (1684) under the protection of the Doge, Marc'Antonio Giustiniani. G.B. Dona, a patrician, was later the protector of the academy. In 1688, after his second sojourn in France, Coronelli made replicas of the great Parisian globes, which he presented to another Doge, Morosini. The Venetian government then named him professor at the Procuratie, and Coronelli published a volume of homage on Morosini (1690) in return. One of the distinctive features of Coronelli was his sedulous efforts to woo the favor of those who counted in Venice. His first major publication consisted of two folios celebrating the conquests from the Turks in the Morea-dedicated to the Duke of Brunswick, then the leader of the Venetian forces. F. Morosini was at some point the Venetian general; Coronelli compiled maps to present to him and when Morosini was the Doge, dedicated Atlante veneto to Morosini. I will not even attempt to list all of his dedications (see Armao), but many of them are to Venetian patricians. Thus in 1697 a work, or really a sheet, dedicated to Sen. Giovanni Barbarigo, traced the family back to the year 800. There is evidence (Armao, p. 98) that he issued different title pages of the same work (in this case Isole e citta), apparently in order to dedicate individual copies to different men. He dedicated individual engravings. I find one (Armao, p. 199) engraved originally in 1672 to Brother Bernardo di Capridone, which Coronelli altered later (i.e., altered the plate) to dedicate it to Card. Decio Azzolini. He also wooed high ecclesiastics. I mentioned the globe for Innocent XII. Innocent named him one of the fathers of the Cenoby of the Twelve Apostles in 1699, and then definitore generale of the order. He became Minister-general of the Franciscans. He published a series of works such as Cronologia universale (1707), which had lives and geneaologies of popes, kings, etc., dedicated to Card. Orsini. A Synoptic Table of Cardinals (1701) was dedicated to Card. Spinola. In 1707 a catalogue of religious orders dedicated to Card. Johann Philip of Lamberg; vol, 2, on the female orders, was dedicated to another cardinal, and a third volume, in 1715, was dedicated to the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta. When William of Orange ascended the throne of England, an ally of Venice, Coronelli did a volume of his heroic achievements. Since William was popular in Germany, there was a German edition of the volume. Likewise, and with even hand, when Philip V (the first Bourbon) ascended the throne of Spain, Coronelli did a volume on the heroic achievements of Louis XIV. Coronelli had a great clock that Leopold I had given him (I don't know for what reason); he deposited the clock in the Treasury of the Franciscans in Assisi while he was Minister-general. It appears to me that after the fiasco with the Pope in 1704, Coronelli began to drop out of favor in Venice. Most of the volumes of his big collection, Teatro della guerra (the War of the Spanish Succession), do not carry dedications. The volumes were mostly pirated from earlier works, as though he now lacked monetary support. A work of 1709, with engravings of the villas along the Brenta (a work seemingly aimed at the Venetian carriage trade) was dedicated, not to a Venetian patrician, but to Prince Giacomo Sobieski, son of the King of Poland. His enclycopedia, Biblioteca universale, offers insight. He intended it to reach forty-five volumes. Vol. 1 (1701) dedicated to Pope Clement XI; 2 (1702) to the Doge; 3 (1703) to the King of Spain; 4 (1703) to Joseph I, Emperor-to-be; 5 (1704) to the King of Bavaria; 6 (1706) to the Republic of Genoa (which responded with a gift of 100 scudi). By now this project was in trouble, reflecting his other troubles I think. Vol. 7 came out only in 1709, dedicated to the Grand Master of the Order of Malta, who was hardly in the same league with the earlier ones. There were no more volumes.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Hydraulics; Military Engineer; He was known as a civil engineer in Venice, and was invited to Vienna and consulted by the emperor on flood control measures in 1717. In 1699 Innocent XII called him to Rome to sound the harbor of Anzio. He was the inventor of a number of military machines (canons, mortars, etc.)
10. Scientific Societies: Founded the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti in Venice in 1684. It was the first geographical society. The academy had an immense success, enrolling some 200 members from all of Europe by 1693. Its only function was to promote the works of Coronelli.

