Scientific Revolution - Westfall - DSB - Catalogue - RSW-DSB-RAH - Scientific Revolution - Dr Robert A. Hatch
T H E   S C I E N T I F I C    R E V O L U T I O N
WESTFALL  CATALOGUE  -  SCIENTIFIC  COMMUNITY
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida
Search - Name - Word - Category - Concept - Secondary Source - Author

 

Bachet de Meziriac, Claude-Gaspar


1. Dates: Born: Bourg-en-Bresse, 9 October1581; Died: Bourg-en-Bresse, 26 February 1638; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Aristocrat; Government Position. The honorable Jean Bachet, from an ancient and noble family, appeals judge in Bresse, the highest judicial official in the province, and counselor to Henry II. He died when Bachet was six. It seems clear that he grew up in wealthy circumstances
3. Nationality: Birth: Bourg-en-Bresse, France; Career: France; Death: Bourg-en-Besse, France
4. Education: Pad He had his early education in a house of the Jesuit order of the Duchy of Savoy. Probably studied in the Jesuit school in Lyons. Presumbly studied in Padua and may have been taught in a Jesuit School in Milan or Como.
5. Religion: Catholic. Bachet jointed the Jesuit order at the age of twenty. He did the premiere classe at Milan, but then fell ill and left the order (1602). 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics 
Contribution to the theory of numbers and to the field of mathematical recreations. He discovered a method of constructing magic squares.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. 1602: After returning from Italy, he retired to his home in Bourg-en-Bresse, where he resolved to lead a life of leisure. He had a substantial estate, which yielded an annual rest of 5-6,000 livres at first, but increased to 8-10,000 upon the death of his elder brother. He married in 1612 and pursued a quiet home life thereafter. He was in Paris 1619-20.
8. Patronage: None; Bachet shunned public office. When he was in Paris, it was suggested that he be tutor to Louis XIII. He hastily departed from the court.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Member of the Académie Francaise, 1635.

SOURCES:
C.G. Collet and Jean Itard,' Un mathematician humaniste: Claude-Gaspar Bachet de Meziriac, 1581-1638,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 1 (1947), pp.26-50. Roman d'Arrat, Dictionnaire de biographie Françcaise, 4, (Paris, 1948), col 1077-9. J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres, 6, 1-12. 


Bachmann, Augustus Quirinus [Rivinus]



1. Dates: Born: Leipzig, Germany 9 December 1652; Died: Leipzig, Germany 20 December 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: physician and professor; I assume he was prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German 
4. Education: University of Leipzig; M.A. University of Helmstaedt; M.D.; Secondary Means of Support: private tutors. Studied at University of Leipzig; l669 matriculated; 16 April 1670 Bachelor of philosophy; 15 Jan? 1671, M.A. Continued at University of Helmstaedt; 15 October 1676, MD. 
5. Religion: Lutheran. Wrote manuscript Vom Brauch und Missbrauch der Kirchen.
6. Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: pharmacology, astronomy. He wrote a couple of treatises; blinded himself by looking at sunspots.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; 1677, became University of Leipzig lecturer in medicine. 1688, became part of Leipzig medical faculty. 1691, appointed to U. of Leipzig chair of physiology, appointed to U. of Leipzig chair of botany. Made head of medical garden at University. 1701, became Senior der Facultaet. Became professor of pathology. 'Collegiat des Grossen Fursten Collegio.'; 'Decemvir bei der Academie.'; 1719, became professor of therapeutics. Made dean perpetual. (These positions were held in parallel.)
8. Patronage: Unknown; Nothing known, but there had to be influence behind those academic appointments.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Wrote on removing useless items from the pharmacopia.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London). Corresponded with John Ray. Not sure what the 'Collegio' and the 'Academie' in 1701 were; in the information we presently have there is no information beyond the name. Perhaps a history of Leipzig would have something. FRS, 1719.

SOURCES:
ivinus,' Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 28, (Leipzig 1876), 708; 'Rivinus,' Zedler's Universal Lexicon, 31, (Leipzig-Halle, 1742, reprint Graz, 1961), columns 1855-9-AE27.G87 (stacks); A. von Haller, 'Rivinus,' Bibliotheca Botanica, 1, 551, para 651 - Z 5352 . H18 ; (1st ed in Lilly); Joecher, 'Rivinus,' Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, reprint Hildesheim 1961 (also see Adelung's supplement). L.-M. Dupetit-Thouars, Biographie Universelle ancienne et moderne, new ed. 36, (ca. 1860) pp 90 - 94 (on his botanical work). Hirsching, F.C.G. (ed), Historisch-literarishes HandbuchBeruemter ..., (1794-1815). Jourdan, Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales - BiographieMedicale, 8. Rabl, C. Geschichte der Anatomie an der Universitaet Leipzig (Leipzig, 1909).


Bacon, Francis



1. Dates: Born: London, 22 January1561; Died: near London, 9 April 1626 Datecode: Lifespan: 65
2. Father: Government Position; Sir Nicholas Bacon was Lord Keeper of the Seal under Elizabeth. Francis was the second son by his second wife; by his first wife Sir Nicholas had had six children, three of them sons. Wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England
4. Education: Cambridge University Trinity College, Cambridge University 1573-1575. Bacon left Cambridge without a degree. After three years in the residence of the English ambassador in Paris, he entered Gray's Inn. M.A. confered by Cambridge University, 1594-don't list.
5. Religion: Anglican. Bacon's mother was a thorough Calvinist. He adhered to the middle road of the Church of England, however, neither authoritarian nor sectarian. His religion was more formal than fervent.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Already at Cambridge, when he was not yet fifteen years old, Bacon fell out of love with Aristotelianism, which he saw as a philosophy that produced only disputes.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means; Lawyer; Patronage; Bacon was the fifth son of a wealthy father who provided well for the prior four but died before he arranged much for Francis. Bacon did inherite a small estate worth about L300. In 1601 he inherited the better estate of his brother Anthony (the other son of Bacon's mother), but Anthony had died heavily in debt. He married well at a crucial stage of his career (1607). He lived with the English ambassador in Paris, 1576-9. Enrolled at Gray's Inn, 1579. Barrister, 1584. Bencher, 1586. Although Bacon was never primarily a lawyer (except perhaps for the crown), he did practice some; around 1610 he was earning about L1200 per annum from his practice. Returned to Parliament in 1584, he served in Commons until his elevation to the peerage. Clerk of Star Chamber, 1589- . This was a governmental position with a salary of L1600 per annum. However, what Bacon received in 1589 was the reversion of the position when the current incumbent died. He had to wait nineteen years. Finally in 1608 he entered upon the income. Under Elizabeth Bacon functioned as a Queen's Counsel, but without an official appointment. He never got the appointment he desired and pursued under Elizabeth. From 1592 to 1601 Bacon was in Essex's service. Except for one well documented gift, Bacon's financial reward (as opposed to Essex's influence to promote his career) is unclear, or better wholly undocumented. Given Bacon's lack of income commensurate with his aspirations, I find it difficult to believe that he did not receive other rewards, in keeping with the universal practices of patronage, for the constant advice, formally composed, that he tendered to Essex, for the masques he composed, etc. With the accession of James things began to look up. He was appointed to the commission to consider union with Scotland, and became a King's Counsel with a pension of L60. Solicitor General, 1607, with salary of L1000. Appointed Attorney General, 1613. Appointed member of Privy Council, 1616. Appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1617. Appointed Lord Chancellor, 1618-21. Created Lord Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621. Impeached for bribery in 1621.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Bowen (p.19) has a nice statement about the expectations that Bacon derived from his birth. They appear to have followed him all of his life and to have shaped his constant pursuit of royal patronage, which alone could fulfill his aspirations. See in connection with this the scene of splendor that followed his induction as Lord Keeper (Bowen, p. 152. See also pp. 160-2.) See also the comments on the splendor of his wedding. As a boy he was a favorite of Elizabeth, who delighted in his knowledge. His original appointments undoubtedly derived from the position and influence of his father, who died when he was eighteen. It is worth noting that the Queen admitted Bacon to the rank of Barrister early, in 1584. He dedicated his Maxims of the Law, one of his early compositions, which was not published at the time but did circulate in manuscript form, to Queen Elizabeth. Cecil, who was his uncle, aided his rise modestly; probably he obtained Bacon's appointment as clerk of Star Chamber. However, Cecil had his own son, Robert, to look out for, and it appears that the two Cecils viewed Bacon as competition. In fact Bacon did not thrive until the accession of James, and more after the death of Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury. At age 31 (1592, just before he entered Essex's service) Bacon wrote to Burghley seeking a position. The letter is one of the more eloquent statements of the needs driving patronage (as it related here also to Bacon's intellectual goals) that I have seen. See the poem by his brother Anthony about what was necessary to thrive at court. Bacon enjoyed the patronage of Essex, who headed a court faction opposed to the Cecils, 1592-1601. His brother Anthony was also in Essex's service. For Essex Bacon organized masques intended to influence the Queen (the arts used for propaganda). See especially his masque, Praise of Knowledge, as a statement of the importance of the intellectual. See also the entertainment at Gray's Inn, Christmas 1594, that Bacon composed in which the advantages of philosophy are extolled. And the masque he composed in 1595. (Along these lines see also the letters Bacon wrote to all the important people offering his services when Fames came to the throne.) Essex presented Bacon with a valuable property (worth about L1800) when he failed a second time (1595) to get him a position. Bacon's role in the trial of Essex is well known and has been the subject of much comment. See Bacon's own statement about it (1604) for evidence in regard to the obligations that the position of client entailed. After the succession of James, James aided his career and knighted him. Bacon dedicated The Advancement of Learning (1605) to James in an effort to gain patronage. He was a client of James' favorites, the Earl of Somerset and later Buckingham, and they aided his ascent of the ladder of state. See Bacon's composition Commentarius solutus, 1608, in which he set down, inter alia, the means by which to rise in the court. He dedicated the Instauratio magna (1620) to James, with a call to James to assume the role of patron of natural philosophy. James' letter in response said that Bacon could not have sent him a more acceptable gift. After Bacon's fall, James remitted his fine and continued his pension of L1200. See Bacon's letter to James when he was made Viscount St. Alban. It details the steps of James' patronage to him. As Lord Chancellor Bacon himself exercised broad powers of patronage in regard to appointments (Bowen, p. 154.) See the prayer that Bacon composed for himself after his condemnation in 1621-on his waste of the talents entrusted to him as he pursued false ends (partly quoted in Bowen, pp. 194-5). See also some of his Essays. Bacon continued to court the royal family and favorites after his fall. He dedicated the History of Henry VII to Prince Charles (one source says James) and the third edition of his Essays to Buckingham.
9. Technological Connections: None. 
10. Scientific Societies: Friends: Bishop Andrewes, Thomas Harriot, Sir W. Raleigh, L. Poe, J. Hammond. 

SOURCES:
F.H. Anderson, Francis Bacon, His Career and His Thought, (Los Angeles, 1962). B1198 A48; J.G. Crowther, Francis Bacon, the First Statesman of Science, (London, 1960). Benjamin Farrington, Francis Bacon, Philosopher of Industrial Science, (New York, 1949). Catherine Drinker Bowen, Francis Bacon: The Temper of a Man, (Boston, 1963). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 800-32.


Baglivi, Georgio



1. Dates: Born: Ragusa (Dubrovnik), 8 September 1668; Died: Rome, 15 June 1707; Datecode: Lifespan: 39
2. Father: Merchant; Biagio di Giorgio Armeno, a merchant. The family had come from Armenia; hence the name. The grandfather was a wealthy merchant and presumably the father was also. Both parents died when Baglivi was two, and with his younger brother he was reared for nine years by an uncle. When the uncle died, a peasant woman who had been a servant of the family, took over the two boys. Shortly thereafter the Jesuits became interested in them and educated them. When Giorgio was fifteen, a request came to the Jesuit school from Lecce, from a physician, Pietro Angeli Baglivi who had no son, for a boy of talent whom he would rear. The Jesuits sent Giorgio. The physician adopted him, gave him his name, instructed him in the elementary aspects of medicine, and saw to his university education. When all the factors are considered, it appears to me that he grew up in affluent circumstances, despite being orphaned.
3. Nationality: Birth: Republic of Dubrovnik (i.e, Jugoslav area); Career: Italy; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: University of Naples, University of Salerno; M.D., P.D. Studied at the Jesuit College of Dubrovnik and College of Georgius. Also studied medicine in Naples. Got M.D. and Ph.D. at Salerno in 1688. After he completed his degree, Baglivi made the tour of various medical centers in Italy, especially Florence (where he studied with Bellini) and Bologna, where he studied with Malpighi).
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine. Among his publications on Physiology, Anatomy, and medicine are: De praxi medica, (Rome, 1696). De fibra motrice ac morbosa libri IV, (Rome, 1702). Baglivi advocated a rejection of speculation and a return to empirical hippocratic medicine based on clinical study. In fact he was not all that free of speculation himself, being a committed iatromechanist.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; Baglivi began his medical practice with his adoptive father in Lecce. After 1688, he worked in hospitals in Padua, Venice, Florence, Bologna and other Italian Cities. At least one source says also the Netherlands and England. He settled briefly in Bologna as a pupil and assistant of Marcello Malpighi in 1691, living in Malpighi's house. When Malpighi became physician to the Pope, he took Baglivi with him, which was Baglivi's introduction to Rome. He lived in Malpighi's house until Malpighi's death. Baglivi became second physician to Pope Innocent XII in 1695, and later new Pope Clement XI confirmed his position at court and named him professor of anatomy in 1696 and professor of theoretical medicine at the Sapienza in 1701. He also gave private lessons, especially to foreigners. Stenn speaks of his flourishing practice, and Capparoni says that he was much in demand by the leading families of Rome. 
8. Patronage: Scientist; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Malpighi's promotion of Baglivi appears to have been crucial. Pope Innocent XII, see above. Pope Clement XI, see above.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Leopoldina; Friendship and correspondence with Lancisi, Bellini, Redi, Tozzi, Valsalva, Ramazzini, and Trionfetti; Royal Society (London); 1697; The Academia Naturae Curiosorum (the Leopoldina) and the Arcadia (a Roman society), 1699; The Accademia dei Fisiocritici (Siena), 1700. In Rome he frequented the Accademia fisico-mathematica that met in the hom of Msr. Ciampini. The Imperial Society of Augusta (of which I have not otherwise heard).

SOURCES:
L. Munster, 'Nuovi contributi alla biografia di Giorgio Baglivi' Archivio storico Pugliese, 3, nos. 1-2, ( 1950). F. Stenn, 'Giorgio Baglivi' Annals of Medical History, 3rd ser., 3 (1941), pp.183-194. M.D. Grmek, 'Osservazioni sulle vita, opera . . . di Giorgio Baglivi,' Atti del XIV congresso internazionale di storia della medicina, 1 (Rome, 1960). Dizionario biografico degli italiani.  G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 51-4. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici enaturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28) 1, 57-60. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical.

Not Available and Not Consulted: F. Scalzi, Giorgio Baglivi, altre notizie biografiche, (Rome, 1889). M. Salomon, Giorgio Baglivi und seine Zeit, (Berlin, 1889). D. Schulian, The Baglivi Correspondence from the Library of Sir William Osler, (Ithaca, NY, 1974). 


Baier, Johann Jacob



1. Dates: Born: Jena, Germany, 14 June 1677; Died: Altdorf, Bavaria, 14 July 1735 (some say 11th July); Datecode: Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Professor and minister; Clearly prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German (Altdorf) Death: German (Altdorf)
4. Education: University of Jena; M.A., Ph.D., M.D. University of Halle; Secondary Means of Support: private tutor; University of Jena: matriculated 1693. Studied philosophy, classical languages, math, medicine, and 'natural science' Also studied medicine in Halle. 1700, MA, PhD, MD, from Jena.
5. Religion: Lutheran. Son of professor of Protestant theology at University of Jena.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Paleontology. Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Medicine; Pharmacology; Something called 'oryctography' is also named.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; 1701, practiced medicine in Nuremberg. 1701,2,3? called to Regensberg as Stadt-Medicus. 1703, directed field hospital (War of Span. Succession). 1704, professor of medicine at Altdorf University. Twice elected rector of the University (dates?). 8 times dean of University (dates?). Eventually became Senior of the University. 1731, as a result of presidency of Leopoldina: Count Palatine. Imperial physician in ordinary (Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie describes this as an honorary title). Physician in ordinary to Graf of Ansbach. Administered Altdorf medical officer's district. Superintendant of Altdorf medical garden.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; See above consequences of Leopoldina presidency. No patron explictly named. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Some early medical research. 1703, directed field hospital.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Lp 1699-1701, visited northern Germany spoke to various scholars, looked at collections and libraries. Wrote books about Altdorf faculty and members of the Leopoldina. 1701? became member of Nuremberg Collegium medicum. 1708, became member of Leopoldina. Served as adjunct to Leopoldina. 1729, Director of Leopoldina.
1730 (1731?), chosen president of Leopoldina.

SOURCES:
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, (Leipzig 1876). ; ; 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, (reprint Hildesheim 1961) - (reference room). Hirsch, A. Biographishes Lexikon der hervoragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker, (1929) - Z 6658 .B615 (reference room). Hamberger & Meusel, Das gelehrte teutschland [sic], (Augs. 1796 - 1834) - Z 2230 . H19 (Stacks). J. Ch. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Handwoerterbuch zu den exakten Wissenschaften, (Leipzig, 1863) - Z 7404 . P7 (Chem Lib). Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach, 'Johann Jakob Baier, einer der ersten deutschen Palaeontologen, ein Beispiel der Willkuer des Nachruhmes,' Natur und Volk, 75/76 (1946), 25-31 - Q 49 .S4 (Bio Lib). Various microprint works of Baier. Bruno von Freyberg, '250 Jahre geologische Forschung in Franken', Geologishce Blaetter for Nordost-Bayern und angrenzende Gebiete, 8 (1958), 34-43. 'Einfuehrung' (in Baiers wissenschaftliches Lebenswerk), in Erlanger geologishe Abhandlungen, 29 (1958), 7-12. 'Memoria viri perillustris, magnifici excellentissimeidque domini Joanni Jacobi Baieri', in Acta physico-medica Academia Caesareae Leopoldina - Carolinae Naturae Curiosorium, 4, Appendix, Biographies, (1737), 35-48. F. Hoefer (ed), Nouvelle Biographie Generale, 4, 1859. F. Ferchl, Chemisch-Pharmazeutiches Bio- und Bibliographicon, Mittenwald (1938). Johann August Vocke, Geburts- und Todten-Almanch Ansbachischer Gelehrten, Schriftsteller und Kuenstler, (1796-97). Georg Andreas Will, Nuernbergishes Gelehrten-Lexicon, (1755-1802).


Baillou, Guillaume de



1. Dates: Born: Paris, ca 1538; Died: Paris, 1616; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Engineer. His father was a famous mathematician and architect. A noble family which possessed an estate at Nogent-le- Rotrou. (Hazon mentions the estate, but says nothing about nobility.) It would be hard to separate the estate from affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: Paris, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. B.A., Paris, 1568; M.D., Paris, 1570. After studying at the University of Paris, where he concentrated especially in Latin, Greek, and Philosophy, he qualified in succession for the baccalaureate and the doctors degrees.
5. Religion: Catholic. His son entered a monastery. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; During the many epidemics in Paris between 1570-1579, he developed the idea of ephemerides. As the first epidemiologist since Hippocrates, he left nice descriptions of plague, of measles, and of diphtheria.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Became physician in 1570. Became dean of the faculty of medicine in 1586 He taught humanities initially and was later associated with the faculty of medicine, serving eventually as dean for a biennium beginning 1580. He continued to teach for forty-six years. He practiced medicine, refusing to leave his practice in order to become physician to the Dauphin. However, in 1601 he did become physician ordinaire to Henri IV. Baillou was especially known for treating children.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; A. Guilliar, president of the Parlement and Councillor of State, let Baillou be educated with his own children at his expense. Henry IV invited him to be physician to the Dauphin, but Baillou declined. However he did later become physician ordinaire to Henri IV.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: None Known.