SOURCES:
E. Armao, Vincenzio Coronelli, (Firenze, 1944). Dizionario biografico degli italiani.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Roberto Almagia, 'Vincenzo Coronelli', Der Globusfreund, 1, no. 1 (1952), pp.13-27. O.-G. Saarmann Muris, Der Globus im Wandel der Zeiten, (Berlin-Stuttgart, 1961), pp.167-173. Pietro Rigobon, 'Biografia e studi del P. Vincenzo Coronelli,' Archivio veneto, 3, no.1 (1872), pp.267-271. L. Cicchitto, 'Il padre Vincenzio Coronelli,' Miscellaneafrancescana di storia, lettere, ed arte, 14 (1915), 158-75. Miscellanea francescana, 51 (1951)-a volume dedicated to Coronelli. P. Amat di S. Filippo, Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia, 2 (Rome, 1882), 465-7.


Cortes de Albacar, Martin



1. Dates: Born: Bujaraloz, Spain, at unknown date. It is known only that he went to Cadiz before 1530. died before 1582. Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan:
2. Father: Unknown; He claimed that his father was of an ancient and noble family. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: None Known;
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Navigation
7. Means of Support: unknown; Cortes was, according to his own statement, the offspring of an ancient and noble family of Aragon. That is all that is known, if that is in fact known.
8. Patronage: court; One of the few things known about Cortes is that he dedicated his influential book on navigation, Breve compendio de la esfera to Charles V. Navarrete says the Cortes sent a copy of the work to Juan Parent, a patrician of Valencia
9. Technological Connections: Navigation
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedadespanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979).
Diccionario enciclopedico hispano-americano, 5.
M. Fernandez de Navarrete, Disertacion sobre la historia de la nautica y de las mathematicas, (Madrid, 1846). L. Labarta, biographical introduction to Cortes, Breve compendio, (Zaragoza, 1941).
D. W. Waters, The Art of Navigation in Elizabethan and Stuart Times, (New Haven, 1958).
E. G. R. Taylor, The Haven-finding Art, (New York, 1956).
The fact is that very little is known about this man except for his book.


Crabtree, William



1. Dates: Born: Broughton, Lancashire, June 1610; He was baptized on 29 June. Died: Broughton, late July 1644; Datecode: Lifespan: 34
2. Father: Peasant - Small Farmer; John Crabtree is described as a yeoman farmer of comfortable means. 'Comfortable means' must surely mean they were prosperous. The grammar school education supports this.
3. Nationality: Birth: English Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; Manchester Grammar School. No university education. He was self-educated in astronomy.
5. Religion: Anglican; I found nothing at all about his religion, and thus put him down as Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Crabtree made precise observations, which convinced him of the accuracy of the Rudolphine Tables; he became one of the early converts to Kepler's system. He converted the tables to decimal form. By observation he established the latitude of Manchester. He was one of the earliest Englishmen to study the sunspots. He collaborated with Horrock's work on the moon.
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Secondary Means of Support: Engineer; Clothier or merchant in Manchester, from 1630 or so. He appears to have become a man of some substance. Crabtree was occasionally employed as a land surveyor.
8. Patronage: None Known; Prosperous himself and not seeking anything more, Crabtree was not the sort who needed patronage. In the accounts of him there is nothing that sounds like patronage at all.
9. Technological Connections: Cartography; Instruments; Crabtree was occasionally employed as a surveyer, and a map of the estate of Sir Humphrey Booth that he did in 1637 survives. He recognized the importance of instruments in refining observational accuracy, and his correspondence with Gascoigne is filled with discussions of this issue. The correspondence refers to clocks, telescopes, micrometers, and related pieces. Like Horrocks and Gascoigne, he apparently made his own telescopes and other instruments (which means, for parts other than lenses, that he employed local craftsmen to make things to his specifications).
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Correspondence with J.Horrocks, Samuel Foster, W. Gasciogne and Christopher Towneley. Associaton with Horrocks.