SOURCES:
E.W.Goodhall, 'A French Epidemiologist of the 16th century' Annals of Medical History, 7 (1935), 409-427. 'G. Baillou, Clinician and Epidemiologist' Journal of American Medical Association, 195 (1966), 957. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres de la Faculté de Medecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 72-4. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: A.Cheraeu, 'Baillou' in Dictionnaire encyclopedique des sciences medicals, 8, (Paris, 1878). Rene Moreau, life of Baillou at the beginning of Baillou's works.


Baldi, Bernadino



1. Dates: Born: Urbino, 5 June 1553; Died: Urbino, 10 October 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Unknown; Francesco Baldi. Scharloncini says that Baldi was born to noble partents. All in all, including the silence of Mazzuchelli, I think Scharloncini's 'noble' is an honorific adjective rather than an explicit statement of fact. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Urbino, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Urbino, Italy
4. Education: Pad After a classical education by private tutor at Urbino, he studied mathematics with Guido Baldo under Federico Commandino beginning about 1570. He enrolled at the University of Padua in 1573, where he studied medicine, philosophy and literature. There is no mention of a degree. Rose explicitly states that Baldi did not take a degree. Later he studied with Guidobaldi. 
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mechanics, Mathematics; Principal contribution to physics was a commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics, which was probably written in the 1580's, but was published in 1621 after Baldi's death. In this he developed the idea of center of gravity. He also translated Hero's Automata, and he wrote extensive lives of mathematicians. Baldi translated the eighth book of Pappus, and he wrote two mathematical works that were never published and are now lost. As the last item may suggest, Baldi was primarily a literary figure. He was apparently enormously learned in languages.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; He went to Mantua in the service of Ferrante II Gonzaga (Mazzuchelli makes this Ferdinanco Gonzaga) in 1580. Vespasiano Gonzaga took him over for a time. He seems almost to have been an appendage (better, client) to the family. In 1585 Ferrante II secured him the post of abbot of Guastalla which he held until 1592. Baldi was ordained. He antagonized the Gonzaga during his tenure as abbot. He was commissioned in 1601 by the Duke of Urbino to write a life of Federigo da Montefeltro. He was historian and biographer of the Duke of Urbino from 1609 to 1617.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Merchant Patronage; Ferrante II Gonzaga, see above. Duke of Urbino, see above. Card. Carlo Borromeo recommended Baldi to the Duke of Mantua (Borromeo's nephew), and later he had Baldi with him in Milan for several years. In 1597 (and I don't know for how long) Baldi was in Rome in the retinue of Cintio Aldobrandini (who would later be Card. Aldobrandini). He dedicated his Egloghe (1590) to Ranuccio Farnese. Mark Welser arranged the publication of some of Baldi's works in Augsburg. Baldi dedicated his edition of Hero's Automata to Jacomo Contarini.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Fabritio Scharloncini, 'De vita et scriptis Bernardini Baldi Urbinatis,: Preface to Baldi's In mechanica Aristotelis..., (Mainz, 1621) Microfilm Q111 L2 no.B32. R. Amaturo,' Bernardino Baldi,' Dizionario biografico degli italiani, V. (Rome, 1963), pp. 46-64 CT1123 D62 (RF). S. Drake and I.E. Drabkin, Mechanics in 17th Century Italy, (Madison, Wis., 1968), pp. 48-51. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 116-25. For a measure of the 18th century scale of literary values, compare the nine pages devoted to this relative nonentity to the single brief paragraph Mazzuchelli gave to the distinguished anatomist Aranzio. C. Grossi, Degli uomini illustri di Urbino comentario, (Urbino, 1819), 84-8. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 242-79.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Ireneo Affo, Vita di Bernardino Baldi, (Parma, 1783)
G. Zacagnini, Bernardino Baldi nella vita e nella opera, (Pistoia, 1901).


Baliani, Giovanni Battista



1. Dates: Born: Genoa, 1582; Died: Genoa, 1666; Datecode: Lifespan: 84 
2. Father: Aristocrat; A senator of Genoa, that is, a patrician. Although I find no specific mention, all of the details of Baliani's career make it evident that the family was wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: Genoa, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Genoa, Italy
4. Education: None Known; He was trained in Law. I find no mention of university education. 
5. Religion: Catholic (by obvious assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines:  Physics; Mechanics; Hydraulics; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; His most important work was the treatise on natually accelerated motion, which announced many of Galileo's conclusions before Two New Sciences appeared. The level of discussion in Baliani does not begin to approach Galileo's, so that issues of plagiary have inevitably arisen. (He had had contact with Galileo.) Baliani also wrote on the motion of water and on some questions of natural philosophy in general. He used an experimental method.
7. Means of Support: City Magistrate; Personal Means; He spent most of his life in public service. In 1611 he was prefect of the fortress at Savona. In 1623 he was Governor of Sarzana, and in 1624 he entered the Genoan Senate. In 1647-49 he was the governor of the fortress (Savona), and was then elevated to membership in the principal governing body of Genoa, where he remained until his death. 
8. Patronage: None; Questions of patronage did not arise.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; His involvement in a hydraulic project in Genoa led to the letter to Galileo about the weight of the atmosphere, and through the discussion in Two New Sciences to the whole debate that ended in Torricelli, Pascal, and Boyle. He published (in Opere diverse, 1616) writings about an improved carriage and on a means of making a trireme more swift, but until I get information that these ideas advanced beyond the realm of mere words, I won't count them.
10. Scientific Societies: His correspondence with Galileo, which began in 1614, lasted for many years.

SOURCES:
Alpinolo Natucci, 'Giovan Battista Baliani letterato e scienzato del secolo XVII,' Archivesinternationales d'histoire des sciences, 12 (1969), pp.167-183 Q1 .A734. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 171-2. 


Banister, John



1. Dates: Born: Twigworth, Gloucestershire, 1650; Died: Virginia, May 1692, shot in a hunting accident; Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Unknown; John Banister is known only from his son's matriculation record in Magdalen College, where he is recorded as 'pleb.' No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English (England and Virginia); Death: English (Virginia)
4. Education: Oxford University, M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1667-74; B.A., 1671; M.A. 1674.
5. Religion: Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Entomology; Banister's hope was to compose a general natural history of Virginia. He sent John Ray a lengthy catalogue of the plants of Virginia, and he published papers on the insects, mullusks, and plants of Virginia in the Philosophical Transactions.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Personal Means; He functioned as a clerk in Magdalen College, 1674-6, and then Chaplain, 1676-8. Apparently Banister went to Virginia to be an Anglican minister, and he does appear to have been one until the end of his life. Although his name does not appear on early lists of ministers, his status as a minister, possibly a curate, does appear well established. By 1689 there are records of him as a clergyman. Banister received at least encouragement and hospitality from William Byrd I, the trader at the falls of the James River, who acted as Banister's patron and business manager when Byrd was in London. Through Byrd's representation Banister probably received financial support from the Temple Coffee House Botany Club in London (Compton, Plukenet, Doody, Lister, and others), from 1687 to 92. Banister certainly sent them specimens and information. About 1690 Banister became a landholder himself, and he imported at least two slaves and apparently some indentured servants.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Scientist; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; His relation to Byrd is somewhat ambiguous, probably reflecting the rough state of the colony. Byrd became one of the wealthiest landholders in Virginia, and he ran a thriving trade with the Indians near the falls in the James River. He was also an important figure in the government of Virginia. His interest was in practical matters, such as products of economic potential, including minerals. The Ewans are dubious that Byrd gave Banister financial assistance. However, in a letter of 1679 Banister said that he was exceedingly obliged to Byrd, which is the language of patronage. Plukenet referred to Byrd as Banister's patron, and Banister's son was in the service of Byrd's son. Banister also probably got financial support from the Temple Coffee House Botany Club in London (Bishop Compton, Martin Lister, and others) during the period 1687-92. With the help of the club he imported 35 persons into the colony and received, from Lt. Gov. Francis Nicholson, 1735 acres in Charles City County on the south side of the Appomatock River in 1690. Bishop Compton appears to have had a special relation with Banister. A letter to the Bishop, who was greatly interested in his garden, to which Banister contributed seeds, certainly sounds like the letter of a client. (Source on patronage: Ewans, pp. 53, 78, 86-7.)
9. Technological Connections: Agr I list this with hesitation. One letter shows Banister much concerned with the crops that might possibly grow in Virginia as well as the natural species of plants. He sent seeds that introduced American species into English gardens. This is the most tenuous ascription of technological involvement in the whole catalogue; read his letter of 6 April 1679 to the Bishop of London (Compton) and decide for yourself.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: correspondence with the members of the Temple Coffee House Botany Club, and with John Ray, Martin Lister, and other leading naturalists in England.

SOURCES:
Joseph and Nesta Ewan, John Banister and his Natural History of Virginia, 1678-1696, (Urbana, Ill., 1970). QH31 B18E94 This book contains letters and manuscripts. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 1039-40. Dictionary of American Biography, 2nd ed., ed. Allen Johnson et al., 11 vols. (New York, 1957-8), 1, 575-6. Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram, The Early English Colonies, (London, 1908), pp. 192-201. On the title page and in the signature to the preface it is merely Arthur Foley. All that is here is the original publication of Banister's letter of 6 April 1679 to Bishop Compton.


Baranzano, Giovanni Antonio [Redento]



1. Dates: Born: Italy, 1590 Died: France, 1622 Datecode: Lifespan: 32
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality. Birth: Italy Career: France Death: France
4. Education: University of Novara; Univeristy of Milan. Began his studies at Crevalcoure and Vercelli, continued at Novara and Milan. (I am not clear whether or not this was within the Barnabite order.) I assume the equivalent of a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: natural philosophy Mazzuchelli says interestingly that Baranzano was one of those who, in the early years of the 17th century, thought it was necessary to cast off the yoke of Aristotle.
7. Means of Support: monastic (i.e, ecclesiastical position) 1609, took vows as a Barnabite and assumed the name 'Redento.'; 1615, sent to teach philosophy in Annecy, France. 1620-2, held teaching position at Montargis.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastical official, aristocracy Note: Church took a dim view of his defense of Copernicus (Uranoscopia seu De Caelo, 1617) and he was recalled to Milan by the archbishop. He swiftly withdrew his assertations in a pamphlet to be appended (where possible) to the book. Nevertheless, Baranzano had the active support thru this difficult episode of St. Francis de Sales, Bp. of Geneva, which must have helped. When seeking to gain royal approval for the Barnabite school at Montargis, he had the support of Antonio de Hayes of Montargis.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: He seems to have been in contact with Tobia Adami, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Giovanni Magini.

SOURCES:
M. Tronti, 'Baranzano,' Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, V (Rome, 1963), 776-9. R.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres dans la republique des lettres..., 3 (Paris, 1727), 43-8. [Lilly]; G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, 230-1.


Barba, Alvaro Alonso



1. Dates: Born: Spain, c. 1569 (According to Rodriguez Carracido, 15 November 1569.); Died: Peru, 1662; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 93
2. Father: No Information No information on financial status, although it is almost impossible not to believe that the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish colonial; Death: Spanish colonial
4. Education: None Known; There is no mention at all of university education.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Discipline: metallurgy From observations in Peru, he developed the slightly earlier crude amalgamation process into the one that lasted.
7. Means of Support: Church living Barba was a priest in the Catholic church by 1588, the time of the first information about him. Sent to Peru in 1588, where he spent life as priest. From 1624, served in Potosi, apparently at the request of Juan de Lizarazu, Pres. of the Real Audiancia de la Plata of Peru; he wrote his book, El arte de los metales, at the urging of Lazarazu. Dedicated the book to Lazarazu. It was published in Spain at the royal press, I assume through the support of Lazarazu. He returned to Spain in 1658 to advise on extraction of metals; he was very critical of government's policy on this in Spain; he returned to America in 1662 and died.
8. Technology: Metallurgy
9. Patronage: Governmental official
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Gran enciclopedia RIALP. José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979). J.E. Munoz, 'Alvaro Alonso Barba,' Anales de la Universidad Central de Quito, 93 (1964), 241-55. Modesto Bargallo, La mineria y la metalurgia en la American espanola durante la epoca colonial, (Mexico, 1955), especially pp. 223-5. Jose Rodriguez Carracido, 'Alvaro Alonso Barba,' Estudios historico-criticos de la ciencia espanola, 2nd ed. (Madrid, 1917), pp. 169-84. I find mention of a dissertation in Spain by Jose M. Barnados on Barba, which was not published at the time of the reference.


Barchusen, Johann Conrad



1. Dates: Born: Horn, Westphalia, Germany, 16 March 1666 Died: Utrecht, Netherlands, 2 October 1723; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch 
4. Education: None Known; No formal schooling, studied pharmacy under various famous German practitioners 1698, Honorary MD from Utrecht (do not list this)
5. Religion: Protestant (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: chemistry, iatrochemistry 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Medicine; I am convinced that the patronage from the city fathers of Utrecht had to be connected with medical practice, but so far we find no mention of it. He did practice on campaign with Morosini. Before 1693, worked with pharmacists while studying with them. He was sort of an itinerant physician/pharmacist 1693, physician to Francesco Morosini during his military campaign. 1694, became Privatdozent in chemistry at Utrecht. April 1695, City Fathers of Utrecht provided him with a laboratory. 1698, became Lector in Chemistry at Utrecht, starting salary of 250 guilders, various raises later brought it to 600 guilders. 1703, promoted to extraordinary professor of chemistry. Also received various lump sums for the dedication of some of his published works.
8. Patronage: aristocracy, then city magistrates; Physician to Morosini in 1693. Owed his salary and every academic promotion to the magistrates of Utrecht (no specific ones mentioned).
9. Technological Connections: Medical practice, pharmacology; Pharmacist/physician early in career. Barchusen was the first to teach a technological course (metallurgy) in a university chemistry course; he also taught iatrochemistry.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
O. Hannaway, 'Johann Conrad Barchusen (1666 - 1723)-Contem porary and Rival of Boerhaave', Ambix, 14 (1967), pp 96 - 111 (contains list of secondary literature) QD 13 .A49

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Caspar Burmann, Traiectum eruditum, (Utrecht 1750) p. 14 - Manuscripta Film List 12 Reel 3; E. Cohen, 'De Chemie te Utrecht in den loop der Eeuwen I', Chem. Weekblad, 38 (1941), pp. 299-300 - Chem Lib QD 1. C548; John Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, (2 vol Glasgow 1906), 1, 72 (cites other sources) - Lilly; Joecher, Allgemeine Gelehrten Lexicon, (Leipzig 1750), 1, col 780 - Reference room has reprint Hildesheim 1961; G. W. Kernkamp, De Utrechtsche Academie 1636 - 1936, 2 vols. (Utrecht 1936), 1, 169, 294, et passim 
Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIXe siecle, (Paris 1867), 2, 229. C. L. F. Panckoucke, Biographie Medicale, (Paris 1820), 1, 554. J. W. Van Spronsen, 'Barchusen 1666-1723', Chem. Weekblad, 62 (1966), 604-6.  Biographie Universelle, (Paris 1843), 3, p. 71. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon, 2nd ed, (Berlin 1929), p. 335. E. Hoefer, Biographie Generale, (Paris 1861), 3, col 469. 


Barocius [Barozzi], Franciscus



1. Dates: Born: Candia, Crete, 9 August 1537; Died: Venice, 23 November 1604; Datecode: Lifespan: 67.
2. Father: Aristocrat; Iacopo Barozzi, a Ventian noble. Barozzi apparently inherited a very extensive estate in Crete, and one cannot avoid the conclusion that he was reared in wealthy circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Candia Crete (a Venetian colony). Career: Italy; Death: Venice, Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; Received a humanistic education at the University of Padua. He also studied mathematics. There is no mention of a degree. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Barozzi was tried by the Inquisition (charge unknown) and found guilty about 1583. In 1587 there was another charge, this time of apostacy and heresy, from the sentence apparently charges of engaging in occult magical practices.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Occult Philosophy; Translated Proclus', Hero's, and Achimedean writings on geometry. He also published Cosmographia, 1585. Barozzi was part of the movement to revive science via a close study of the ancients. As mentioned above, Barozzi got deeply involved in occult philosophy and in consequent trouble with the Inquisition.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means. He lectured on the sphere of Sacrobosco at the University of Padua in 1559. But it is clear that he never held a university appointment and, as an aristocrat, was in fact legally excluded from such. Barozzi had extensive estates which yielded an income of 4,000 ducats in Candia, and he lived there at least part of his life. His correspondence seems to indicate that he lived in Venice for the most part.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Given Barozzi's position and wealth, patronage in the ordinary sense cannot have applied to him. I do however note the following dedications, whatever they may have meant. Rythmomachia to Camille Paleotti, a Senator of Bologna. The initial publication of an oration delivered in Padua in 1558 to the Rev. Daniello Barbara, Patriarch of Aquila. His edition of Hero to the Duke of Mantua. His commentary on passages in Plato to Card. Gabriello Paleotti. Cosmographia to the Duke of Urbino. 
9. Technological Connections:
10. Scientific Societies: He was a member of the Paduan Accademia dei Potenti, which I do not list as a scientific society. He corresponded with Sarpi, Aldrovandi, and Clavius.

SOURCES:
Dizionario biografico degli italiani, VI (1964), pp. 495-9. B. Boncompagni, 'Intorno alla vita e ai labori de Francesco Barozzi' Bullettino di bibliographia e di storia delle scienze mathematiche e fisiche, 17 (1884) pp. 795-848. Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 6, (New York, 1941), 25, 47, 154-5, 199. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 2, 411-14. 


Barrow, Isaac 



1. Dates: Born: London, October 1630; Died: London, 4 May 1677. Datecode: Lifespan: 47; 
2. Father: Merchant; Thomas Barrow was a linen-draper with connections with the court. It appears that he was prosperous, until the Puritan victory.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England; 
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. Charterhouse; Felsted in Essex. University of Cambridge (Trinity), 1646-52; B.A., 1648; M.A., 1652. Bachelor of Divinity, 1661 (I don't list this). 
5. Religion: Anglican.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics. Subordinate Disciplines: Optics. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Church Living; Patronage of Martin Holbeach, Dr. Duport and Henry Hammond during the interregnum. Professor, 1660-9: Professor of Greek in the U. of Cambridge, 1660-2. Professor of geometry in Gresham College, 1662-3. Professor of mathemetics in the U. of Cambridge, 1663-9. Royal chaplain in London, 1669- . He also received a sinecure from his uncle, a bishop, and in 1671 a prebend in Salisbury. Master of Trinity. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Gentry; Merchant; Academic; Minor patronage before the Restoration: Ecclessiastical Officer: Henry Hammond, the great Oxford Divine, gave him monetary assistance before 1660. Dr. Duport, professor of Cambridge, promised to coach him for nothing in 1640s. Before Duport, Thomas Hill, the Master of Trinity, helped Barrow. During the Interregnum members of the Walpole family gave Barrow support and led him to enroll in Trinity. Barrow dedicated his Euclid (1656) to three fellow-commoners of Trinity: Edward Cecil (son of the Earl of Salisbury), John Knatchbull (heir of Sir Norton K.), and Francis Willughby. He dedicated his edition of Euclid's Data (1657) to James Stock, a London merchant whom Barrow met in Paris. Stock is described as Barrow's generous patron; he died, however, in 1658. The English Ambassador to Constantinople, Sir Thomas Bendish, housed Barrow there for a year and a half, and the merchant Jonathan Dawes gave him financial support. John Wilkins was the Master of Trinity when Barrow returned. He became Barrow's chief patron. Wilkins recommended him for the professorship in Gresham College in 1662, and also was responsible for his position of professor of geometry in Cambridge. Barrow got the professorship in 1660 by royal order, and was created D.D. in 1670 by royal mandate. He was made University Vice-chancellor and Master of Trinity by order of the king. In 1661 he obtained a letter patent allowing him, as Regius Professor, to retain his fellowship. In Barrow's appointment as Master, the Duke of Buckingham and Archbishop Sheldon were pivotal. Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, gave Barrow a prebend at Salisbury, which Barrow resigned when he became Master of Trinity. Note that Barrow was University Vice-Chancellor, 1675, as the King's choice. (Sources on patronage: H. Osmond, Isaac Barrow, His Life and Times, pp. 13-14, 98-99. Also Feingold, pp. 1-104.);
9. Technological Connections: None. 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: Intimate frienship with John Ray; the relation with Newton Royal Society, 1662.

SOURCES:
H. Osmond, Isaac Barrow, His Life and Times, (London, 1944), pp. 13-14, 40, 85, 98-99, 103.  Mordechai Feingold, ed., Before Newton. The Life and Times of Isaac Barrow, (Cambridge, 1990), especially Feingold, 'Isaac Barrow: Divine, Scholar, Mathematician,' pp. 1-104.


Bartolotti, Gian Giacomo



1. Dates: Born: Italy, ca 1471; Died: Italy, after 1530; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: 
2. Father: Physician; He came from a family of doctors; his father, Pelligrino, was competent in both pharmacy and surgery. As usual, I assume affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; Fer; M.D. Bartolotti studied philosophy and medicine at the universities of Bologna and Ferrara; at the latter he was a pupil of Antonio Cittadini and of Sebastiano Dell'Aquila. Affa says that he became a doctor-i.e., M.D. Otherwise the sources are silent about a degree, but it seems probable to me. 
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; He translated Cebe's Table (Pinax) in 1498, and later published his Opusculum de antiquitate medicinae, a brief treatise on the history of ancient medicine.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; In 1498 he was assigned to teach a course at the University of Ferrara, but he is not listed with the regular appointment. Toward the close of the century he was practicing medicine, and in the early 16th century he was doing so at Venice.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; La tavola di Cebetti, 1498, was done at the instance of Niccolo-Maria d'Este, Bishop of Adria. Bartolotti dedicated the Opusculum, 1498, to the same bishop. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
I.Affo, Memorie degli scrittori e letterati parmigiani, 3, Parma, 1791, pp.178-179. Manuscipta Film List 3 Reel 1-2; G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 1, p.479. Manuscripta Film List 3 Reel 8-9; Not in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Not in A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). 
It seems clear to me that Bartolotti was included in the DSB for the sole purpose of having more people from his period. It is obvious that he was not an outstanding scientist according to any reasonable criterion.


Bartoli, Daniello



1. Dates: Born: Ferrara, 12 February 1608; Died: Rome, 12 January 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Scientist; Tiburzio Bartoli, a man known as learned in the chemical and 'spargical' art. I guess I'll list him as a scientist, but I am uneasy. Daniello was the last of three sons. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Ferrara, Italy; Career: Italy Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: University of Parma; Military; University of Bologna; D.D. Entered the Society at age of 15 and studied rhetoric with the Jesuits at Piacenza and Parma. At Parma he completed the course in philosophy, which I take to be the B.A. or at least its equivalent. 1634, University of Brera in Milan (I don't know what this means; I list it as University of Milan). Then to University of Bologna where he studied theology under G.B. Riccioli. He completed the course in theology, which I take to be an advanced degree (doctorate) in theology. As a full Jesuit he would have had a doctorate in theology. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Jesuit. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Bartoli was the historian of the Jesuit order who left an immense corpus of historical and religious writing. His importance lies in religion, not in science. However, late in life he returned to interests that Riccioli had stimulated, and he expounded and popularized the works of contemporary physicists, particularly barometric experiments and the concept of atmospheric pressure. He also wrote on sound and on freezing. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Initially he taught rhetoric at Parma for a time (1629-33). He took final vows in 1643. Bartoli wanted to be sent abroad as a missionary. Because of his learning, his superiors kept him at home to teach. Beyond the college in Parma, he taught in Jesuit colleges in Piacenza, Mantua, Modena, and Bologna. For a time the Jesuits intended him to preach, an activity at which he had extraordinary success. However he was made historian of the order in 1646 and stationed in Rome. He was rector of the Collegio Romano from 1671 to 1673.
8. Patronage: Bartoli was obviously valued by the authorities of his order for his merits, and perhaps it is difficult to distinguish this from patronage. However, Bartoli sought no career for himself. He would have preferred the foreign mission and perhaps martyrdom. He accepted a different role imposed upon him by his superiors and fulfilled it with vigorous endeavor for a lifetime. I cannot bring myself to call the order's utilization of him patronage. It is significant that the Grand Master of Malta invited Bartoli to write the history of the knights. This would surely have been patronage. However, Bartoli refused to give up the tasks the Jesuits had set for him and he turned the offer down.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
A. Asor-Rosa, 'Daniello Bartoli' in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, VI, Rome, 1964. G. Boero, ed., Letter edite ed inedite del P. Daniello Bartoli, (Bologna, 1865)-with a life of Bartoli as preface. Let me remark that most of the letters from the latter part of Bartoli's life concern scientific questions. I only skimmed them, but it appears to me that they might contain interesting materials for understanding the scientific mentality of the second half of the century.
G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ). 


Bartholin, Caspar



1. Dates: Born: Malmo, Denmark, 12 February 1585; Died: Soro, Denmark, 13 July 1629; Datecode: Lifespan: 44
2. Father: Court priest in Malmo; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Malmo, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Soro, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Wittenburg; M.A. University of Basel; M.D. University of Leiden; Pad. Educated at Grammar School, 1588-96. Matriculated at the University of Copenhagen in 1603, but transfered to Wittenberg in 1604. M.A., 1605. He then went on an academic grand tour. He was at Leiden, Basel, Padua, Rome, and then back at Basel. M.D., 1610 at Basel. D.D., 1626 awarded by the University of Copenhagen.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Natural Philosophy; Works on anatomy: Anatomicae institutiones corporis humani and others. He also wrote extensively on medicine in general. Works on natural philososphy: Systema physicum, Exercitatio de natura, De principiis rerum naturalium, and others.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Professor eloquentia at the University of Copenhagen, 1611-13. Professor of medicine at the University of Copenhagen, 1613-24. Professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, 1624-9. Dean of the University, 1629 (for the second time). He maintained a medical practice in Copenhagen that included the very upper echelons of society.
8. Patronage: Government Official; Court Patronage; 1611, Chancellor Christen Friis offered Bartholin the chair in Latin at the university. 1619, Bartholin received an order from the king to publish schoolbooks in the different philosophical subjects. As payment he received a canonry in the Roskilde diocese (which I categorize as income from patronage). After 1610 Bartholin had Holger Rosenkranz (a powerful and influential orthodox theologian who was a member of the royal council, and whom I classify as a governmental official) as patron. It was because of this relationship that Bartholin took up theological studies again.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Bartholin worked as a physician in Copenhagen, treating the king, members of the nobility, and others. In 1619, along with others of the medical faculty, he published 'A Short Instruction' on how one should care for himself during the plague.
10. Scientific Societies: He had connections with Felix Platter, Caspar Bauhin, Jacob Zwinger, Johannes Faber, and corresponded with many other scientists.

SOURCES:
V. Ingerslev, Danmarks laeger og laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-74), pp.270-4. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, (Copenhagen, 1979), 1, 470-2. Holger F. Roerdam, Kjoebenhauns Universitets Historle fra 1537 til 1621, (Copenhagen, 1873-77), 8, passim.


Bartholin, Erasmus



1. Dates: Born: Roskide, Denmark, 13 August 1625; Died: Copenhagen, 4 November 1698 Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Physician; Academic; Caspar Bartholin, Physician, Academic. He died when Erasmus was four. No clear information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Roskide, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; B.A. and M.A. University of Leiden; University of Padua; M.D. Taught initially by private teachers, then attented Latin school. 1642-4: University of Copenhagen, B.A. in 1644. M.A. in 1647. Studied mathematics at the University of Leiden for several years beginning in 1645. 1651: studied mathematics in France and Italy, ultimately at Padua where he was Consiliarius for the German Nation and Vice-syndicus for the university. M.D., 1654 at Padua. 1654-6: travelled and studied in Italy.
5. Religion: Lutheran.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Optics; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Astronomy; Major contribution to science was his study of Icelandic spar. Writings in pure mathematics were fairly numerous but not of great importance. Wrote a little on medicine. Observed the comets of 1665 and other astronomical objects, and published about this topic.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Government Position; Professor of mathematics at Copenhagen, 1657. Extraordinary chair of medicine, 1657. Royal Mathematician, 1667. Ordinary chair of medicine, 1671. Teacher to Prince Joergen, 1671. Dean of the faculty of medicine. Librarian. Rector in three different years. Royal physician. Privy concilor, Advisor to the chancellor, then minister of justice.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He was supported and directed by Frederick III of Denmark to prepare for publication of collected manuscript observations of Tycho Brahe. In addition, all of the connections to the court, and the various appointments above.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; As a physician, he introduced quinine in the fight against malaria.
10. Scientific Societies: He worked with Ole Roemer on Tycho's manuscripts. He worked with Niels Stensen on crystallography. 

SOURCES:
Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, (Copenhagen, 1979), 1, 475-6. V. Ingerslev, Dansk Laeger og Laegevaesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-4), pp. 586-9.

Not Consulted: Axel Garboe, 'Nicolaus Steno & Erasmus Bartholin' in Danmarks geologiske undersogelse, 4th ser., 3, no. 9 (1954), pp.38-48 QE278 A4 Ser.3. V. Maar, Den forste anvendelse of kinsbark i Danmark, (Leiden, 1925). Kirstine Meyer, Erasmus Bartholin, et Tidsbillede, (Copenhagen, 1933). Jed Z. Buchwald and Kurt Moeller Pedersen, 'Introduction,' in Erasmus Bartholin, Experiments on Bifrefringent Icelandic Crystal, trans. Thomas Archibald, (Copenhagen, 1991).


Bartholin, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Copenhagen, 20 October 1616; Died: Copenhagen, 4 December 1680; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Physician; Academic; Caspar Bartholin, physician, Professor of eloquentia, medicine, and theology at University of Copenhagen. The father died when Thomas B. was 13. Since he was a physician, I assume he was affluent. All the evidence about him indicates as much.
3. Nationality: Birth: Copenhagen, Denmark; Career: Denmark; Death: Copenhagen, Denmark
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Leiden; University of Padua; University of Basel; MD; Studied at the University of Copenhagen,1634-37; at Leiden, 1637-40. Also studied medicine at Padua (1641-3, 1644-5). I certainly assume a B.A. or equivalent in all that. M.D., 1646 at Basel.
5. Religion: Lutheran 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Anatomy; Medical Practioner; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Many works on anatomy, physiology and medicine, from 1645 through 1674. In 1658 a general work on pharmacology.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Medical Practioner; Throughout his life, Bartholin, who did not want a large practice, carried on a small one, largely with friends and relatives. Mathematical faculty of the University of Copenhagen, 1647-49; Anatomy professor of Copenhagen, 1649-61. As secundus medicus at the university, he received some of his salary from church thithes. He was, in addition entitled to wood from the university's forests, and feed for his animals, fish, and pigs. Named professor honorarius, 1661, by a royal decree. There is mention of a pension, but uncertainty as to whether it was ever paid. Brought the estate of Hagestedgaard, 1663. In 1666, he received a royal letter stating that he would receive an honorary gift of 4000 Rigsdaler in recognition of his diligence and service. This was paid with landholding. After fire destroyed his estate in 1670, King Christian V named Bartholin as his personal physician, with an annual salary of 600 Rdl, although Bartolin rarely had to treat the king. In 1671 he was named university librarian, with a salary of 120 Rdl. and a pension of 2000 Rdl.
8. Patronage: Court; Ole Worm gave Bartholin his initial appointment at the University of Copenhagen. Since Worm was a relation (husband of B's aunt), I won't call this patronage. Above are instances of patronage from the court. King Frederik III, who was interested in anatomy, attended Bartholin's demonstrations and commissioned him in 1654 to write Augusta anatome (which was never published). Shortly before Frederik III died (February 1670), he named Bartholin as archiater honorarius as a reward for his services. There is no mention of a salary. After Bartholin's estate burned in 1670, Christian V made it tax-free for three years.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; In 1654, along with the rest of the medical faculty at the university, Bartholin published advice to the people on how to take care of themselves during the plague. In 1673 he held the first exams for midwives in Denmark.
10. Scientific Societies: no formal ones. I am fascinated with the hints in his biography of a tight academic circle of related men in Denmark. Bartholin's father was a professor at the University of Copenhagen. His mother's father, Thomas Fincke, was a professor at the university, as was his aunt's husband, Ole Worm. Erasmus B. was his brother. Thomas's son Caspar, who was also an anatomist of importance, would follow at the university. Peder Soerenson, who is in the DSB as Severinus, and apparently held a chair at the university, also belongs in this circle; he was the husband of Fincke's cousin Drude Thorsmede, the daughter of the brother of Fincke's mother. Add to the circle Christian Soerensen (or Severin, known as Longomontanus) who was also related. Sometime between 1641 and 43, he was made a member of the learned society of Venice, Accademia de' signori incogniti. He maintained a lasting friendship with Marco Aurelio Severino, and a prolific correspondence with many scientists throughout Europe-among others, Pierre Bourdelet (France), Hermann Conring (Germany), Guy Patin (Paris), Johannes Scheffer (Uppsala), Niels Stensen (Denmark), Sktanislau Lubienitzsky (Poland). Letters are published in Epistolae medicinales (1663-7). Responsible for the royal decree of 1672 that decided the organization of Danish medicine for the next hundred years.

SOURCES
Axel Garboe, Thomas Bartholin et bidrag til dansk natur-og laegevidenskabs historie i det 17. aarhundrede, 2 vols, (Copenhagen, 1949-50). QM16 .B26G. Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 2. 476-9.


Basso, Sebastian



1. Dates: Born: unknown; Died: unknown. fl. second half of 16th century; Datecode: flourished (two dates give known period); Lifespan: -
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Un; Career: France?; Death: Un
4. Education: Non; He studied under Petrus Sinsonius at the Academia Mussipontana (Pont a Mousson, Lorraine)
5. Religion: Unknown.
6. Discipline: Scholastic Philosophy; He is associated with atomism, but within the context of Scholastic philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practice. Although there is no sound information, he did describe himself as 'doctore medico.'
8. Patronage: possibly from Aristocracy; Dedication of Basso's book: 'Nobili ac singularis spei Adolscenti D. D. Carolo Tonardo Domino d'Ison' followed by 6 page letter in Latin
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: no known contacts

SOURCES:
Sebastian Basso, Philosophia Naturalis adversus Aristotelem Libri XII. In quibus abstrusa Veterum Physiologia restaurantur, & Aristotelis Errores solidis Rationibus refelluntur, (Geneva 1621). - Microfilm Q 53. Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, (reprint Hildesheim 1961) - (reference room) no biographical information. Kurt Lasswitz, Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton, 1 (Hamburg-Leipzig, 1890), 467-481 - cites other sources but says nothing is known about Basso's life. J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 2 (London, 1961), 387-388. (cites other sources but has found no bio info). Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 6, (New York, 1941), 386-388. (no biographical information).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: I. Guareschi, 'La teoria atomistica e Sebastiano Basso con notizie e considerazioni su William Higgins', in Memoria della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche, e Naturali, 11 (1916), 289-388; Kurt Lasswitz, Vierteljahrschrift fuer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie, 9 (1884), 18 - 55. Lauge Olaf Nielsen, 'A 17th-century Physician on God and Atoms: Sebastian Basso,' in Norman Kretzmann, ed., Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy: Studies in Memory of Jan Pinborg, (Dordrecht, 1988), pp. 297-369. 


Bauhin, Gaspard



1. Dates: Born: Basel, Switzerland, 17 January 1560; Died: Basel, Switzerland, 5 December 1624; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: physician; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: Swiss; Death: Swiss
4. Education: University of Basel; M.D. Secondary Means of Support: taught by his father and brother Jean, but also attended gymnasium of Thomas Platter. University: 1572, entered University of Basel; 1575, bachelor of Philosophy; 1577, first medical disputation. 1577 (Oct) - early 1581, studied under various people in Italy, France, and Germany. 1581 (early), returned to Basel. 1581 (2 May), MD.
5. Religion: Calvinist French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugee from France.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Botany
7. Means of Support: Academic position and Medical practice; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; 1581 (27 Feb), held first public anatomy at U. of Basel. 1581 (13 May), made member of Faculty of medicine. 1582 (April), made professor of Greek (continued teaching anatomy and botany). 1584, became consiliarius of Faculty of Medicine (held office until death). 1586, first of 8 times as dean of faculty. 1592, rector of university. 1589, special chair in anatomy and botany created for him. 1580's, growing private medical practice. 1597 (6?), along with brother Jean, is physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg. 1598, rector of university. 1611, rector of university. 1614, became archiater to the city of Basel. 1614, appointed professor of practice of medicine. 1619, rector of university.
8. Patronage: court & aristocracy; Co-physician to Duke Frederick of Wuerttemberg (his father, son, and grandson were also physicians in various courts). His books dedicated to various barons.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Wide ranging correspondence to collect botanical information. No formal societies.

SOURCES:
C. Jessen, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Band II, (Leipzig 1876), S. 151-2 - ; ; L. Legré, La botanique en Provence au XVIe siecle. Les Deux Bauhin, Jean Henri Cherler et Valerand Dourez, (Marseille, 1904).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Albrecht Burckhardt, Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultaet zu Basel 1460 - 1900, (Basel, 1917), pp. 95 -123. J. von Hess, Bauhins Leben, (Basel, 1860). 


Bauhin, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Basel, Switzerland, 12 February 1541; Died: Montpeliard, principality of Wuertemberg- Montpeliard, 27 October 1612; Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: physician; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Born: Swiss (son of French emigres); career: French, Swiss, German; death: German
4. Education: University of Tübingen; University of Zurich; University of Montpellier; M.D., also University of Padua; University of Bologna; Studied under his father; 'Basic education in Basel', with Curione (Basel professor) among others, then Tübingen (with Leonard Fuchs) and Zurich (with Conrad Gesner). 'Short visits to foreign universities between 1560 and 1563 (1561-2 in Montpellier, lived with and studied under Rondelet) - for details see ADB. He attained the M.D. In Italy in 1562-3, especially Padua and Bologna.
5. Religion: Calvinist; French Protestant. His father was a Huguenot refugree from France.
6. Scientific Disciplines: botany, Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; A few minor medical writings.
7. Means of Support: Medical practice and patronage; 1563-8, medical practice at Lyons. 1568, began medical practice at Geneva. 1570, professor of rhetoric, U. of Basel; I gather that this appointment lasted only a short time. 1570, called to Montpeliard as personal physician, anatomist, and botanist to Duke Frederick of Wuertemberg. He established a botanical garden for the Duke in 1567. He was frequently called on medical consultations by illustrious patients in the general neighborhood, such as the Duchess of Lorraine.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocratic Patronage; Personal physician to Duke Frederick of Wuertemberg. Displayed his archeological collections in a museum at Duke Frederick's chateau. Went on 'missions' for Duke Frederick. 'Der Berner Patricier Grassenried' gave 40,000 Gulden for the postumous publication of his Historia Plantarum. However, this was long after Bauhin's death-don't list it. However, those illustrious patients such as the Duchess of Lorraine.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal: friend and correspondent of Gesner; collaborators and informants in many countries, really with botanists everywhere he went. Formal: 1575 instrumental in establishing the College of Medical Practioners in Montpeliard, which regulated the duties of all practitioners and provided free medical services to the poor

SOURCES:
C. Jessen, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, II, (Leipzig, 1876) 149-151. L. Legré, La botanique en Provence au XVIe siecle. Les Deux Bauhin, Jean Henri Cherler et Valerand Dourez, (Marseille, 1904).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: L.-M. Dupetit-Thouars, Biographie universelle, 3, 556-559.
C. Duvernay, Notices sur quelques medicines, naturalistes et agronomes nes ou etablis a Montbeliard des le seizieme siecle, (Besancon, 1838), 1-24. E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, 2nd ed., 1, (Paris 1887), 1016-1023. C. Roth, 'Stammtafeln einiger ausgestorbener Gelehrtenfamilien,' Basler Zeitschrift fuer Geschichte und Altertumkunde, 15 (1916), 47-55. C. P. J. Sprengel, Geschichte der Botanik (Leipzig, 1817-1818), pp. 364 - 369. DSB lists others but they seem primarily to do with his science.


Bayer, Johann



1. Dates: Born: Germany, 1572; Died: Germany, 1625 Datecode: Lifespan: 53
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Germany Career: Germany Death: Germany
4. Education: University of Ingolstadt; Aug, L.D. 1592, enrolled at Ingolstadt, later moved to Augsburg. He earned a law degree; I assume B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic assumed.
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy
7. Means of Support: lawyer, Magistrate; Bayer was a lawyer, and amateur astronomer. 1612, appointed legal advisor to city council of Augsburg at an annual salary of 500 gulden.
8. Patronage: city magistrates. 1603, dedicated his Uranometria to two leading citizens of Augsburg and received an honorarium of 150 gulden.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Collaborated with Schiller (Ernst Zinner, Vierteljahrsschrift der astronomischen Gesellschaft, 72 (1937), 64-8.)