SOURCES:
William Derham, 'Observations upon the Spots . . . upon the Sun,' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 27 (1711), 280-90; 'Extracts from Mr. Gascoigne's and Mr. Crabtree's Letters,' ibid., 30 (1717), 603-10. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 4, 1356-7. E.C. Watson, 'An Interesting Tercenterary,' Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 51 (1939), 305-14. Almost entirely a long quotation from the English translation of Horrocks' Venus in sole visa. Allan Chapman, Three North Country Astronomers, (Manchester, 1982). This is the best source I have found.

Not Available and Not Consulted: John E. Bailey, 'Jeremich Horrocks and William Crabtree, Observers of the Transit of Venus,' Palatine Notebook, 2 (1882), 253-66, and 3 (1883), 17, 52.
A.B. Whatton, 'A Memoir of His Life and Labours,' in Jeremiah Horrocks, The Transit of Venus across the Sun, tr. Whatton, (London, 1859).


Craig [Craige], John



1. Dates: Born: Hoddam, Dumfries, Scotland, late 1662 or early 1663; Died: London, 11 October 1731; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Church Living; James Craig was the Vicar of Hoddam when John Craig was born, and moved on during the years ahead to several other livings. He was a distant relative of Bishop Gilbert Burnet. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Edn; Craig matriculated in the University of Edinburgh in 1684 and graduated M.A. in 1687. He was David Gregory's student in mathematics there. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A.
5. Religion: Anglican; There is ambiguity here. Craig was descended from John Craig, the Scottish reformer. In 1679 his father was deprived of his living for refusing to submit to the Sacramental Test, that is, for refusing to take the sacrament according to the Anglican rite. He received a new position only in 1687. This certainly sounds like a Scottish Presbyterian to me. However, Nash calls John Craig a Scottish Episcopalian. Certainly he travelled in such circles there (e.g., David Gregory), and certainly he made his career in the English church after the Revolution. I strongly suspect that I should list him as a Calvinist initially.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Optics; Craig was one of the first in Britain to realize the importance of the new calculus. Already in 1685, while he was still an undergraduate and only a year after Leibniz's initial publication, Craig published Methodus figurarum lineis rectis et curvis comprehensarum quadraturas determinandi, in which he employed Leibnizian notation. Tractatus mathematicus de figurarum curvilinearum quadraturis et locis geometricis, 1693-still employing the Leibnizian notation and acknowledging his debt to Leibniz. There were also several papers in the Philosophical Transactions and the Acta eruditorum on it. According to one source, his De calculo fluentium, 1718, was a republication of the early work. In 1718 it had a supplement, De optica analytica.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Craig migrated to England in 1689 seeking preferment. His distant relation, Gilbert Burnet, was named Bishop of Salisbury for his support of the Revolution. Craig received a curacy in Burnet's see in the summer of 1689, and he pretty well made his career in the see. 1692, Vicar of Potterne. 1696, Vicar of Gillingham Major (?40/17/6). 1708, Prebend of Durnford (?30). 1726, Prebend of Gilligham (?54). Burnet had died in 1715, but Craig's brother, who had also started an ecclesiastical career in the same see, had other influential connections. Craig also took into his home students in mathematics.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Patronage of Government Official; See the references to Burnet above. Craig dedicated Theologiae christianae principia mathematica to him in 1699. A letter of Sir Richard Howe, a Tory and thus a political enemy, in 1714 referred to Craig as a 'creature of the Bishop of Salisbury.'; Craig dedicated De calculo fluentium, 1718, to James Stanhope, who was then Secretary of State. Unfortunately for Craig, Stanhope soon lost out to Walpole and died not long thereafter.
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; In the early 18th century he worked on a method of determining longitude.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Extensive correspondence with many Scottish mathematicians, including Gregory, Colin Campbell, Colin Maclaurin. As a result of his articles in the Acta, he was engaged in an extended controversy with Tschirnhaus in the late 1680's. Royal Society, 1711.