SOURCES: Franz Babinger, 'Johannes Bayer, der Begruender der neuzeitlichen Sternbenennung,' Archiv fuer die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und die Technik, 5 (1915), 108-113. 


Beaugrand, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Paris (?), ca. 1595; Died: Paris (?), ca. 22 December 1640; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 45
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Paris (?), France; Career: France; Death: Paris(?), France
4. Education: None Known; Studied under Viète 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Astronomy; Published Geostatique in 1636. He published on mathematics, and he observed astronomical events such as eclipses.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; He became mathematician to Gaston of Orleans in 1630 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Gaston of Orleans, see above
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: He was an early friend of Fermat and Etienne Despagnet, later of Mersenne and his circle. He was an official Paris correspondent to Fermat. Friendship and correpondence with Castelli, Galileo, and Hobbes. 

SOURCES:
P.Humbert,' Les Astronmers francais de 1610 a 1667,' Société d'études scientifiques et archeéologiques de Draguignan, Memoires, 63 (1942), pp.1-72. Little in known about Beaugrand. There are few manuscripts and letters and no records. Not in Nouvelle biographie générale. Not in Dictionnaire de biographie française. References to Beaugrand are scatted throughout the standard eds of the correspondence of Fermat (P.Tannery and C. Henry, eds, Paris 1891-1912; (QA3.F3) Supp. vol., N.de Waard, ed., Paris, 1922), Descartes (Adam And P.Tannery eds., Paris, 1897-1913, (B1833.T16)), and Mersenne (Marie Tannery, ed., Paris, 1933, (BX4705.M53.A3), v.1-3). 


Becher [Beccher], Johann Joachim



1. Dates: Born: Speyer, Germany 6 May 1635; Died: London, England? October 1682(?); Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 47
2. Father: minister; No clear information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: Germany; Dutch; English. Spent a little time before death in Netherlands and England. Death: Germany; (some accounts say he died in Germany)
4. Education: Non Mostly self-educated. MD, U. of Mainz 16 November 1661-in view of the rest, it is highly unlikely that this was an earned degree
5. Religion: Roman Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: alchemy and metallurgy
7. Means of Support: Patronage, Governmental position; 1663, appointed professor of medicine at Mainz and physician to the elector of Mainz. 1664 (6?), went to Munich, was named Hofmedicus and Mathematicus to Ferdinand Maria, elector of Bavaria, who furnished him with a laboratory; 1666, obliged to leave Munich, went to Vienna,; Appointed public professor of medicine at University of Mentz (sic). He was appointed chamberlain to Count Zinzendorf, 'and through him acquired so much importance in the eyes of the court, that he was named a member of the newly-erected College of Commerce, and obtained the title of imperial commercial counsellor and chamberlain' to Emperor Leopold I. While in Vienna he established a Werkhaus containing a chemical lab for manufacturing pigments as well as for working with wool, silk, and glass. 1678, went to Holland, sold the city of Haarlem a plan for a machine that would spool silk cocoons. 1679, sold the Dutch a method of extracting gold from sea sand. 1679, at invitation of Prince Rupert, went to England; inspected mines in Cornwall (and Scotland?) for Prince Rupert. 1682, 'an advantageous proposal was made to him by the Duke of Mecklenburg Gustrow, by means of Count Zinzendorf,' but he died soon after. When he died, his family was so poor his daughter had to go into domestic service.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocracy; 1662, married daughter of 'influential jurist and imperial councillor' Ludwig von Hoernigk. Physician to 2 electors. Counsellor to Emperor Leopold I. In England was 'protected and befriended by Edmund Dickinson and Prince Rupert.'; See 'support' section for details.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry; 1660, claimed to have invented a 'thermoscope' for automatically regulating the temperature of a furnace. Claimed to have invented a method for converting coal to coke. Promoted various industries while counsellor to Leopold; 1677-8, involved with silk and gold industries in Netherlands. 1681, took out a patent (with Henry Serle) on process for extracting tar from coal.
10. Scientific Societies: Unsuccessfully sought membership in Royal Society.

SOURCES
J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, 2, (London 1961), 637 -652. Thomas Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1, (London 1830), 246-8. - Microprint (Landmarks of Science).

Not Available and Not Consulted: F. A. Steinhueser, Johann Joachim Becher und die Einzelwirtschaft, (Nuremberg, 1931) - discusses his economic and administrative policies - describes further secondary literature. Thomas Thomson, History of the Royal Society . DSB gives other sources, they seem to focus on his science. 


Beeckman, Isaac



1. Dates: Born: Middleburg, 10 December 1588; Died: Dordrecht, 19 May 1637; Datecode: Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Artisan; Merchant; Beeckman's grandfather was a well-established merchant in Brabant forced to flee (to London) because of religion. Beeckman's father was forced by the intolerance for foreigners to emigrate from London to Middleburg. There the father was a candlemaker and one who installed and maintained water conduits. He married the daughter of a wagon maker. Artisan/Merchant seems to me best to sum up the father. There is plenty of evidence that the father prospered in Middleburg.
3. Nationality: Birth: Middleburg, Zeeland, Netherlands; Career: Netherlands; Death: Dordrecht, Netherlands.
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Saumur; University of Caen; M.D. Studied at Leiden 1607-1610, philosophy and linguistics. Though apparently he never received a B.A. he did do the equivalent of a B.A. Privately studied at Saumur, 1612. He originally intended to enter the ministry. M.D. from Caen in 1618. He was self-educated in medicine. However, he did study medicine seriously for two years ands he was examined at Caen under an established format.
5. Religion: Reformed Church (i.e., Calvinist)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Mechanics; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Engineer; Mtr; He was an early proponent of the application of mathematics in physics. In Dordrecht the city constructed a tower at the school for his meteorological and astronomical observations. He long kept meteorological records. He developed instruments for this purpose, including a thermoscope. He made astronomical observations with Lansberg. In his last years he dedicated himself more and more to grinding lenses for telescopes.
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: Artisan; Apprenticed to his father's factory which made candles and water conduits, later pursued the same trade as an independent artisan in Zierikzee, Zeeland. 1619-20, conrector in Utrecht, Rotterdam. 1620, assistant (rector) to his brother in Rotterdam, sharing the salary with his brother. 1623-7, conrector in Rotterdam 1627, rector of the Latin School at Dordrecht; This appointment was due to the influence of Rivet, who also arranged the later visit by Gassendi and the correspondence with Mersenne.
8. Patronage: Merchant; City Magistrate; Academic; As a result of his advice, a leading merchant in Rotterdam pulled out of an undertaking with a new mill based on a perpetual motion principle. The merchant (Puyck) saved his shirt-and as a result commissioned Beeckman to build a fountain in his garden. He had considerable support for his scientific work from the magistrates of Dordrecht with whom he was very close. (Here one sees the overlap of patronage and friendship.); Don't forget the intervention of Rivet above.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Scientific Instruments; Mechanical Devices; Navigation. In 1619 he was consulted, as an expert, on a plan to rid the harbor of Middleburg of sandbars. In 1621 he repaired the waterlines (aqueducts) for a brewery. In 1620 he was consulted about a proposed new horsedriven mill that was based on a perpetual motion concept. His negative opinion was triumphantly vindicated. He worked at improving telescopes, and apparently did improve on the grinding of lenses. In 1636 he was appointed to the commision (of the Netherlands) to judge Galileo's proposal to determine longitude. See the information below about the Collegium Mechanicum.
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship and correspondence with Snel, Descartes, Gassendi, Mersenne, Stampioen, Blaeu. He founded a Collegium Mechanicum, a society of craftsmen and scholars who occupied themselves with scientific problems, especially those that had technological application-for example, a windmill with horizontal sails on a vertical axis, and questions of mater management such as attempts to remove a sandbar from the Middleburg harbor.

SOURCES:
de Waard, 'Beeckman,' Nieuw Nederlands Biografisch Woordenboek. E.J.Dijksterhus, Val en Worp, (Groningen, 1924), pp. 304-321. R.Hooykaas,'Science and Religion in the 17th century; Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637),' Free University Quarterly, 1, (1951), pp. 169-183. Klaas Van Berkel, Isaac Beeckman ed de mechanisiering van der wereldbeeld.


Beguin, Jean



1. Dates: Born: Lorraine, ca. 1550; Died: France, ca. 1620; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 70
2. Father: Little is known of his family. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Lorraine, at that time Germanic; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: None Known; He seems to have received a good classical education. He mentions having spent some time in Germany and having visited the mines of Hungary (in 1604) and Schemnitz (in 1611). There is no mention of university study. 
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Alchemy; Beguin published the Tyrocinium chymicum in 1610. Most of the book was concerned with chemical operations rather than with theory, and he emphasized that the most effective therapy combined Galenic and Paracelsian remedies. Beguin was credited with the first mention of acetone, which he called 'the burning spirit of Saturn.' The Tyrocinium chymicum was immensely popular through the 17th century. It was translated into the major European languages and issued in many editions. It set the pattern for the notable series of French chemical textbook in the later part of the century. Beguin wrote to Barth (1613) that he was engaged with transmutation.
7. Means of Support: Pharmacology; Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; He worked in his laboratory and gave public lectures on the preparation of the new chemical medicaments of Quercetanus and others. In a letter written in 1613 to Barth, he said he had earned 700 crowms by his skill, and could hardly earn more by teaching. He was almoner to the king (Henry IV) about 1608.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Medicine; The influence of the royal physician, Jean Ribit, and of Turquet de Mayerne enabled him to obtain permission to set up a laboratory and give public lectures. King Henry IV. He was the king's almoner.
9. Technological Connections: Chemistry, Pharmacology; He prepared chemicals and medicines.
10. Scientific Societies: Jeremias Barth, Begiun's pupil, encouraged him to publish a 'little book'. As a result, Begiun published his famous Tyrocinium chymicum.

SOURCES
T.S.Patterson,'Jean Begiun and his Tyrocinum chymicum,' Annals of Science, 2 (1937), pp.243-498. R.P.Multhauf,'Libavius and Beguin', in E. Farber, ed., Great Chemists, New York-London, 1961, pp.65-74. A.Kent and O. Hannaway, 'Some consideration on Begiun and Libavius', Annals of Science, 16 (1960), pp. 241-250. Nouvelle biographie générale, 5, 160. Not in Dictionnaire de biographie française.


Belleval, Pierre Richer de [Richer de Belleval]



Richer was in fact the family name, although he is known under Belleval.

1. Dates: Born: Chalons-sur-Marne, c. 1564; Died: Montpellier, 17 November 1632; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Unknown; His father was N. Richer or Richier, but nothing beside the name is known about him. Financial status unknown. 
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: University of Montpellier; Avi, M.D. He went to Montpellier to study medicine in 1584. He received M.D. in Avignon in 1587. He received his M.D. from Montpellier in 1595. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; He was planning to publish a general herbarium of Languedoc when he died. He left a great number of the plates that were to illustrate it; the work was to utilize a binary nomenclature in Latin or Greek. Part of the botanical garden at Montpellier was a museum of natural history.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; In 1587, immediately after completing his M.D., Belleval married the daughter of a deceased seigneur de Prades (who had enriched himself by trade and purchased the estate) near Montpellier. There was a considerable dowry, and it is clear that this personal estate helped to support Belleval throughout his life. Practiced medicine in Avignon (and/or possibly Comtat) and then in Pezenas, 1587-1593. He was physician to troops for a time. Professor of anatomy and botanical studies at the medical college of Montpellier, and in charge of the botanical garden, 1593-. Belleval devoted all of his time and money to the garden, which was the first botanical garden in France. I treat the management of the garden as a governmental position. Belleval was the personal physician of Henry IV and then of Louis XIII (although he remained in Montpellier and was not at the court). There are documented financial favors that he received from Henry.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Henri de Montmorency, the governor of Languedoc, was his lifelong protector from the time when they met in Pezenas. Along with Montmorency was the Duc de Ventadour. Montmorency brought Belleval from Comtat to practice medicine in Pezenas, and apparently the botanical garden was Montmorency's idea in the first place. In 1593 Belleval obtained a letter patent from Henry IV for the foundation of a botanical garden in Montpellier. Henry also established him in a chair at Montpellier and remained his patron, as did Louis XIII after him. Belleval had the title of physician to the king. Belleval had an enemy at Montpellier, Jacques d'Estienne, sieur de Pradilles. The ongoing struggle between the two, described in Guiraud, appears to have been a classic conflict within the system of patronage. Pradilles was also a professor of medicine at Montpellier, or perhaps rather a would-be professor, who appears to have had the support of the local magnates. Belleval, from the outside (even his degree was from Avignon) and the client of the court, kept being shoved ahead of Pradilles, who in turned used his support through the Estates of Languedoc to oppose everything Belleval tried to do. The struggle had its published dimension. Pradilles alleged that Belleval neglected his duties and squandered money. Belleval was forced to respond with Remonstrance et supplication au roi touchant la continuation de la recherche des plantes de Languedoc (1599). Pradilles continued intriguing against him, and Belleval again responded with Dessein touchant la recherche des plantes du pays de Languedoc (1695). After the seige of 1622 destroyed the garden, Louis XIII personally authorized its re-establishment.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; The botanical garden was, of course, first of all a medicinal garden.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
L. Guiraud, 'Le premier jardin des plantes francaise,' in Archives de la ville de Montpellier, 4, (Montpellier, 1920), 263-396. This appears clearly to be the source on Belleval. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 5, 1352-3.

Not Available and Not Consulted: P.J. Amoreux, Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de Pierre Richer de Belleval, pour servir a l'histoire de cette faculte et a celle de la botanique, (Avignon, 1786). A. Dorthes, Eloge historique de Pierre Richer de Belleval,instituteur du Jardin royal de botanique de Montpellier sous Henri IV, (Montpellier, 1788). J.E. Planchon, Pierre Richer de Belleval, fondateur du Jardin des plantes de Montpellier et Appendice contenant les pieces justficatives, (Montpellier, 1869).


Bellini, Lorenzo



1. Dates: Born: Florence, 3 September 1643; Died: Florence, 8 January 1704; Datecode: Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Merchant; He was born to a family of small businessmen. No information on financial status. However, it may be pertinent that his education was financed by the patronage of the Grand Duke. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Pisa; M.D., Ph.D. He attended the University of Pisa, where he studied philosophy and mathematics with some of Italy's leading scientists, most notably Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. M.D. and Ph.D., 1663. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Bellini was accused of impiety and atheism well along in his career. For a time he lost the favor of the Grand Duke.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine; Considered a founder of Italian iatromechanism, Bellini was a pioneer in applying mechanical philosophy to the functions of the human body. His early interests were anatomy and physiology. The first essay he published, Exercitatio anatomica de usu renum(1662), was an important study of the structure and function of the kidneys. This essay contains his anatomical discovery that in the supposedly unorganized parenchyma there is a complicated structure composed of fibers, open spaces, and densely packed tubules opening into the pelvis of the kidney. His De urinis et pulsibus et missione sanguinis (1683) was the first important attempt by an Italian systematically to apply the mechanical philosophy to medical theory. The Opuscula aliquot, published in 1695, developed his earlier iatromechanical themes most fully, trying to expain all important physiological phenomena according to the law of mechanics. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Professor of theoretical medicine at Pisa, 1663-1668. Professor of anatomy, 1668-1703; First physician to Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany, ca. 1693-1704. As a result of the charges of atheism, Bellini lost favor with Ferdinand II and lost his academic position. He lived for a time on his practice alone. When Cosimo succeeded Ferdinand, he appointed Bellini as his personal physician. And Bellini was even medical consultor to Pope Clement XI.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Scientist; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; He benefited from the patronage of Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany from his early youth. Under the Grand Duke's protection, he attended the University of Pisa, and later with the Grand Duke's assistance he obtained a chair of anatomy at Pisa. Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany. See above. Bellini published Gratiarum actio ad Ser. Hetruriae Principem, 1670. His first work (1662) was of course dedicated to the Grand Duke. Redi, the medical examiner of the Grand Duke, was Bellini's friend and mentor; to him Bellini dedicated his work De urinis. Bellini became medical consultor to Clement XI through the efforts of G.M. Lancisi (a prominent medical scientist). Sen. Pandolfini, who inherited Bellini's manuscripts, erected a tomb for him. Although I have not learned more about their relation, it had to fit into the patronage system.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Active friendship with Francisco Redi, beginning in 1660s. Active friendship with Malpighi, beginning in 1676. His De urinis seems to have been inspired by Thomas Willis' and Borelli's earlier works. Archibald Pitcairne, a Scots mathematician and physician, praised Bellini's general theory of disease, and urged him to develop further some of the ideas contained only in compressed form in De urinis. Bellini reacted favorably to Pitcarine's encouragement, and he devoted the next few years to his last set of essays, which he dedicated to Pitcarine and published in 1695 as Opuscula aliquot. Largely through the influence of Pitcarine he enjoyed an international reputation. Admitted to the Arcadia (Rome) in 1691. Accademia della Crusca. Adelmann's Malpighi gives a good indication of the extent of the network of correspondence that included Bellini.

SOURCES:
Dizionario biografico degli italiani, VII, Rome, 1965, pp.713-716. Howard Adelmann, Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology, 5 vols., Ithaca, N.Y., 1966. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 61-3. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, (1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 2, 686-90. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: Augusto Botto-Micco's article in Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturale, 12 (1930), pp.38-49. M.A. Mozzi, 'Vita di Lorenzo Bellini,' Accademia degli Arcadi, 1 (1708), 113-22. 


Belon, Pierre



1. Dates: Born: Soutière, 1517; Died: France, 1564 (murdered); Datecode: Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Unknown; Belon came from an obscure family. Practically nothing is known of his ancestry. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: University of Wittenburg; University of Paris; M.D. Before 1535 he was apprenticed to an apothecary of Foulletourte, René des Prez, apothecary to Guillaume du Prat, bishop of Clermont. Later, when he became the protégé of René du Bellay, Bishop of Le Mans, he was able to go the university of Wittenberg and study under the botanist Valerius Cordus. He never acquired the doctorate, but in 1560 he obtained the licentiate in medicine from the Paris Faculty of Medicine. I am treating this as an M.D. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Zoology, Botany Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Belon can be considered the originator of comparative antomy. He drew parallels between human and bird skeletons. By the same token, he depicted a porpoise embryo and set forth the first notions of embryology. He was one of the first explorer-naturalists. He was the first to bring order into the world of feathered animals, distinguishing between raptorial birds, field birds, diurnal birds, river birds, etc. He published nine works during the years between 1551 and 1558.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; About 1535 he became assistant to the apothecary to Guillaume du Prat, Bishop of Clermont, and then the protégé of René du Bellay, Bishop of Le Mans. In 1542 he went to Paris, where du Prat recommended him as an apothecary to François Cardinal de Tournon. Du Bellay doubtless supported Belon's study trip to Germany and supported his study in Paris (1542). In Paris, Belon entered the service of François, Cardinal of Tournon. He may have been engaged in a diplomatic mission for the Cardinal when he travelled to Switzerland in 1542; he was imprisoned in Geneva for six months. Still in the service of the Cardinal, he accompanied M. d'Aramont on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople (1546-9) and the Middle East. He left the Cardinal's service in February 1560. Henry II 'accepted' the dedication of Histoire des Oiseaux (1555). After the Cardinal of Tournon, Belon's next major patron was Odet de Chatillon, Cardinal de Chatillon. He left the Cardinal in 1553 for M. de Vieilleville, whom he served as physician and apothecary.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Bishop Guillaume du Prat. See above. He owed his position at Paris to du Prat's recommendation. Bishop Bellay. See above. He owned the opportunity to go to the university to Bellay. About 1556 Belon came up with a plan to acclimate exotic plants to France, and was granted a 600 livres pension from the king, Henry II. Like Rudolf II, Henry appears to have been remiss in seeing that there was money to cover this in his coffers. While he was waiting to be paid, Belon travelled to Switzerland and Italy and around France (1557-8). He did eventually received the pension, and he lived off it. He dedicated his Remonstrances sur le défault du labor et culture des plantes . . . and a sonnet to Jehan de Thyer, knight, seigneur de Beauregard, counsellor to the king, secretary to the État du Roi, etc. Cardinal de Tournon was his most significant patron.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Belon's duties on the diplomatic mission to the East were largely concerned with finding what sort of merchandise and especially drugs were available in Turkey. This trade was monopolized by the Venetians at that time.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Paul Delaunay, Pierre Belon, naturaliste, (Le Mans, 1926). ___, L'aventureuse existence de Pierre Belon du Mans, (Paris, 1926). J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommesillustres, 24, 36-45. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, Paris 1778, pp. 71-2. P.-A. Cap, Études biographiques pour servir à l'histoire des sciences. Premier serie. Chimistes-naturalists, 2 vols. (Paris, 1857), 1, 70-83.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: 'La cronique de Pierre Belon, du Mans, médecin', Paris, Bibliotheque de l'arsenal, MS 4561, fols.88-141. Note: a manuscript. Paul Delaunay, 'Les voyages en Angleterre du médecin naturaliste Pierre Belon,' Proceedings of the Third International Congress of the History of Medicine, London, 1922, (Anvers, 1923), 306-8. _____, 'Un adversaire de la réforme. Les idées religieuses de Pierre Belon du Man,' Bulletin de la Commission historique et archéologique de la Mayenne, 2nd ser. 38 (1922), 97-117. Also printed separately in Laval, 1922.
R.J.Forbes, Pierre Belon and Petroleum, Brussels, 1958. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 71-2. 