SOURCES:
Introduction (anonymous) to a translation of Craig's Theologiae christianae principia mathematica (the translation is labelled Craig's Rules of Historical Evidence, Beiheft 4 (1964) of History and Theory. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 4, 1373. Alexander Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, new ed. (London, 1813), 10, 451-2. Richard Nash, John Craige's 'Mathematical Principles of Christian Theology', (Carbondale, IL, 1991). The still brief life of Craig in this volume is much the most extensive.


Crollius [Croll], Oswald



1. Dates: Born: Hesse-Kassel, c.1560 Died: Prague, 25 December 1609; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Magistrate; Mayor of the village of Wetter; no other information about occupation. No information about financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: France, Germany, Czechoslovakia; Death: Czechoslovakia
4. Education: University of Marburg; M.D., University of Strasbourg; Gentry; Hei; Matriculated in University of Marburg, 1576. I assume B.A. Apparently early M.D. in 1582. Later studied at Strasbourg, Geneva, and Heidelberg.
5. Religion: Certainly Protestant; apparently Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: iatrochemistry and alchemy
7. Means of Support: medical practice and patronage He was tutor to the d'Esnes family in Lyon, 1583-90. Tutor then to Count Maximilian von Pappenheim, 1593-7. From 1593 until his death, medical practice in Prague and Brno. Rudolf II sometimes consulted him, and also princes. Croll cured Christian of Anhalt-Bernburg and became his personal physician and then his diplomatic agent in Prague. Christian supported Croll's chemical research. Croll dedicated the Basilica chymica to him. As agent of Christian, he was in extended close contact with the Czech magnate Wok Ursinus, Herr von Rosenberg, who was also interested in chemistry. Rosenberg financed the publication of the Basilica.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocracy; In addition to above, Croll met della Porta in travelling as a tutor and dedicated a book to him. As I now know, Porta had no money, and this dedication could not have been related to patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Also developed pharmaceuticals.
10. Scientific Societies: None; However, he was part of the circle of occult scientists around Rudolf in Prague.

SOURCES
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Neue deutsche Biographie. Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word, (Baltimore, 1975), especially pp. 1-3. Gerald Schroeder, 'Oswald Croll,' Pharaceutische Industrie, 21 (1959), 405-8.


Croone [Croune], William



1. Dates: Born: London, 15 September 1633; Died: London, 12 October 1684 Datecode: Lifespan: 51
2. Father: Merchant; Henry Croone was a merchant in London. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cmb Merchant Taylor's School. Cambridge University, 1647-50; Emmanuel College; B.A., 1650; M.A. 1654. M.D. by Cambridge University in pursuance of the King's mandate, 1662 (and hence not listed).
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Embryology; Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Mtr. Croone was especially interested in muscular action and embryology. He published De ratione motus musculorum in 1664, and in 1672 read a paper, 'De formatione pulli in ovo,' (radically preformationist) to the Royal Society in 1672. He gave reports to the Royal Society on a range of physiological questions. He lectured on anatomy to the Barber Surgeons for years, and also pursued some comparative anatomy. As an experimenter he was associated with Boyle's study of pressure and volume in air. Croone discovered, and demonstrated experimentally, that water has its maximum density above the freezing point. He carried out systematic observations of the weather with crude thermometers and hygroscopes and with barometers.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Org; Croone was highly esteemed as a physician; he acquired an extensive and lucrative practice and died rich. Elected Fellow of Emmanuel at Cambridge 1650- . No one says when he lay the fellowship down, but Emmanuel did have the statute limiting tenure.
Professor of Rhetoric at Gresham College, 1659-1670-salary L50. Lecturer in anatomy to Barber-Surgeon's Company. This I list under Organizational employee. Admmited to Gray's Inn, 1670.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; The mandated medical degree is the only documented patronage in Croone's life.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine;
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: London circle. Correspondence with N. Steno, Henry Power, and others. Royal Society, 1660-84. Croone was one of the original members. He was Register (i.e., Secretary), 1660-2, frequently on the Council throughout the rest of his life, and in general active in the Society's affairs. Royal College of Physicians, 1663-84; Candidate 1663; Fellow 1675; Censor, 1679.

SOURCES:
L.M. Payne, Leonard G. Wilson, and Harold Hartley, 'William Croone, F.R.S.,' Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 15, (1960), 211-19. Leonard G. Wilson, 'William Croone's Theory of Muscle Contraction,' Ibid., 16 (1961), 158-78. T. Birch, History of the Royal Society, 4, 339-340. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 207-8. William Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (London, 1878), 1, 369-71. John Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, facsimile ed. (New York, 1967), pp. 320-7. F.J. Cole, 'Dr. William Croone on Generation,' in M.F. Ashley Montague, ed. Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning Offered in Homage to George Sarton, (New York, 1947), pp. 113-35.


Crousaz, Jean-Pierre de



1. Dates: Born: Lausanne, 13 April 1663; Died: Lausanne, 22 February 1750 (NBG gives his year of death as 1748); Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Aristocrat; Abraham de Crousaz was 'colonel lieutenant de Leurs Excellences de Berne.' He belonged to one of the oldest and most noble families of Lausanne. In view of all the information on Crousaz's life, including estates he inherited, he had to have been reared in conditions at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Switzerland; Career: Switzerland, Netherlands, Germany; Death: Switzerland
4. Education: University of Lausanne; Gentry; University of Leiden; He studied philosophy and reformed theology at the Academy of Lausanne, where he matriculated in 1676, and then at the Academy of Geneva. 'Academy' is an ambiguous word, not always used in the same way, but I find the Academy of Lausanne described as a school of High Studies (Haute Études), which I equate with university, even though it did not acquire the legal status of a university until the end of the 18th century. I assume that the Academy of Geneva was of similar status. I categorize both as universities. At age 19, dissatisfied with the conservatism of education in Switzerland, he left for a period of study in Leiden. Although I did not meet explicit mention of a degree, it seem implicit in all of Crousaz's following career.
5. Religion: Calvinist; Crousaz was an innovator in a traditional setting, and he generated doubts about his own orthodoxy. In his old age, however, he was defending Christianity against the esprit philosophique (which meant, for him, primarily Leibnizian fatalism). He also issued a refutation of Collins' deism.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics. His Commentaire sur l'analyse des infiniment petits, appeared in 1721, made him famous. He also published Logique, which had many editions, Traité du beau and several other works on philosophy, mathematics, and education, but these do not appear to have pertained to science. He received from the Académie des Sciences of Paris the first prize in the annual competition for a memoir on the theory of movement in 1720, and in 1722 a prize on the causes of elasticity from the Academy of Bordeaux. He later won two more prizes from the Academy of Bordeaux on similar topics in what I would call natural philosophy-in effect Cartesian mechanical philosophy. In Lausanne he was the voice against Scholasticism and for the new mechanical (again, Cartesian) philosophy. At about the age of eighty he finally converted to Newtonianism!