Benedetti, Giovanni Battista



1. Dates: Born: Venice, 14 August 1530; Died: Turin, 20 January 1590; Datecode: Lifespan: 60;
2. Father: Aristocrat. His father, a Spaniard with patrician status, is spoken of as a philosopher and physicist (physicus), which Stillman Drake suggests means that he was interested in natural philosophy in general. Later in his career Benedetti apparently had ample private means. He must have inherited them, and it appears to me that the circumstances must have been at least affluent. Note as well that he did not attend a university, which means that he had no need of professional credentials in order to live.
3. Nationality: Birth: Venice, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Turin, Italy
4. Education: None Known; He learned philosophy, music and mathematics from his father. He had no formal education beyond the age of seven, except that he studied the first book of Euclid's Elements under Niccolo Tartaglia, probably about 1546-1548.
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Physics; Mechanics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Astrology; Optics; Benedetti published De resolutione in 1553, a book of geometry, and other mathematical works followed. Issues of mechanics enter into his second book of geometry and were prominent in a later work. In Parma he carried out astronomical observations, and he published a work on sundials. His interest in astrology was always obvious in his astronomical work. Extensive considerations of optical issues, including the camera obscura, are found in his works. He was one of the first to treat musical harmonies in terms of vibrations. However, his consideration of music is confined to two letters and seems less important in his work than other disciplines.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1558-1566, court mathematician to Duke Ottavio Farnese at Parma. He gave instruction at the court, served as astrologer, and advised on engineering of public works. 1567-1590, in the service of the Duke of Savoy, Emanuele Filiberto and his successor, as ducal mathematician and philosopher, with a regular stipend of 300 gold scudi. His duties included the teaching of mathematics and science at court, and he served as the duke's advisor on the university affairs. He also designed and constructed various public and private works. When payment of his stipend was in arrears in Parma, once for ten months and another time for twenty, Benedetti had sufficient means to live. In 1570 he had 2500 scudi with which he purchased what amounted to a perpetual annuity of 100 scudi. Apparently he taught in the University of Torino.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Benedetti dedicated De resolutione (1553) and also his second book (54) to Gabriele de Guzman, Abbot of Pontelungo, a Spanish Dominican installed in Pontelungo by the King of France (sic) in return for services at the court. Guzman had the title and rank of Monsignor. Benedetti addressed Guzman, in the dedication, as 'Domino [the ablative] suo semper osservandissimo' (Master always to be most highly honored). In Parma Benedetti constructed a sundial for Count Giulio Rangone. The Duke of Savoy. See above. Benedetti was granted a patent of nobility by the court in 1570. Note that the Duke of Savoy (Emanuele Filiberto) was interested in raising the level of culture in his state, and to that end he gathered learned men from all Italy around him. Duke Ottavio Farnese. See above.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Military Engineer; He designed and constructed fountains. We know that he carried out other public works. In Turin he also inspected and improved military installations.
10. Scientific Societies: See his connection with Tartaglia, although it does not appear to have continued.

SOURCES
Carlo Maccagni, 'Contributi alla biobibliografia di G.B. Benedetti', Physis, 9 (1967), pp.337-364. A. Koyré, 'Jean Baptiste Benedetti critique d'Aristote,' in Études d'histoire de la pensée scientifique, (Paris, 1973), 140-66. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 2, 817-18. Giovanni Bordiga, 'Giovanni Battista Benedetti, filosofo e matematico veneziano del secolo XVI' in Atti del Reale Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 85, pt.2 (1925-1926), 585-754. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 154-6. Stillman Drake and I.E. Drabkin, Mechanics in Sixteenth-Century Italy, (Madison, Wis., 1969), pp. 31-41. 


Berger, Johann Gottfried



1. Dates: Born: Halle, Germany, 11 November 1659; Died: Wittenberg, Germany, 2(?) October 1736; Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: schoolmaster-rector of prominent gymnasium; Apparently prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German 
4. Education: University of Jena; M.D. University of Erfuhrt; Secondary Means of Support: nothing specified - father was rector of Gymnasium at Halle. University: 1677 - 1680, studied math and medicine at Jena. Brief period at Erfuhrt-he must have earned a B.A. Returned to Jena and graduated MD in 1682. 1682? - 1684? Studienreise.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physiology; Medical Practioner; Some medical treatises and practice; No interest in botany, despite teaching it
7. Means of Support: Academic, patronage, medical practice; 1684 - 1688 on staff of University of Leipzig; 1688 - death, taught at University of Wittenberg.
1688, appointed extraordinary professor of medicine. 1688-93, third ordinary professor of medicine (anatomy & botany). 1693-5, second ordinary professor of medicine (pathology). 1695 - death, first ordinary professor of medicine ('medicine and clinical subjects'). 1690 (- 1695?), dean of faculty. 1693, rector (how long?). 1693-1709 (maybe before and after), Senior of medical faculty. 1706, vice-rector of university (not a sinecure); from 1730 Consilarius Aulae and senior of the entire university. 1697-1733, physician in ordinary (Archiater) to Friedrich August I. 1733-6, physician in ordinary (Archiater) to Friedrich August II.
8. Patronage: court; Friedrich August I, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, 'chancellor and patron ... virtual ruler of the University of Wittenberg', e.g.: 1671, created extraordinary professorship in medicine over wishes of medical faculty. 1685, turned down all of medical faculty's nominees (including Berger) for extraordinary professorship. 1688, appointed Berger to extraordinary professorship; Also Friedrich August II, his successor. Berger's brothers J. Wilhelm and J. Heinrich also professors at Wittenberg, both eventually held high positions in the university.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Archiater to Electors of Saxony. it was customary for Wittenberg professors of medicine to practice medicine, but no other indication of medical practice.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Edgar Ashworth Underwood, 'Johann Gottfried von Berger (1659 - 1736) of Wittenberg and his Text-book of Physiology (1701), in Science, Medicine and History, 2, (Oxford, 1953).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: L.-M. Dupetit-Thouars, Biographie Universelle ancienne et moderne, 4, (Paris, 1843), 15. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 2. Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie medicale, 2, (Paris, 1855), 94; August Hirsch (ed.), Biographisches Lexikon hervorragenden Aerzte vor 1880, 2nd ed., 1, (Berlin-Vienna, 1929), 475. Christian Gottlieb Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 1, reprint Hildesheim 1961. C. L. F. Panckoucke, Biographie Medicale, (Paris 1820). J. Ch. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Handwoerterbuch zu den exakten Wissenschaften, 1, (Leipzig, 1863). Zedler's Universal Lexicon, (Leipzig-Halle, 1742, reprint Graz, 1961).


Berigard, Claude Guillermet de



1. Dates: Born: Moulins, ca 1578; Died: Padua, 1664; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 86
2. Father: Gentry (though I am uneasy in applying this English classification to a French subject). Pierre Guillermet was an écuyer (squire), with the title, Seigneur de Beauregard. The father was both an M.D. and Ph.D. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Moulins, France; Career: France, Italy; Death: Padua, Italy
4. Education: University of Aix; M.D., Ph.D. Studied both medicine and philosophy at Aix-en-Provence. He received both M.D. and Ph.D. in 1601. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Advocated a qualitative corpuscular philosophy. Major Works: Dubitationes (1632), concerning Galileo's Dialogue, and Circulus pisanus (1643, 2nd ed., 1661), a synopsis of his courses at Padua. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Before 1625 lived quietly in Avignon, Lyons, and Paris. Nothing is said about how he lived. One wonders if he was practicing medicine, but nothing is said. Summoned to Tuscany in 1625, possibly by Christina of Lorraine, mother of Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was secretary to Christina of Lorraine. He taught philosophy, botany, and mathematics at Pisa from 1628 to 1640. In 1640 he went to Padua (as second professor of philosophy), where he became well known as a teacher. He succeeded Liceti in 1653. When he went he received the same salary as the first professor, 800 florins. This was raised first to 1000 florins and in 1653 to 1200.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Unknown; Christina of Lorraine, mother of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, procurred the chair of philosophy at Pisa for him. Someone had to be behind the appointment at Padua. We are told only that the Republic of Venice nominated him.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies:  Connection with Hobbes, Galileo, Liceti, and Gassendi.

SOURCES:
E. Brehier, Histoire de philosophie, 2, Paris, 1929. pp.13. J.P.Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommesillustres dans la republique des lettres, (Paris, 1727-1745), 31, pp. 123-127.
Nouvelle biographie générale, 5, 526-7. Not in Dictionnaire de biographie française

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Sortais, Philosopie moderne depuis Bacon jusqu'à Leibniz, (Paris, 1922), 2, pp.71-75.


Beringer, Johann Bartholomaeus Adam 
[Johann Barthel Adam B.]



1. Dates: Born: Würzburg, Germany ca 1667; Died: Würzburg, Germany 11 April 1738 (or sometimes 1740); Datecode: Lifespan: 71
2. Father: professor and physician; I assume prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Wurzburg; , M.D., Ph.D. Secondary Means of Support: ?; University: There was either a B.A. or its equivalent; 1693, MD, U. Würzburg. Also PhD, date and university unknown.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: palaeontology, Medical Practioner; Some publications in medicine; Perhaps other work in natl hist
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Medical Practioner; Stayed at University of Würzburg until death; 1694, named professor quartus seu extraordinarius at University of Wuerzburg. 1695, appointed keeper of U. of W. botanical gardens; appointed keeper of Julian Hospital. 1700, elevated to professor ordinarius and dean of Faculty of Medicine. 1700, appointed advisor and chief physician to the Prince-Bishop of Wuerzburg, Christoph Franz von Hutten. 1700-28, chief physician to the Julian Hospital.
8. Patronage: ecclesiastical/court. (I'll call this court); Prince-Bishop of Wuerzburg, Christoph Franz von Hutten. Beringer's father was also a professor at U. of Würzburg before him.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES
Johann Christoph Adelung, Fortseztung und Erganzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelerten-Lexico, (1960 Hildesheim reprint of Leipzig 1784 edition), columns 1726 - 1727. - ref room Z 1010 . J64. Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft Zeitschrift, 87, Nr. 9 (Nov 1935), 607-615 - about fraud; Guembel, 'Beringer', in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 2, (Leipzig, 1876) 399. August Padtberg, S. J., 'Die Geschichte einer vielberufenen palaeontologishen Falschung', Stimmen der Zeit, 104 (1923), 32-48 - when skimmed, seemed to be only about the fraud. Not in Neue Deutsche Biographie.

Not Available and Not Consulted: M. E. Jahn and Daniel J. Woolf, The Lying Stones of Dr. Beringer . . ., (Berkeley - Los Angeles, 1963). Georg Sticker, 'Entwicklungsgeschichte der Medizinischen Fakultaet an der Alma Mater Julia', in Max Bruchner, ed., Festschrift zum 350 Jaerigen bestehen der Universitaet ..., (Wuerzburg, 1932), pp 483 - 487. Other articles which seem to do more with the fraud.


Bernoulli, Johann [Jean]



1. Dates: Born: Basel, Switzerland 6 August 1667 (ADB: 27 July); Died: Basel, Switzerland 1 January 1748; Datecode: Lifespan: 81
2. Father: drug merchant; Clearly prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: Netherlands, Swiss; Death: Swiss
4. Education: University of Basel; M.A. M.D. 1683, enrolled in U. of Basel. 1685, promoted to MA, began to study medicine; Began to study math privately with brother Jakob I. 1690, licentiate in medicine. Temporarily halted studies - see support. 1694, doctoral dissertation in medicine (iatromathematics).
5. Religion: evangelical Protestant-i.e, Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: mathematics, mechanic. Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Chemistry; Two early medical treatises on fermentation & digestion. (Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie also mentions minor chemistry).
7. Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Academic position. Secondary Means of Support: personal means; 1691, spent most of year in Geneva teaching differential calculus to J. Christoph. Fatio-de- Duillier. 1692, taught infinitesimal calculus to Marquis de L'Hospital, for which L'Hospital 'generously compensated' him; L'H. gave Bernoulli a 'considerable fee' to continue the lessons by correspondence after Bernoulli returned to Basel. Around 1692, also taught Varignon. 1694, with Leibnitz's help, Bernoulli was to receive a call as Mathematician to the Academy at Wolfenbüttel but his impending marriage prevented it. 1695, was offered professorship at Halle - declined. 1695-1705, through the intervention of Huygens, got the chair of math and physics at Groningen. Date? repeatedly was offered positions at Utrecht and Leiden (through his father in law?). October 1703, his father-in-law got him the Basel Chair in Greek (a sinecure used to get hold of him until he could get an appropriate chair). 1705 got (recently deceased brother Jakob's) chair of math at Basel; the University Senate visited Johann in corpore to ask him to take up Jakob's vacant chair; the government granted him an extraordinary pay raise (ausserordentliche Zulage); held the position until he died. All during his time at Basel he refused calls to Leiden, Padua, Gröningen, and Berlin. 1730 (alone) and 1734 (with son Daniel), won Paris Academy prizes.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate, scientist; Father was Ratsherr of Basel. 1694, married into one of the ruling families of Basel. 'As son-in-law of Alderman Falkner ... held honorary civic offices' in Basel. See Huygens' role in Groningen chair above.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Berlin Academy; Royal Society (London); Russian Academy (St Petersburg); Instit. Bologna; Informal: 'Grandseigneur of the science of mathematics.'; Belonged to famous family of mathematicians - worked with his brother Jakob only in his early years. By 1710, had won a good place in Malebranche's mathematical circle in Paris (surely this date is wrong-too late). Much correspondence: exchanged 2,500 letters with 110 scholars. Formal: published in various learned journals and memoirs of Academies, including Acta Eruditorum and Journal des Scavans. 1699, elected to Academie of Paris. 1701, elected to Academie of Berlin. 1712, elected to Royal Society of London. 1725, elected to St. Petersburg Academy. 1724, elected to Institute of Bologna.

SOURCES:
M. Cantor?, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 2, 473 - 476. Neue Deutsche Biographie, 2, 130-1
O. Spiess, 'J.B. und seine Soehne,' Atlantis (1940), 663. , Die Mathematiker Bernoulli (Basel, 1948).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: C. Caratheodory, 'Basel und der Beginn der Variationsrechnung,' in Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag won Andreas Speiser, (Zurich, 1945), 1-18
Other works listed in DSB which seem to concentrate on his math or are not in library.


Bernoulli, Jakob [Jacques]



1. Dates: Born: Basel, Switzerland 27 December 1654 (DSB & ADB); 6 January 1655 (NDB) (this has to be an issue of the calendar; take 1655); Died: Basel, Switzerland 16 August 1705; Datecode: Lifespan: 50.
2. Father: drug merchant; Clearly prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: Swiss; Death: Swiss
4. Education: Bas?, M.A., D.D. University: MA philosophy 1671; Licentiate in theology 1676; Also studied math and astronomy
5. Religion: evangelical-i.e, Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mechanics, astronomy
7. Means of Support: Academic position; Secondary Means of Support: personal means, schoolmaster; 1676, went as a tutor to Geneva. Then 2 years in France. 1681-2, went to Netherlands & England, studied more science. 1683, returned to Basel, gave lectures as MA on mechanics (Experimentalphysik). 1687, became prof of mathematics at U. of Basel.
8. Patronage: City Magistrates; His father was a Ratsherr of Basel.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); BA; Informal: influenced his younger brother Johann I; early in his career they colaborated, later (by 1699) they did not get along. Corresponded with major mathematicians of the time. Formal: published in Journal des Scavans and Acta Eruditorum. 1699, became corresponding (foreign) member of Paris Académie des Sciences. 1701, became member of die Societaet der Wissenschaften in Berlin. 

SOURCES
J. O. Fleckstein, Johann und Jakob Bernoulli, (Basel, 1949), which is supplement 6 to the journal Elemente der Mathematik - little biographical. O. Spiess, in Neue Deutsche Biographie, 2, 128-9, 130-1

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Obituary in Acta eruditorum, 1706. Allegemeine Deutche Biographie, 2. J. J. Battier, Vita J. B., (Basel 1705). G. Kowalewski, Grosse Mathematiker, (1938).


Berti, Gasparo



1. Dates: Born: apparently Mantua, perhaps in the vicinity of 1600; Died: Rome, 1643; Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Mantua? Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: nothing is known 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics; Astronomy; He was called by his contemporaries a distinguished mathematian and a celebrated astronomer. However, absolutely nothing concrete pertaining to his expertise in mathematics survives, and I do not choose to list it. We do have specific references to important astronomical observations. Berti's historical importance is in physics rather than in mathematics or astronomy. It was his experimental apparatus and his suggestion that ultimately led to Torricelli's work on atmospheric pressure. Astronomical observations that he made, especially of the elevation of the pole at Rome, were reported throughout the scientific world of Europe in the 30's.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Berti collaborated with Francesco Contini in the mapping of the Roman catacombs about 1629. This was a project directly under the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. In 1638 he was recommended for a chair of mathematics by Castelli, and in 1643 he was named Castelli's successor as professor of mathematics at the Sapienza. It appears that he died before he was able to fill it.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Sci; Benedetto Castelli recommended Berti for a chair of mathematics. Two surviving letter testify to his connection to Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was in the entourage of Cardinal Barberini. The one I have read, related to the catacombs, does not sound like a client addressing a patron. Rossi (Roma sotteranea, p. 40) makes it clear that Berti was employed in a project sponsored by Cardinal Barberini (and financed in part by the Knights of Malta) to publish Bosio's survey of the catacombs. Along with the water barometer and the observation of the polar elevation, this is one of the three things known about Berti. Someone beyond Castelli, probably Cardinal Barberini or Cassiano dal Pozzo (who would be substantially identical to Card. Barberini in this context) had to stand behind the appointment to the Sapienza.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; A physical apparatus, consisting of a lead tube bent downward at the top and terminating at either end in a valve submerged in a container filled with water, constructed between 1640 and 1643. A more elaborated apparatus, which was attached to the facade of his house, made about 1643. These devices, experimental apparatus, do not seem like instruments to me. However, Luc Holste, in a letter, mentioned him as expert in the construction of mathematical instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal connections: Friendship with Luc Holste, Athanasius Kircher, and Rafaello Magiotti. Connections with English geographer John Greaves and with the French natural philosopher P. Maignon. In fact, very little survives of any of these connections, just isolated letters.

SOURCES
Cornelis De Waard, L'experience barometrique. Ses antecedents et ses explications, (Thouars, 1936), pp.104 f., 169 ff. Berti does not appear in the Dizionario biografico degli italiani or in Mazzuchelli. The fact is, extremely little is known about him. 


Bidloo, Govard



1. Dates: Born: Amsterdam, 21 March 1649; Died: Leiden, 30 April 1713; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Netherlands; Career: Netherlands, England; Death: Netherlands
4. Education: None Known; Little is known about his education, but he must had received the traditional classical instruction, for at the age of 23 he translated a Latin anatomical treatise Ruysch into Dutch. In 1670 he was apprenticed to a surgeon in Amsterdam and was obliged to attend Ruysch's anatomical lessons and Gerard Blasius' botany lessons at the Hortus medicus. He matriculated st the University of Franeker on 2 May 1682, and received his M.D. three days later. (This is will not list.)
5. Religion: Sectarian; Calvinist; Both his parents were Dutch Baptists. Bidloo's career, and the lack of any comment about his religion make it evident that he learned to adhere to the established Calvinist church.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Subordinate Disciplines: Microscopy; Bidloo's chief work was his anatomical atlas, published with a Latin text in 1685 and with a Dutch text in 1690, the first large scale anatomical atlas since Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica. His anatomical atlas was plagiarized by Willim Cowper, who published in 1698 as The anatomy of humane bodies. Bidloo proved, in his other anatomical work, Opera omnia, that the nerves are not hollow tubes,as had been believed since the time of Galen, but are taut, transparent fibrous threads. Bidloo is remembered as a biologist for his admirable work on the liver fluke. He described his work on this parasite in a letter to Leeuwenhoek.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Note that in addition to his continuing medical practice Bidloo was also a surgeon. 1688- , Professor of anatomy at The Hague; 1694-1713, professor of medicine and surgery at the University of Leiden. In 1689, Bidloo accompanied William III to England as his personal physician. Until William's death he was back and forth in England and the Netherlands, frequently in attendance on the King. In 1690, William III appointed him 'superintendent- general of all physicians, apothecaries and surgeons of the military hospitals of the Netherlands'. In 1692 he was given the additional duty of supervising the English hospitals. 1701-1702, physician in ordinary to Williaw III. He also served as a physician and surgeon with the army.
8. Patronage: Court; Owed his supervisorship to William III. His appointment at Leiden probably due to the influence of William III. He dedicated his great Anatomy to Prince Casimir. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London) 1701-1713

SOURCES:
E.D.Baumann,'Govard Bidloo' in Nieuw nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek, 8, (1930), pp.104-108. F.Beekman, 'Bidloo and Cowper, Anatomists' Annals of Medical History, n.s. (1935, pp.113-129.

Not Available and Not Consulted: B.A.G.Veraart, 'G.Bidloo's verhaal van de laatste ziekte en het overlijden van Willem III, Koning van Engeland' Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der geneeskunde, 14 (1934), pp.203-210. 


Billy, Jacques de



1. Dates: Born: Compiègne, France, 1602; Died: France, 1679 Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Compieègne, France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: Religious Orders; D.D. After finishing humanistic studies, entered Jesuit order, then studied theology. I accept the equivalent of B.A. As an ordained Jesuit who took all four vows, he would have completed a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic, Jesuit
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Astronomy
7. Means of Support: Ecclesiastical position; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1629-30, taught mathematics at Jesuit college at Pont à Mousson while a theology student. 1631-33, taught mathematics at Jesuit college at Rheims. According to Humbert he taught also in the Jesuit college at Grenoble and was rector of Chalons, Langres, and Sens. Master of studies and professor of theology at the College de Dijon, taught mathematics privately. 1665-68, Professor of Mathematics, College de Dijon.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He dedicated his Tabulae lodoicae, 1656, (note the name) to Louis XIV.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Connections: Taught Jacques Ozanam, Claude Gasper Bachet de Meziriac; corresponded with Fermat and Bachet.

SOURCES
J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir à a l'histoire des hommes illustres. . ., 40, 232-244.
P.Humbert,' Les Astronmers francais de 1610 à 1667,' Société d'études scientifiques et archeéologiques de Draguignan, Mémoires, 63 (1942), pp.1-72.


Bion, Nicolas



1. Dates: Born: France, ca.1652; Died: France, 1733; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 81
2. Father: unknown; No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: Non 
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Instruments; Bion had the title of king's engineer for mathematical instruments. He published several works, including three important treatises on globes and cosmography, on astrolabes, and on precision instruments in general. Those writings had great success and went into many editions.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Instruments; Bion had the title of king's engineer for mathematical instruments, and had his workshop in Paris. He was a fine instrument maker and made a good living at it.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; He had the title of king's engineer for mathematical instruments.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Very few of his instruments are extant and no important technical innovations can be attributed to him. The extant instruments are mostly (but not entirely) sundials of Butterfield type.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
There are almost no biographical data on Bion. Maurice Daumas, Les instruments scientifiques aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles, Paris, 1953,pp.109-110. Q185 .24 


Biringuccio, Vannoccio



1. Dates: Born: Sienna, 20 october,1480; Died: Rome, August, 1537; Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: Government Position; Paolo di Vannoccio was a builder and public servant in the Sienese office in charge of roads and bridges. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Siena,Italy; Career: Italy, Germany; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: None Known; He traveled as a young man throughout Italy and Germany, inspecting metallurgical operations, and working in them. It is clear that he had no university education.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Metallurgy; Mineralogy; Eng; Subordinate Disciplines: Chemistry; His reputation derived from a single work, Pirotechnia, published posthumously in 1540. The work, as the first printed comprehensive account of the fire-using arts, was a prime source on many practical aspects of inorganic chemistry. It is full of mineralogy as well as metallurgy. One source asserts that Biringuccio discusses the amalgamation process for refining silver for the first time. This would place him before Barba and other Spaniards. His book contained a great deal about the manufacture of gunpowder and about artillery. He also had practical experience in the employment of artillery. This is not the standard military engineering of the 16th century, but I do not see how I can omit it.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Magistrate; After running an iron mine and forge at Boccheggiano for Pandolfo Petrucci, the ruler of Siena, he was forced to leave when Petrucci was overthrown. At some point about here he was in charge of a silver mine in Carinthia (until 1508). He was in Milan for a time and then in Ferrara in the service of Alfonso d'Este. When he returned to Siena with Petrucci, he was appointed (by Petrucci) to a post with arsenal at Siena and in 1513 director of the mint. In 1516, after the fall of the Petrucci family, he was exiled again. He returned with the Petrucci once more in 1523, and was exiled again in 1526. In the fighting in 1526 at Siena he commanded the artillery. Thereafter he served the Venetian and Florentine republics, and cast cannon and built fortifications for the Este and Farnese families. At some point he also served Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma. In 1531, with a new reconciliation he returned to Siena as senator and as architect and director of building construction at the Duomo. In 1534 he was appointed head of the papal foundry and director of papal munitions and captain of the papal artillery.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; Petrucci family. See above. Este Family. See above. Farnese family. See above. Papal connection. See above.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Architecture; Metallurgy; See above means of support.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
'Vannoccio Biringuccio' in Gli scienziati italiani dall'inizio del medio evo ai nostri giorni, 1, (Rome, 1921), pt. 1, pp. 20-4. Aldo Mieli, 'Vannoccio Bringuccio e il metodo sperimentale', Isis, 2 (1914), pp.90-99. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 2, 1262-3.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Otto Johnnsen, 'Vannoccio Biringuccio' in Gunther Bugge, ed., Das Buch der grossen Chemiker, I, Berlin, 1929, pp.74-84.


Blaeu, Willem Janszoon



1. Dates: Born: near Alkmaar, 1571; Died: Amsterdam, 21 October 1638; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: fishmonger, listed as Merchant; No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Holland; Career: Holland; Death: Holland
4. Education: He did not attend a university 
5. Religion: undoubtedly Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Cartography, Geography, Navigation; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Main works: Nova universi terrarum orbis mappa (Amsterdam,1605). Het Licht der Zeevaert (Amsterdam, 1608). Novus atlas (Amsterdam, 1634), once-famous world atlas. He made observations of an eclipse and he discovered a new star. He prepared celestial globes. He also carried out a measurement of a degree (as Snel did).
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Pub; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; He was a carpenter and a clerk in the Amsterdam mercantile office of his cousin Hooft before 1595. In 1595-1596, worked with Tycho at the latter's observatory on the island of Hveen, Denmark. In 1596 or 1597, he returned to Amsterdam where he soon established himself as a merchant of maps and globes, and as a printer. In 1633, the States General of Amsterdam appointed Blaeu map maker of the Republic, and later he became the official cartographer of the Dutch East India Company.
8. Patronage: Merchant; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; The States General rewarded him with money several times for his publications beginning in 1605. He dedicated at least one of his globes to the States General. He dedicated at least one of his globes to Prince Maurice. He dedicated a work on navigation to both Prince Maurice and the States General, another to the Directors of the East India Company, and another to Reael, a Director of the East India Company. The appointment by the Dutch East India Company certainly needs mention. 
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Mechanical Devices; He made terrestrial and celestial globes, a Planetarium, and a tellurium. He also made an extraordinary and beautiful quadrant. He undertook the measurement of a degree on the surface of the earth. The presses of his design became almost general throughout the low contries and were introduced to England. (I have hesitated with this item. It does not appear to be a technological application of science. However, it is a technological endeavor by a scientist, and I leave it in.)
10. Scientific Societies: Connection with Tycho. 

SOURCES:
Nieuw nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek, 10, 74-8. E.L.Stevenson, Willem Janszoon Blaeu, (New York, 1914). GA923.6 B6S8; P.J.H.Baudet, Leven en Werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu, (Utrecht, 1871). 


Blondel, Nicolas-Francois



1. Dates: Born: Ribemont (France), c.10 June 1618 (baptized on 15 June). Died: Paris, 21 January 1686; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Government Official; His father, Guillaume-François Blondel, was master of petitions to the queen mother and king's attorney at the bailiff's court of Vermandois. He was also mayor of Vermandois several times. Finally he was granted letters of nobility in 1654. He died in 1663, nearly bankrupt. No clear information on financial status during Blondel's youth. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Ribemont,France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: None Known; No formal education; he entered the army at age 17. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Eng; As a famous military engineer and architect, he wrote and published many works on engineering and architecture. In his Cours d'architecture (1675-1683), he formulated the rule of art, approved by the Royal Academy of Architecture and applied universally ever since.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; Eng; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Military; 1635-52: he was basically a soldier and sailor during these years. He was the only military man I met for some time, but there were eventually others and I instituted the category. In 1635 he became an infantry cadet and fought against the Imperial forces in the Thirty Years War. Between 1640-1652 he held a variety of positions, a few of them in naval engineering, but he was essentially a fighting soldier and sailor. In 1651, he was named sergent de bataille, a high position. 1651, he worked on the fortifications on the coast of Provence. In 1652, he was named Maréchal des Camps (Brigadier-general); In 1652, he became tutor to the son of Loménie de Brienne, Secretary of State for foreign affairs. In 1655, he succeeded Gassendi as lecturer in mathematics at the Collège Royale, with an annual salary of 600 livres. 1656-59, Loménie de Brienne entrusted him with several diplomatic misssions; he was given the title, Conseiller d'État, to facilitate the missions. In 1662, he became commissioner general of the navy. 1662-8, syndic administrator of the Collège Royale. 1664, sat on a marine military engineering commission under Colbert; he also worked on individual projects. 1666, a senior member of a military expedition to the Antilles, under orders from Colbert de Terron. In 1669, Colbert sponsored Blondel's admission to the Royal Academy of Sciences as a geometer (topographer). In 1671, he was appointed professor at, and director of, the Royal Academy of Architecture. In 1672, Louis XIV put him in charge of public works for the city of Paris, and through the 70's he carried out a number of major public works and city-planning projects. In 1673, he was made tutor to the dauphin in mathematics, belles lettres, and military arts. His total salary from the professorship at the Collège Royale, membership in the Académie des sciences, and directorship of the architectural academy was 4800 livres. When he died he left his wife debts of 60,000 livres. In one sense, all of his engineering work is subsumed under 'Governmental employee' and 'Patronage.' However, I want the catalogue to indicate that he worked as an engineer.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; Louis XIV. See above. Loménie de Brienne, Secretary of State for foreign affairs. See above. Colbert. See above. Cardinal Richelieu was his first major patron, employing him from around 1640 for diplomatic, surveillance, and military engineering jobs. Richelieu named him sub-lieutenant of his galley, 'Le Cardinal.' Blondel was given the governorhip of the tiny naval stronghold of Palamas, where he recovered from wounds. He also served Richelieu's successor, Mazarin, in the Italian campaign, and the Duke of Richelieu, the Cardinal's nephew, also in southern Italy. He continued to undertake missions for Mazarin after 1656. In recognition of his accomplishments in 1657-9, Mazarin gave him 4000 livres. It was probably Loménie de Brienne who was responsible for Blondel's chair at the Collège Royale, as well as some of his diplomatic assignments. Colbert, secretary of state for commerce, marine affairs, colonies, and finances, gave Blondel the job of Royal engineer for marine affairs. 1668, Blondel was ennobled as a consequence of his father's ennoblement in 1654. 1671, when Colbert decided to found the Académie royale d'architecture, he made Blondel the first director. Members were given pensions of 500 livres. Blondel seems to have remained active in the Académie until his death. Like Loménie de Brienne, Colbert had Blondel accompany his son on a trip, this one to Italy.
9. Technological Connections: Civil Engineer; Military Engineer; He directed construction for the region and drew up plans for Rochefort and its fortifications, and for restoration of the Saintes bridge and the Roman arch. He undertook numerous military engineering projects, many of them having to do with the fortification of naval facilities or coastal defence. He also wrote two books: La nouvelle manière de fortifier les places, and L'art de jeter les bombes.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); He was admitted to the Royal Academy of Sciences as a geometer in 1669. From 1669-82, he received an annual pension of 1500 livres. He was appointed professor at, and director of, the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1671.

SOURCES:
Louis-Placide Mauclaire and C. Vigoureux, Nicolas-Francois de Blondel, ingenieur et architecte du roi (1618-1686), (Laon, 1938). This is an excellent source. Henry Lemonnier,Proces-verbaux de l'Academie Royaled'architecture 1671-1793,I-II, Paris, 1911-1912, passim. This has virtually nothing of interest for this project. 


Bock, Jerome [Hieronymus Tragus]



1. Dates: Born: Heidesbach or Heidelsheim, Germany, 1498; Died: Hornbach, Germany, 21 February 1554; Datecode: Lifespan: 56
2. Father: No Information. Family said to be respectable but not wealthy. They were able to support him through university. I call them prosperous.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: Hei; May have studied at University of Heidelberg, no record of a degree; Studied theology and philosophy, pursued medicine and botany
5. Religion: Catholic, Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany 
Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Bock wrote a major herbarium 'Kraeuterbuch.'; He practiced medicine and composed a few minor early writings.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Patronage; Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster, medical practice. Bock's family was respectable but not wealthy ('massigem Wohlstande'), they were able to support him through University. 1523-32, schoolteacher in Zweibruecken. 1523?-50, palace physician to Duke Ludwig II. 1523-32, laid out & supervised Duke's botanical garden. 1533-50, canon (Stiftsherr) at Benedictine church of St. Fabian's chapter house in Hornbach - a sinecure, 'eine reich fundierte Predigerstelle.'; - still court physician at Zweibrucken, also state physician (Landphysicus) under the protection of the government (bei der Regierung Schutz). 1538, Lutheran minister of Hornbach, also chaplain to the Benedictine abbot of St Fabians, Johann Kintheuser (a closet Lutheran), whereupon Bock's income was substantially increased (wesentlich erhoehte). 1546, handed the canonry of St Fabian's to his son, Heinrich Bock. After 1548: Catholics in Hornbach complained to Emperor Charles V about the Protestant direction of St Fabian's; Abbot Kintheuser was made to resign; Bock's salary was confiscated, Bock was in severe need, he petitioned Wolfgang but this failed to change his circumstances; Philip invited Bock to Saarbruecken (Roth describes this as 'unexpected help'); 1550, consulting physician to Landgraf (Graf) Philipp II of Nassau - yielded only sporadic income; also supervised his garden; Philipp maintained him, 'unterhielt' him. 1551, returned to his position as minister (Pfarrer) at Hornbach.
8. Patronage: court; Duke (Herzog) Ludwig II and Philipp of Hesse. Johann Swebel may have helped Bock get the Zweibrucken teaching position (Roth). Soon after Bock arrived in Zweibrucken he had developed a good relationship with the palace; through the favor of the Pfalzgraf Ludwig (his 'Goenner'), obtained the schoolteaching post. 1532, Ludwig died in Bock's arms; regency established for young Duke Wolfgang. 1546, 2nd edition of the Kraeuterbuch dedicated to Count (Landgraf) Philipp von Hessen (Duke Wolfgang's father-in-law). Sometime before 1548, Bock cured Count (Graf) Philipp II von Nassau-Saarbruecken of a life-threatening illness; 1551, 3rd edition of Kraeuterbuch dedicated to the Count (this edition contained the N-S coat of arms). Reihel, publisher of the Kraeuterbuch, described by Roth as patron ('Goenner'), but seems figurative (maybe financed Kraeuterbuch). Otto Brunfels described by Roth as patron or abettor ('Beguenstiger'). By itself this does not sound like patronage.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: some informal collaboration, corresponded with distinguished botanists (especially Otto Brunfels), examined and received samples from friends' gardens. Formal: None

SOURCES:
Ernst H. F. Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik, 4, (Koenigsberg, 1857), pp. 303-309 - Microprint (Landmarks of Science) - his chief source is Adam. F. W. E. Roth, 'Hieronymus Bock, genannt Tragus (1498 - 1554),' Botanisches Centralblatt, 74 (1898), 265-71, 313-18, 344-7-QK1.B765 -major source, lists other sources, second part mostly an analysis of his book. Kurt Sprengel, Geschichte der Botanik, 1, (Altenberg - Leipzig, 1817), 269-72 - Microprint (Landmarks of Science) - nothing new.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Melchior Adam, Vitae Germanorum medicorum, (Heidelberg, 1620), pp. 67-72 - Manuscripta List 6 reel 1. F. W. E. Roth ?, 'Hieronymus Bock, gennant Tragus, Prediger, Arzt und Botaniker 1498 bis 1554,' Mitteilungen des historischen Vereins der Pfalz, 23 (1899), 25-74.


Boerhaave, Hermann



1. Dates: Born: Voorhut, Netherlands 31 December 1668; Died: Leiden, Netherlands 23 Sep 1738; Datecode: Lifespan: 70; 
2. Father: a minister; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; Death: Dutch
4. Education: University of Leiden; Secondary Means of Support: 3 years in grammar school in Leiden. University: University of Leiden. 1684, matriculated Leiden in theology & philosophy. 1690, 'degree in philosophy', continued to study theology, began to study medicine. Self-taught in medicine: went to dissections but attended no other medical lectures. 1693, took a medical degree at the academy of Harderwijk.
5. Religion: Reformed-i.e, Calvinist; Pious, son of minister, studied theology.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Medicine; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Boerhaave was especially significant in teaching and systematizing medicine.
7. Means of Support: academic, medical practice, schoolmaster
Secondary Means of Support: personal means (from wife); 1687, won a scholarship at University. 1690, scholarship ran out; supported himself in University by teaching mathematics. 1693, settled in Leiden, had small medical practice, and gave lessons in mathematics. 1701, was appointed (University of Leiden) a lecturer in medicine (Lector Institutionum Medicarum); appointed for 3 years, served for 9 years; salary 400 guilders per year; pay was sometimes in arrears, but University personnel were exempted from taxes on wine and beer. He also gave private medical and chemical lectures; paid for by his students (in 1725 each student paid 30 guilders per annum). 1703, declined a professorship at Groningen (governors of U Leiden promised him the next vacant chair, increased his salary to 600 g). By 1709 busy medical practice. 1709, appointed ordinaris Professor Medicinae et Botanices (included supervising U botanical garden); salary 1000 guilders + 300 guilders for botanical correspondence and exchange (gradually increased); given an official residence (a spacious dwelling of several storeys). 1710, married the only daughter of the rich merchant, Alderman Abraham Drolenvaux. February 1714 - February 1715, vice-chancellor of university (Rector Magnificus). Summer 1714, appointed professor of clinical medicine. 1718, appointed Ordinarius Professor Chymiae'; salary 200 guilders, but probably entailed a decrease in income because students paid no fees for professors' lectures. 1718-28, held these 3 chairs. 1725, salary 2,200 guilders. 1729, before resigning, salary was Fl. 2,100. 28 April 1729, resigned professorships of botany and chemistry (salary reduced by 400 guilders); continued to teach Institutes, practical medicine, and clinical medicine until 1738; remained at residence and supervised his successor for one year. 1730, left official residence; salary increased by 400 guilders; his new house cost 16,000 guilders. 1730-1, Rector Magnificus. Boerhaave's wealth was all self made (excluding his wife's inheritance). He exhausted his patrimony before finishing school. Lindeboom estimates that the total income from his private lectures must have been 4 or 5 times his salary as a professor. Lindeboom estimates that on Boerhaave's death his estate was 200,000 guilders, with his wife having an equal estate; Boerhaave's medical practice became very lucrative. He was turning away rich and famous clients. His servant charged a guilder for admittance to his office. He once charged 30 guilders for a consultation by mail. (See Lindeboom 228-31 for a summary of Boerhaave's wealth and its sources.)
8. Patronage: magistrate (University officials), Court; 1687, divinity professor Jacobus Trigland and his friend, the Burgomaster and University Curator Daniel van Alphen Simonszoon, had befriended Boerhaave and may have helped him get the scholarship. Through teaching math, Boerhaave met Jan van den Berg, Secretary to the University Curators, who got them to make him supervisor of some improvements to the university library building and supervisor of the Vossius collection. 1701, owed his lectureship to van den Berg (and van Alphen). 1703, Jan van den Berg was first *burgomaster of Leiden. 1710, dedicated 2nd edition of his Institutes to his father-in-law; Throughout his life, Boerhaave turned down several invitations from monarchs - he thought he would be tempted to compromise himself at a court: 'Exeat aula, qui vult esse pius.'; 1730, despite being told he could name his conditions, Boerhaave declined offer from Czarina of Russia to be her court physician (I do not list similar offers, if refused, as patronage). Royalty and members of the nobility sought his advice. Although it is difficult to separate this from practice, I do list this as patronage, by analogy with personal physicians. Boerhaave had a hand in selecting his successors for his various chairs. 'He tried to use his connexion with [Paris Academy] in order to help others' (see Lindeboom, 169 for details), In 1735 he helped Linnaeus get a patronage post
9. Technological Connections: medical practice
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Royal Society (London); Informal: helped several young men (including Linnaeus) in their careers; extensive correspondence; was one of the leading scientists of his time. Formal: published in the Philosophical Transactions. 1714-death: chairman of Surgeon's Guild at Leiden. 1715, elected corresponding member of Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris. 1728, elected foreign member of Paris Academie. 1730, unanimously elected Fellow of Royal Society.