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Schoolmaster; In Crousaz's case, more so than in most others I have seen, it is very difficult to decide on the relative importance of the different sources of support. All five contributed. 1684-99, Crousaz was deacon of Lausanne. This was a church position; it involved preaching. To supplement his meager income during this period, he taught a course in 'raison' (Greek, Latin, philosophy, and mathematics) for eight or ten hours per day, and used his home (in a manner familiar in the age) as a hostel for his students. Professor of philosophy and mathematics at the Academy of Lausanne, 1700-1724. He also taught privately (as he continued to do through much of his life). Rector of the Academy of Lausanne, 1706-1708, and 1722-24. Crousaz was caught in what I would call a fundamentalist reaction in Lausanne and became an object of attack. Also feeling hemmed in by the provinciality of Lausanne and longing to participate more fully in the wider intellectual life of which he now knew, he chose to leave Lausanne. Professor of philosophy and mathematics at the University of Groningen, with a salary of 1500 florins, 1724-1726. In Groningen he also gave private lessons and kept students in his home. Governor of Prince Frederick at the house of Hesse- Kassel, 1726-1732. Received a pension of 800 écus for life from the Landgrave of Hesse, 1733. This was less a sign of affection then a device to terminate Crousaz's relation with the court. Professor of philosophy at the Academy of Lausanne, 1738-1749. Although I find it impossible to assess with assurance, it is clear that Crousaz drew part of his sustenance from the family estate. In his will he left a number of vineyards, surely his own inheritance, to his heirs.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; La Harpe speaks explicitly of Crousaz's protectors and patrons in Bern, the seat of the government of his canton, who controlled the academy in Lausanne. Crousaz dedicated books to the governors of the academy. Crousaz dedicated his first book in mathematics (the Traité d'arithmetique, 1715) to Abbé Bignon in Paris. (I cannot categorize Bignon as an ecclesiastical official; he was a governmental one.) In the early 20's, as he became desperate to leave Lausanne, he dedicated his Traité de l'education to the Princesse de Galles (does this mean Princess of France?). He dedicated his Traité d'algebra to Reaumur. His efforts were not confined to France. It appears to me that he tested all the avenues of patronage over much of northern, Protestant, Europe and of France. (see La Harpe, pp. 58-66.); About the time Crousaz was leaving Groningen, he received offers from the court of Orange to teach Prince William and from the King of Poland for a position at Halle. He stayed in the house of Hesse-Kassel for 7 years to direct the education of the young heir, Prince Frederick. Before he left the house, the Landgrave of Hesse granted him a life pension.
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1725-1750. Associate member of the Académie des Sciences. Associate member of the Académie des Sciences of Bordeaux, 1735-1750. About 2000 letters were sent or received by him. In his correspondence with Reaumur, he discussed natural history, particularly certain shellfish found near Neuchatel; with Abbe Nollet, it was electricity; with Maclaurin optics. Among his correspondents were also Maupertuis, Jacques Cassini, Fontenelle, Bernoulli, and Mairan, who was his closest confidant. Most of these letters are in the archives in Lausanne, but smaller numbers are spread over much of Europe.