SOURCES:
G. A. Lindeboom, in DSB, 2, 224-8. G. A. Lindeboom, Herman Boerhaave: The Man and His Work (London, 1968) - Stacks R 529 . B6 L7 - all you ever wanted to know and then some.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: W. Burton], An Account of the Life and Writings of Herman Boerhaave, (London, 1743). - Lilly R 529 . B6 B97; Lester S. King, The Medial World of the Eighteenth Century, (Chicago, 1958), chapters 3 and 4. Lester S. King, The Growth of Medical Thought, (Chicago, 1963), 177 - 185. M. Maty, Essai sur le caractere du grand medicin au Eloge de Mr. Herman Boerhaave, (Cologne, 1747). D. Schoute, et al., Memorialia Hermanni Boerhaave, (Haarlem, 1939) - lectures from 1938 international Boerhaave commemoration.


Bohn, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Leipzig, Germany 20 July 1640; Died: Leipzig, Germany 19 December 1718; Datecode: Lifespan: 78; 
2. Father: Merchant; Wealthy
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: University of Jena; University of Leipzig; M.D. I assume B.A. or equivalent. Studied medicine at Jena and Leipzig. ca. 1665, received doctorate from medical school of Leipzig.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: physiology (some iatrochemical theories); Subordinate Disciplines: medicine
7. Means of Support: Academic; Government Official; Medicine; Son of a wealthy merchant family. 1668, named professor of anatomy and surgery at Leipzig. 1690, became municipal physician. 1691, appointed professor of practical medicine. 1699-death: honorary dean perpetual of medical faculty. I assume a medical practice in keeping with universal custom.
8. Patronage: Unknown; No professorship without it.
9. Technological Connections: Founder of forensic medicine, esp forensic autopsy. No medical practice mentioned, but it must have existed.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: friend of Malpighi; dedicated a book to him. Formal: published in Acta Eruditorum

SOURCES:
Rothshuh (DSB) says there is no biography of Bohn. Limited additional information is in: A. von Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1, (1774), 497-9; U. Hirsch, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, (Leipzig, 1876), 81-99 - nothing new. Max Salomon, Biographische Lexikon des Hervorragended Aerzte Aller Zeiten und Laender, 2nd ed.,1, I (Berlin-Vienna, 1929), 606-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. von Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinae Practicae, 4 vols., 3, (Basel, 1778), 87-88. M. Neuburger, 'Deutsche Experimental-physiologen des 17. Jahrhunderts,' Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 23 (1897), 483 - 486. J. C. Rosenmueller, De viris quibusdam in Academia Lipsiensi anatomes peritia in clavuerunt, 3 (1816), 7-9.


Bombelli, Rafael



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, January, 1526; Died: Rome?, 1572; Datecode: Lifespan: 46
2. Father: Merchant; Antonio Bombelli was a wool merchant. Fantuzzi says that Bombelli was born to a noble family, but I think that is just conventional talk. None of the other sources bear that out. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Bologna, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Rome? Italy
4. Education: None Known; All that is known about Bomelli's education is that his teacher was Pier Francesco Clementi of Corinaldo, an engineer-architect, who drained swamps. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Dispciplines: Mathematics; Bombelli was the last of the algebraists of Renaissance Italy. His only published work, Algebra, gave a comprehensive account of the existing knowledge of the subject, enriching it with Bombelli's own contributions. The influence that his Algebra had in the Low Countries was great. Leibniz called him an 'outstanding master of the analytical art.'; Bombelli worked at reclaiming land and at least one other engineering task, but there is nothing to indicate that he furthered the sciences of hydraulics and engineering.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; He spent the greater part of his working life as an engineer-architect in the service of his patron, Monsignor Alessandro Rufini, a favorite of Paul III who was later the Bishop of Melfi. By 1551 Bombelli had begun to work for Rufini in the reclamation of the Val di Chiana marshes; the work ended in 1660. In 1661 he took part in the attempt to repair the Ponte Santa Maria in Rome, an effort that failed.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; His patron was Monsignor Alessandro Rufini, a Roman nobleman and bishop of Melfi. Bombelli dedicated his Algebra to Rufini.
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Civil Engineering; He took part in the reclamation of the Val di Chiana marshes and in the attempt to repair the Ponte Santa Maria Bridge.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
S. A. Jayawardene, 'Unpublished Documents Relating to Rafael Bombelli in the Archives of Bologna' in Isis, 54 (1963), pp.391-395; Jayawardene, 'Rafael Bombelli, Engineer-Architect: Some Unpublished Documents of the Apostolic Camera,' Isis, 56 (1965), pp.298-306. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 3, 1509.
G. Fantuzzi, Notizie degli scrittori bolognesi, (Bologna, 1781-94), 2, 282-3. Paul L. Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics, (Geneva, 1975), pp. 146-8.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Bortolotti, Archiv für Geschichte der Mathematik, 11, 470. 


Bonomo [Bonomi], Giovan



1. Dates: Born: Livorno, 30 November 1666; Died: Firenze, 13 January 1696; Datecode: Lifespan: 30
2. Father: Merchant; It is known only that the father was a French grocer in Livorno. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Leghorn, Italy; Career: Italy, Germany; Death: Florence, Italy
4. Education: University of Pisa; MD, Ph.D. He received the doctorate in philosophy and medicine at the University of Pisa in 1682. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; His major work, done in collaboration with Cestoni in Livorno, Observazioni intorno a'pellicelli del corpo umano (1687), affirmed that scabies was caused by mites and provided the first clinical and experimental proof of the 'live' infection. 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Official; Patronage; He began medical practice in 1683, and twice served as physician in the galleys of Grand Duke Cosimo III. In 1691, the Grand Duke appointed Bonomo physician to his daughter, who had married to the elector of the Rhenish Palatinate. He spent the rest of his life at the Palatinate court until he came home, fatally ill, to die. After the first expedition with the galleys in 1684-5, Bonomo appears to have practiced, without great success, in Livorno. In 1690 he got a second appointment to a galley.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Court Patronage; Grand Duke Cosimo III and his daughter's husband. See above. However, Redi was Bonomo's original and principal promoter. He gained Bonomo's appointments to the galleys and later his appointment with the daughter of the Grand Duke. However, Redi did not recognize the significance of Bonomo's work on scabies.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 3, 1678. Ugo Faucci, 'contributo alla storia della scabbia' in Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 22(1931) pp.153-170, 198-215,257-371, 441-475.

Not Available and Not Consulted:
Luigi Belloni, 'I secoli italiani della dottrina del contagio vivo' in Simposi clinici, 4 (1967) liii.
C. Lombardo, 'Giovan Cosimo Bonomo a Pisa' ibid, 29 (1938), pp.97-121. 


Bonaventura, Federigo



1. Dates: Born: Ancona, 24 August 1555; Died: Urbino, 25 March 1602; Datecode: Lifespan: 47
2. Father: Aristocrat; Military; His father, Pietro B., was an officer in the army of the Duke of Urbino and a poet. The family was noble. The father died when Federigo was three. However, it is obvious that he was reared in wealthy circumstances-see below.
3. Nationality: Birth: Ancona, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Urbino, Italy
4. Education: None Known; He was educated at the house of Cardinal Giulio della Rovere in Rome, 1565-1573. Note that the della Rovere family was the ducal family of Urbino; the Cardinal was the brother of the Duke then reigning. Having returned to Urbino, Bonaventura continued his studies, particularly Greek mathematics and natural philosophy. There is no mention of a university, which was not after all for members of his class. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Meteorology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Natural Philosophy; Astrology. His most important scientific writings deal with meteorology. Those writings attempted to determine the precise meaning of the ancient texts through philological techniques. he also wrote works on medical subjects (especially De natura partus octomestris, published in 1600) and political philosophy.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Position; After his father's death in 1565, he was supported by the Duke of Urbino, who sent him to Rome for study. Following the accession of Duke Francesco Maria II in 1574, he met even greater favor, and continued his studies. Bonaventura had grown up with Francesco Maria in the household of Cardinal della Rovere, and later he apparently played a critical role in installing Francesco Maria as Duke after severe difficulties within Urbino. In addition to his scholarly activities, he served as Urbino's ambassador to several European courts.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The Duke of Urbino and the Cardinal; see above. Bonaventura did not like court life. He kept trying to escape from it, but the Duke of Urbino kept calling on his services. Finally (according to Mazzuchelli) the Duke realized what a loss it would be to learning if Bonaventura did not have leisure. Therefore he granted him an honorable stipend and gave him complete freedom. Bonaventura withdrw from the court and thenceforth pursued learning. His last work was dedicated, suitably, to the Duke.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, II, Pt. 3, (Brescia, 1760), pp.1563-1564; P. Vecchietti and T. Moro, Biblioteca picena, III, (Osimo, 1796), pp.1-6
Dizionario biografico degli italiani.
C. Grossi, Degli uomini illustri di Urbino, (Urbino, 1819), pp. 58-66. 
In my opinion, Bonaventura made as minimal contribution to science as anyone in this catalogue. However, his scholarly activity was related to science and thus I have not seen fit to purge him. 


Boodt, Anselmus Boetius de



1. Dates: Born: Bruges, c. 1550; Died: Bruges, 21 June 1632; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Aristocrat; Anselme (conceivably Willem) Boodts was from a noble Roman Catholic family. Every detail of Boodt's life indicates family wealth.
3. Nationality: Birth: Belgium; Career: Belgium, Czechoslovakia; Death: Belgium
4. Education: Lou; Hei; University of Padua; M.D. He probably took his first university degree in civil and canon law at Louvain. I treat this as equivalent to a B.A. After this he studied medicine under Thomas Erastus at Heidelberg and obtained his M.D. in Padua.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mineralogy; Alchemy; In his chief work, Gemmarum et lapidum historia, Boodt made the first attempt at a systematic description of minerals.He enumerated about 600 minerals that he knew from personal observation, and described their properties, imitations, and medical applications.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; Magistrate; Secondary Means of Support: Church Living; Until he was about thirty-five, Boodt travelled through Europe without working; personal wealth (from his family) had to have supported him. About as soon as he set foot in Bruges after his student days (c. 1580), he was named Raad pensionaris of the city. Heller says that he was active in the financial administration of Bruges. From 1583 Boodt lived Bohemia as physician to Wilhelm Rosenberg, the burgrave of Prague. In 1584 he was appointed canon of St. Donat's Church in Bruges, he held the position until 1595 without leaving Prague. Rudolf's patronage helped him to remain in Prague engaged in learned activity. I assume that Rudolf was involved in this appointment to a plum. In 1584 he was nominated physician in ordinary to Rudolf II (with a considerable salary) and retained this position until 1612. In 1612 Boodt returned to Bruges, where He spent the rest of his life as a town councillor. I find no evidence that he ever seriously practiced as a physician. Rudolf clearly saw him as one of his alchemists; Rudolf's patronage, not any medical practice, was the significant element in his support. Heller says that Boodt was in charge of Rudolf's collection of gems; however he too, along with the other sources, discusses Boodt as an alchemist.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Court; Primarily Rudolf II but also Rosenburg. See above.
9. Technological Connections:
10. Scientific Societies: Friendship with Thadeus Hayek, a well-known Bohemian naturalist and historian.

SOURCES:
Nieuw nederlandsch biografisch woodenboek, 6, 151-2. G. Dewalque, Biographie nationale de Belgique, IV, 814-816. F.M. Jaeger, 'Anselmus Btius de Boodt,' in Historische Studien. Bijdragen tot de kennis van de geschiedenis der wetenschappen in Nederlanden (in 16th and 17th centuries), (Groningen, 1919), 99-149. O.Delepierre, Biographie des hommes remarquables de la Flandre occidentale, 1, (Bruges, 1843-4), pp. 31-35. J.E. Heller, 'Anselmus Boetius de Boodt als Wissenschafter und Naturphilosoph,' Archeion, 15 (1933), 348-68.

Not Available and Not Consulted: 'Testament olographe d'Anselmus Boetius de Boodt, conseiller-pensioonaire de Bruges, 1630' in Annales de la societe d'emulation, 2nd ser., 11 (1861), pp.370-383. A.J.J. Van de Velde, 'Rede af Boodt,' Koninklijke Vlamische Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten van Belgi. Klasse der Wetenschappen. Verslagen en Mededeelingen, (Brussels, November 1932), 1505-7. J.E. Heller, an article on Boodt, Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin, 8 (1942), 1-125.


Borel, Pierre



1. Dates: Born: Castres (Languedoc), ca 1620; Died: Paris, 1671; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 51
2. Father: No Information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Castres, Languedoc, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: University of Montpellier; M.D. Borel studied medicine at Montpellier and obtained M.D. in 1641. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; He was evidently the regent of the Huguenot college of Castres. His death was entered in a Huguenot register.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Botany; Chemistry; Borel is credited with the first description of brain concussions. Among his original contributions to medicine are the statement that cataract is a darkening of the crystalline lens and the recommendation of the use of concave mirrors in diagnostic examination of nose and throat. He also wrote books on history of science.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Borel practiced medicine at Castres beginning in 1641. About the end of 1653 he moved to Paris, where he received the title of medecin ordinaire du roy.
8. Patronage: Court; See above.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; Instruments; His Horyus (1667) listed plants with known uses in medicine. He pioneered the use of concave mirrors in the examination of noses, throats, etc.
10. Scientific Societies: Both Hirsch and Niceron appear to confuse Borel with Jacques Borelly (alias Borel) who became a member of the Académie in 1674. They attribute chemical research to Borel that belonged to Borelly, and they give 1689 (the year of Borelly's death) as the year of Borel's death.

SOURCES
R.P.Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommesillustres dans la republique des lettres avec un catalogue resumé de leurs ouvrages, 36, (Paris, 1736), 218-224. August Hirsch, ed., Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Arzte, 2nd. ed., 1, (Berlin, 1929), 632. Note what is said above (under Scientific Societies) about both Niceron and Hirsch, both of whom confused two men, Borel and Borelly. Mme. Puech-Milhau, an article in Revue du Tarn, 4th ser., 7 (1936), 279-80. 


Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso



1. Dates: Born: Naples, 28 January 1608 (Borelli deliberately obscured his date and place of birth, apparently to conceal his connection to his father's political difficulties, and possibly his own connections with Campanella. Baldini cites his baptismal record, however, and it appears decisive.); Died: Rome, 31 December 1679 Datecode: Lifespan: 71; 
2. Father: a Spanish soldier in the garrison in Naples. There is every reason to think the family was poor.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Naples, M.D. It is possible that he was taught by Tommaso Campanella, while the latter was a prisoner at the Castel Nuovo, Naples, where Borelli's father was stationed. It is also possible that he received medical training at the University of Naples, but no records of his attendance or any degree exist. Baldini thinks this is not just possible but probable, and I am accepting his argument. After 1628, he became a student of Castelli in Rome, at the same time as Torricelli.
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, physiology, astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: mechanics, medicine, geology; Borrelli was basically a mathematician during the first two decades of his career. In 1658, he published Eculidus restitutus. In 1649, he published a work on malignant fevers. He carried out an important investigation of volcanoes. Borelli, who ranged very widely could also be listed under anatomy (in Pisa, he carried out extensive anatomical dissections), natural philosophy (he was an important figure in the development of the corpuscular or mechanical philosophy), hydraulics, and meteorology.
7. Means of Support: academic position, patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1637, Public Lectureship in Mathematics at Messina. 1642, Senate of Messina, (perhaps encouraged by Castelli) made him a member of the city nobility and provided him with ample funds and sent him on a tour to hire teachers away from leading universities. During this period he became friendly with the family of the Rao-Requesens, one of the most important families in Sicily; he was especially close to Simone R-R. 1643-56, remained at Messina. Poggendorff [ref. Z7404.P72 v.1, 239] indicates a professorship from 1649. 1656-67, Professor of mathematics at Pisa. He was there at the behest of the Medici. 1667-72, returned to Messina, and resumed chair. Borelli fled Sicily for political reasons. In Rome he became the physician of Queen Christian of Sweden, who supported him as far as her means allowed. 1677-9, taught mathematics at the Scuole Pie, Rome.
8. Patronage: Court, City Magistrates, Aristocracy. Primarily supported through many years by the Senate of Messina. After fleeing political turmoil in Messina for Rome, in 1672, and needing support, he petitioned Cassini, a member of the Académie, for royal support. Negotiations were underway for dedication of De motu animalium, in 1677, when all of Borelli's belongings were stolen. 1679, he eventually dedicated De motu animalium to Queen Christina, who had agreed to pay the printing costs, see also below. The Medici brought Borelli to Pisa. He dedicated his work on the Natural Motion of Heavy Bodies to the Marchese di Arena, Secretary of the Accad. degli Investiganti (Naples); Queen Christina guaranteed the publication of De motu animalium.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Scientific Instruments; Hydraulics; Cartography; 1647-8, at the urging of the senate of Messina, he studied the epidemic fevers raging through the population, and devised a treatment, though it does not seem to have been widely applied. 1665, established an observatory at the fortress of San Miniato with some instruments of his own design. While in Florence, he edited books on hydraulics and worked for the Grand Duke on lagoons near Pisa. Borelli proposed a method of determining longitudes with a clock.
10. Scientific Societies: Accademia del Cimento; In; A member of Messina's Accademia della Fucina (date not certain); the Accademia del Cimento, Tuscany (ca. 1656-6); the Accademia degli Investiganti, Naples; and a founding member of the Accademia dell'Esperienza or Accademia Fisica-matematica (1677) which Queen Christina supported.

SOURCES
U. Baldini, 'Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso,' Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 12 (Rome, 1970), 543-551. _____. 'Gli studi su Giovanni Alfonso Borelli,' in G. Arrighi, et al., La scuola galileiana. Prospettive di ricerca, Atti del convengo di studio di Santa Margherita Ligure, 26-28 ottobre 1978, (Firenze, 1979), pp. 111-35. This article is a gold mine of information and bibliography on research on Borelli. P. Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1928) 1, 64-6. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed, and vol. 2 from the first. I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 3, 1709-14. T. Derenzini, 'Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, fisico,' in Celebrazione della Accademia del cimento nel tricentenario della fondazione, (Pisa, 1958), pp. 35-52. P. Riccardi, Biblioteca matematica italiana, 1, 457-62.