SOURCES:
E. de La Harpe, Jean-Pierre de Crousaz et le conflit des idees au siecle des lumieres, (Geneva, 1955).
'Eloge de M.de Crousaz', Histoire de l'Académie des Sciences, 1750, pt. 1, pp. 258-74.
Nouvelle biographie générale, 12, 546-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Eugene Secretan, Galerie suisse, Biographies nationales..., 1, (Lausanne, 1879), pp. 591-599.


Cudworth, Ralph



1. Dates: Born: Aller, Somerset, 1617; Died: Cambridge, 26 June 1688 Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Church Living; Ralph Cudworth [sic] was Rector of Aller and Chaplain to James I. He is described as a clergyman of some distinction. He died in 1624, when his son Ralph was only six or seven. His mother remarried, a Dr. Stoughton, another clergyman, who recognized Ralph's ability and saw to his education. All of the information above indicates prosperity, as does the fact that Cudworth went to Cambridge as a pensioner.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A., B.D., D.D. Cambridge University, Emmanuel College, 1630-44; B.A., 1635; M.A., 1639; B.D. 1644; D.D., 1651.
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; The True Intellectual System of the Universe, 1678, was much influenced by the new natural philosophy. All of the rest of Cudworth's publications were theological.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Fellow and tutor of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1639-44. Rector of North Cadbury, Somerset, 1641-3. North Cadbury was a living under the control of Emmanuel College, which presented Cudworth to it. The living was worth about L300. It is not clear that Cudworth ever resided there. Master of Clare Hall, 1644-54. Regius professor of Hebrew, 1645-88. Master of Christ's College, 1654-88. Vicar of Ashwell, Hertford, 1662; no terminal date is given, but I think the appointment was for life. Again it appears that he never resided in Ashwell. Prebend in Gloucester, 1678.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The Parliamentary visitors appointed Cudworth to the Mastership of Clare Hall, replacing an ejected royalist. Cudworth was called to preach to Commons in 1647, and he dedicated the published sermon to Commons-though its message was anything but hard core Puritanism. Cudworth advised Thurloe, Cromwell's Secretary of State, about young men in Cambridge suitable for government service. It is difficult to believe that the mastership of Christ's, which he had trouble retaining at the Restoration, was unrelated to this connection. He planned to dedicate a treatise on Daniel to Richard Cromwell, to whose father he acknowledged himself obliged. In fact the treatise was not published, but the acknowledged obligation to Cromwell remains. I categorize this as Court. Upon the Restoration, someone befriended Cudworth sufficiently for him to retain the Mastership of Christ's. In 1662, it was specifically Sheldon, the Bishop of London, who presented him to Ashwell. We are not told who arranged the prebend in 1678, but it was probably the Bishop of Gloucester. Cudworth dedicated True Intellectual system to Heneage Lord Finch, the Lord Chancellor.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Correspondence with Worthington and with other Cambridge Platonists. The correspondence with Worthington is published. Royal Society.

SOURCES:
J. Tulloch, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth Century, reprint of 2nd ed., 2 vols. (New York, 1972), 2, 193-302. BR756 T919; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 5, 271-2. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 4, 544-9. John A. Passmore, Ralph Cudworth: An Interpretation, (Cambridge, 1951). Joel M. Rodney, 'A Godly Atomist in 17th-Century England: Ralph Cudworth,' The Historian 32 (1970), 243-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Thomas Birch, 'An Account of the Life and Writings of R. Cudworth, D.D.' in Cudworth, Works, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1829), 1, 7-37. For all its defects, Birch's sketch is the principal source of information about Cudworth's life. Lydia Gysi, Platonism and Cartesianism in the Philosophy of Ralph Cudworth, (Bern, 1966).


Cysat, Johann Baptist



1. Dates: Born: Lucerne, 1586; Died: Lucerne, 1657 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 71
2. Father: Man of letters and civic leader in Lucerne; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Lucerne, Switzerland; Career: Germany, Switzerland; Death: Lucerne, Switzerland
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. In 1611, he was a student of Christoph Scheiner at the Jesuit College in Ingolstadt. From what follows, I assume B.A. As one who had been through the complete Jesuit training (though he may not have taken the fourth vow), he had to have had a degree in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic, a Jesuit
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy
7. Means of Support: Church Living; 1603/4, entered Jesuit order as a novice; 1618, Professor of Mathematics at Ingolstadt. 1623-7, Rector of Jesuit College in Lucerne. 1627-8, the order sent him to Spain. 1630s, architect of the Jesuit college church built in Innsbruck. 1637-41, Rector of Jesuit College in Innsbruck. 1646-50, Rector of Jesuit College in Eichstadt.
8. Patronage: Scientist; He defended Scheiner in his priority dispute with Galileo over sunspots. This certainly implies a relation, and all of those academic appointments suggest influence. After hesitation, I am leaving this in as patronage; the ambiguities are obvious.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Architecture; He was perhaps the first Swiss man to make telescopes. He built a 6 ft and a 9 or 10 ft for observing comets. Architect of the Jesuit college chapel at Innsbruck
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Ruedolf Wolf, Biographen zur kulturgeschichte der Schwiez, 1, (Zurich, 1858), 105-118. [xerox]; Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Bernard Duhr, S.J., Geschichte der Jesuiten in den Laenden deutsche Zunge (Freiburg in Breisgau, 1907-1913), passim. M.W. Burke-Gaffney, S.J., Kepler and the Jesuits, (Milwaukee, Wis, 1944), pp. 113-19.




Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

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