Works Not Available and Not Consulted: Angelo Fabroni, Vitae italorum doctrina excellentium, 2 (Pisa, 1778), 222-324 - evidently a good source. Gustavo Barbensi, Borelli (Trieste, 1947). M. Del Gaizo, 'Contributo allo studio della vita di G.A.B.,' Atti della Acc. Pontaniana, 20 (1890), 1-48. _____, 'E. Torricelli e G.A.B.,' Revista di fisica, mat. e sc. naturalis, 9 (1908), 385-402. _____, a whole lot ot other articles in Baldini's extensive bibliography. E. Gugino, L'opera di G.A. Borelli, Annuario della R. Università degli studi di Messina, 1929-30. P. Capparoni, 'Sulla patria di Giovanni Alfonso Borelli,' Revista di storia delle scienze medechi e naturali, (1931), pp. 60f. U. Baldini, 'Galileismo e politica: il caso borelliano,' Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienze di Firenze, 3 (1978).


Borrichius [Borch], Olaus



1. Dates: Born: Noerre Bork, in Ribe, Denmark 7 April 1626; Died: Copenhagen, 13 October 1690 Datecode: Lifespan: 64; 
2. Father: parish priest in Noerre; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Danish; Career: Danish; Death: Danish
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; Ang, M.D. Secondary Means of Support: went to school in Ribe. University: I assume B.A. or equivalent. He entered University of Copenhagen in 1644 to study medicine. There until about 1650. Travelled and studied through Europe, 1660-6. He received MD at Anger in 1664.
5. Religion: Lutheran 
6. Scientific Disciplines: chemistry, alchemy, medicine 
Subordinate Disciplines: botany
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Academic; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster, Governmental position; ca. 1650, taught at the chief grammar school in Copenhagen for a time. Medical practice; won fame as physician during 1654 plaguge epidemic, which led to: 1655, became tutor to the sons of Joachim Gersdorf, the lord high steward (Rigshofmester). He was physician to Frederik III and Christian V. 1660, appointed professor ordinarius of philology and professor extraordinarius of botany and chemistry (these were supernumerary until 1664); held these posts for nearly 30 years; salary of 500 rdl. He was allowed to travel while holding these positions until 1666. 1674-6, Decon of philosophy faculty. 1686, appointed counselor to the Supreme Court of Justice. 1689, appointed counselor to the Royal Chancellery. He was twice Rector Magnificus at University. He developed a large and profitable medical practice. Royal Physician to Frederick III and Christian V.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Kings Frederick III and Christian V. Governmental official (Gersdorf). In Florence, 1664-6, he came under the favor of the Grand Duke Ferdinand II and his brother Leopold, and was allowed to use the Medici library. As a result of his bravery in fighting in the Siege of 1658-9, and on the recommendation of Gersdorff, the king gave him a royal tithe, which allowed him a certain percentage of the tithes in the Stroe parish in the district of Frederiksborg for life.
9. Technological Connections: med, Metallurgy; Pharmacology; Docimastice metallica, 1667, (translated into many languages), expounded the method of analyzing the most important metals. Metalischer Probierkunst, 1680. De usu plantarum indigenarum in medicina, 1688, was a popular textbook with detailed demonstrations of how to heal common illnesses with the help of domestic plants.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: close friend of Thomas Bartholin, Niels Stensen, Ole Worm, and Simon Paulli. 1658-4, toured Europe, met various scientists. Formal: no scientific ones, but a member of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence, 1665.

SOURCES: Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science - discusses his science. H. D. Schepelrn, 'Ole Borch', Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, (Copenhagen, 1937), 2, 356-7. V. Ingerslev, Dansk Laeger og Laegeraesen, (Copenhagen, 1873-4), pp. 492-00.

Not Available and Not Consulted: E. F. Koch, Oluf Borch, (Copenhagen, 1866).


Borro, Girolamo



1. Dates: Born: Arezzo (Tuscany), 1512; Died: Perugia, 26 August 1592; Datecode: Lifespan: 80
2. Father: I find only his name, Mariano Borro. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy, France; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; Ph.D., M.D., D.D. He studied theology, philosophy, and medicine, perhaps at Padua. No record of his having received a degree there. However, both DBI and Viviani credit him with a doctorate in all three fields. I assume a B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; In 1567 he was implicated in the third heresy trial of Pietro Carnesecchi. In 1582, he again had difficulties with the Roman Inquisition, but was freed through the intercession of Pope Gregory XIII. It seems clear that he held heterodox views, undoubtedly (considering other elements in his career) naturalistic, Aristotelian ones, perhaps reminiscent of Pomponazzi, and that he was saved from their consequences only because he had the protection of the Pope and the Grand Duke.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; His published works included De flusso e reflusso del mare, a treatise which attempts to explain the motion of tides by appealing to Aristotelian principles, De motu gravium et levium (1575), which contained some significant suggestions on the motion of falling bodies, anticipating Galileo's putative Leaning Tower experiment, and De peripatetica docendi atque addiscendi methodo (1584), an exposition of scientific method according to Aristotelian principles. He represented the conservative style of Peripatetic philosophy, that is, not medieval scholastic philosophy, but the return to Aristotle himself with the naturalistic tendencies this involved.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; He served as a theologian to Cardinal Giovanni Salviati, 1537-1553. He was with the Cardinal in Paris for a time, something that he and his supporters always mentioned. He lectured on philosophy at the University of Pisa, 1553-1559, and again, after an interlude, 1575-1586. Relatively little is known about his life between 1559 and 1575. He may have taught in Sienna in the interlude after 1559. The inscription on his tomb, composed by his nephew, asserts that he taught in Pisa, Siena, and Perugia for fifty-two years. This would make the teaching begin in 1540, which conflicts with other accounts. Because of the constant trouble he caused, Borro was dismissed from Pisa in 1586, and he taught philosophy at the University of Perugia for the rest of his life. 
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; . Cardinal Giovanni Salviati. See above. The appointments in Pisa had to come from the court. There are some fascinating letters to the court in the 80's concerning a quarrel between Borro and other philosophers in Pisa. All sides take the issue, not to any university authorities, but straight to the Grand Duke. Borro refers to the Grand Duke as 'my only Master (Padron)' and he explicitly states that the Grand Duke granted him the chair. Borro dedicated his first work (on the tides) to Giovanna of Austria, duchess of Tuscany. He dedicated De motu gravium to the Grand Duke. He wrote a life of Cosimo I, dedicated to Francesco I. He dedicated his general exposition of Aristotelian philosophy to Francesco Maria da Feltre, Duke of Urbino. The Pope himself freed Borro from the Inquisition in 1583. It was Borro himself who stated this. The protection of the Grand Duke is also mentioned.
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Borro was lecturing on natural philosophy at the University of Pisa when Galileo was a student there. Borro's De motu gravium et levium was in Galileo's library and was referred to specifically in Galileo's De motu. Galileo also knew Borro's work on tides. Borro's years at Pisa ware marred by polemics and personal quarrels with colleagues, including Francesco de' Vieri, Francesco Buonamici, and Andrea Camuzio. His opponents finally persuaded the university to dismiss him in 1586.

SOURCES:
G. Stabile's article in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, XIII (1971), pp. 13-17. U. Viviani, Medici, fisici e cerusici della provincia aretina, Arezzo, 1923, pp. 103-109. G. Spini, Ricerca dei libertini, (Rome, 1950), pp. 29-32. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 3, 1789.
U. Viviani, Vita ed opere di Andrea Cesalpino, (Arezzo, 1923), pp. 182-3.

Not Available and Not Consulted: U. Viviani, Tre medici aretini (Cesalpino, Redi, e Folli), (Arezzo, 1936), 47-52. A.Fabroni, Historia Academiae Pisanae, II, Pisa, 1792, repr. Bologna, 1971, pp.281-282.


Bosse, Abraham



1. Dates: Born: Tours, 1602; Died: France, 14 February 1676; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: Artisan; His father was a master tailor. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Tours, France; Career: Paris, France; Death: France
4. Education: None Known; Bosse began to study engraving at age 13. He lived in the house of the master clockmake, Jean Sarrabat, presumably as an apprentice leaving engraving. He subsequently married Sarrabat's daughter. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Bosse published several works on geometry and graphic techniques. He was Girard Desargues's most ardent propagandist. Through his efforts Desargues's methods achieved some success among artists of the 17th century. 
7. Means of Support: Artisan; Pub; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; He settled in Paris around 1625 and worked as a draftsman and engraver. When he first arrived in Paris, he lodged with Melchior Tavernier, an engraver and publisher, for whom Bosse worked. They had a long an amicable friendship, and Bosse gradually came to be an equal. Tavernier eventually became controlleur of the house of the Duke of Orléans and abandoned his shop, which Bosse took over. After Tavernier's death (1665), Bosse continued to lease the shop from Tavernier's heirs. From 1648, when he was given permission by the Académie de Peinture to give lectures, Bosse was recognized as a professor, although he was not a member. Although nothing is said about income, I find it impossible to believe that he did not receive fees. In 1651, he was made an honorary member. Due to his love of polemics and his bellicose nature, he was removed in 1661.
8. Patronage: None Known; Bosse was Girard Desargues' most ardent supporter. (Desargues had presented a universal method for perspective as early as 1636.) I don't know what the relation between them was, but I am not listing this as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Pratical applications of geometry.
10. Scientific Societies: He became involved in controversies, and lost his membership in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. Bosse made the acquaintance of Jean de Saint-Igny, an artist in the circle of Jacues Callot, with whom he evidently collaborated.

SOURCES:
M.L. Blumer's article on Bosse in Dictionaire de biographie francaise, VI, (Paris, 1954), cols. 1146-1147. A. Blum, Abraham Bosse et la société francaise du dix-septième siècle, Paris, 1925. A. Valabregue, Abraham Bosse, Paris, 1892. Michaud, Biographie universelle, 5, 222-3. 


Botallo [Botalli, Botal], Leonardo



1. Dates: Born: Asti (Piedmont), ca. 1519; Died: possibly Chenanceaux or Blois, 1587 or 1588; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Gentry Botallo was from a noble family. Careri says the family was probably noble. This certainly sounds like what I call gentry. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Asti, Italy; Career: Italy, France; Death: possibly Chenanceaux or Blois, France
4. Education: University of Pavia; University of Padua; M.D. Having studied and obtained a degree in medicine at the University of Pavia, he continued his studies for a time at the University of Padua under Gabriele Falloppio. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy; Medicine; Surgery; His name is associated with Botallo's duct and Botallo's foramen. Through his observation, he discovered or independently rediscovered that the blood's passage from the right to the left side of the heart in the fetus was by way of the foramen ovale cordis (Botallo's foramen). His discovery was published in De catarrho commentarius (Paris,1564). He also observed the arterial duct from the pulmonary artery to the aorta that also carries his name. Note that he was not the original discoverer of either of these features; he does appear to have been an independent discoverer of them. He also published other works in anatomy and medicine. Botallo was the major advocate who effectively introduced blood letting as a medical treatment into France. He published one of the pioneering works on the treatment of gunshot wounds, as well as other works on surgical practice.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; He practiced medicine in Asti before 1544, and joined the French forces in Italy as a military surgeon in 1544. In 1560 he was already located in Paris as one of the physician of Charles IX, having been called by Catherine de' Medici, his enduring patron. He had a regular stipend of 400 livres and apparently received other payments. Sometime before 1575 he became physician to the Duke of Anjou, later Henry III. At various times he was also physician to Elizabeth of Austria, Louise of Lorraine, William Duke of Brabant, the Duke of Guise, and Prince William of Orange. Mazzuchelli says that he was appointed Bishop of St. Malo. Careri says that this is not documented and no one else mentions it. However, Henry III made him a counsellor and conferred honorary ecclesiastical positions, from which he could have the income, on him. There is documentary evidence that he held the Abbacy of Notre Dame de Change. Near the end of his life, Botallo was apparently in economic straits. (Note that he did not enrich himself.) Catherine de' Medici took steps to insure that he had enough money. She had him confirmed in the Abbacy of Notre Dame de Chage, a position he was able to pass on, during his life but not after his death, to a nephew who was a cleric. Catherine de' Medici wrote a number of letters for him in her own hand, some to the King, wanting to be sure that one who had served her well was not neglected.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocratic Patronage; Charles IX. See above. The queen's mother, Catherine de' Medici, was instrumental in having his service transferred to her favorite son, the Duke of Anjou, later Henry III. Catherine was his enduring patron. Note the various members of the uppermost aristocracy whom he treated.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Instruments; He appears to have developed an instrument for trapanning the cranium.
10. Scientific Societies: There was an extensive circle of physicians around the French court, not all of them in harmony with Botallo.

SOURCES
Leonardo Careri, Leonardo Botallo astese, medico regio, (Asti,1954). G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 3, 1868-9. Nouvelle biographie générale. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901).

Not Available and Not Consulted: Mario Truffi,'Leonardo Botallo sifilografo' In Minerva medica,(1955), varia, 34-42. 


Boulliau, Ismaël [Bullialdus]



1. Dates: Born: Loudun, 1605; Died: France, 1694; Datecode: Lifespan: 89; 
2. Father: Law; The father was a notary in Loudun. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: University of Paris; University of Poitiers. Early studies were in the humanities at Loudun, then philosophy, probably at Paris, and law, possibly at Poitiers [yes]. No mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Born a Calvinist, converted to Catholicism at 21.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Mathematics, Optics. Subordinate Disciplines: Astrology.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Church living. 1630, became a priest. Was for a short time vicar to Urbain Grandier, and helped direct the parish of Saint-Pierre du Marche (Loudun). 1633-6, settled in Paris, means of support unknown. 1636, librarian of the Hotel de Thou to the brothers Jacques and Pierre DuPuy, who themselves were the keepers of the royal library. According to Humbert he was secretary to J. Aug. de Thou ambassador of France to Holland and Constantinople, and with de Thou travelled to the Levant. 1645 and 1651, undertook long book-buying tours for the Hotel de Thou, visiting learned centers in Italy and the east, and then Holland and Germany. 1651, Pierre DuPuy died, Boulliau moved in with Jacques. 1656, Jacques died. Boulliau received a scant (Hatch's term) 1000 livres from his will. In 1657 he was offered opportunity to work with Nicolas Colbert, the new director of the Bibliotheque du Roi, but, possibly upset that he had not been offered that job, took a job a secretary to Jacques-August de Thou II, the new ambassador to the States of Holland. He stayed in Holland only four months. 1660, travelled to Warsaw, after accompanying Mme. de Thou to Holland. Upon returning, stayed in Holland 1660-2, then returned to Paris. 1662-6, librarian to the Bibliotheque de Thou. 1666-89, lived at the Collège de Laon. 1689-94, retired as a priest at the Abbey St. Victor.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Court. For a substantial part of his working life he was supported by the brothers DuPuy and then de Thou. He fell out with de Thou in 1666. In addition, he also had connections with Prince Leopold de' Medici, with whom he was a regular correspondent. In 1649, Ferdinand II, Leopold's brother, offered him a professorship at Pisa. And Leopold sent him gifts of an 11 ft. telescope and a mercury thermometer. Boulliau dedicated his Observatio secundi deliquii lunaris (1653) to Leopold.
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Participated in the Mersenne Circle and the Cabinet DuPuy, and was a member of the group that became the Académie, but was not himself a member of the Académie. Foreign associate of the Royal Society (1667), and a corresponding member of the Accademia del Cimento. A prolific correspondent, he was in contact with Mersenne, Gassendi, Huygens, Pascal, Prince Leopold, Hevelius, Luillier, Morin, and many others.

SOURCES
J.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres..., 1, 327-32, 10, 61-2. Robert A. Hatch, The Collection Boulliau (Philadelphia, 1982), xxiii-lviii. P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), pp. 5-72.


Bourdelin,Claude



1. Dates: Born: Villefranche, ca 1621; Died: Paris, 15 October 1699; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 78
2. Father: Unknown; No information. Fontenelle says only that the family was 'honnetes.' In any event they died at a young age and Boudelin was brought to Paris. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: None Known; Apprenticed under master apothecaries in Paris. He did not attend a university and did not have a medical degree. 
5. Religion: Catholic. (assumed). 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Pharmacology; His importance lies in his having made clear to some of his contemporaries and to his successors that progress in chemical knowledge required use of less antiquated experimental methods and the elaboration of hypotheses as guidelines for research. He spent more than 30 years on research in chemical analysis.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage; After having completed his apprenticeship, he purchased an apothecary's license from the house of 'Monsieur' (the king's brother, the Duke of Orleans). For some twenty years he held two offices in the house of Monsieur: that of assistant apothecary to Monsieur and the officers of his household, and that of apothecary to the stable. The impression is given that Bourdelin worked, not so much for the Duke of Orleans, as for the personal apothecary of the Duke. Boudelin also held the titles of 'Aide-apothecaire du Corps du Commun' (salary of 600 livres), and 'apothecaire de l'Ecurie' (salary of 60 livres; the apothecary whom he assisted made 1800 livres.) Obviously this case is hard to categorize, but after discussion I categorize it as patronage. In the Orléans household he apparently had regular commerce with powerful men, one at least of whom became his patron. No name is mentioned, but this was the critical factor in his being named to the Académie. Bourdelin became a member of the Académie in 1666. He did research in the Academy's laboratory from 1667 to 1686, and worked at home (authorized) after 1687. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Unknown; As I said above, his relation with the household of the Dukes of Orleans sounds like patronage to me. The unknown patron is the one who promoted a mere apothecary, who was not even the head apothecary in the Duke's establishment, to became a member of the Académie.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine as an apothecary, a common arrangement in that age.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); 1666-1699; He was a member apparently from the original organization of the Académie, working with DuClos on the analysis of Royal mineral water.

SOURCES:
Paul Dorveaux, 'Les grand pharmaciens. Apothecaires members de l'Académie royale des sciences' in Bulletin de la Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie, August 1929, pp.290-298. Fontenelle, 'Éloge de M. Bourdelin,' L'Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, 1699, p. 151-2. Dictionnaire de biographie Française, 6, 1437.

Not Available and Not Consulted: A. Birembaut, 'Le laboratoire de l'Academie royale des sciences,' Revue d'histoire des sciences, 1969. This article is listed in DSB, but we have not been able to locate it in the Revue or in the Isis critical bibliographies. 


Bourdelot, Pierre Michon



1. Dates: Born: Sens, 2 February 1610; Died: Paris, 9 February 1685; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Artisan; Medical Practioner; His father, Maximilien Michon, was a barber-surgeon in Sens. His mother was a niece of Theodore Beza. It was her family name, rather than Michon, that Bourdelot bore. In 1634 he was adopted by his two uncles on his mother's side, Edmé Bourdelot, physician to the king, and Jean Bourdelot, a jurist and distinguished Hellenist. It is not clear in what economic circumstances Bourdelot grew up.
3. Nationality: Birth: Sens, French; Career: France; Sweden; Death: Paris, French 
4. Education: University of Paris; M.D. Early accounts that Bourdelot had no formal education are mistaken. About 1629 he began his medical studies in Paris, and graduated M.D. in 1642. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Heterodox; In light of Bourdelot's heritage on his mother's side, there is room for ambiguity. Moreover, he required a special dispensation from the Pope to hold the Abbey of Macé. However, this is explained by the fact that Bourdelot was not ordained, and there would surely have been some comment had the Pope granted a dispensation for a Protestant to hold the income from an abbey. Because of Macé, Bourdelot is called the Abbé Bourdelot. In fact he is said to have been an avowed atheist. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scientific Organization; Medical Practioner; As the founder of Académie Bourdelot, Bourdelot played an important role in the scientific life of Paris between 1640 and 1680, providing material assistance and a means of diffusing experimental results. He successfully developed a treatment for gout, which brought him fame.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Medical Practioner; In 1634 Francois de Noailles made Bourdelot his physician and took him to Rome where Noailles was the French ambassador. When he returned to Paris in 1638, Bourdelot entered the service of Prince Henri II de Condé, the governor of Burgundy. Having earned the title of king's physician, he settled in Paris in 1642 and became the Condé family's physician. Upon the death of Henri II de Condé in 1646, Bourdelot served his son, Louis II, Duke of Enghien. In 1651, he left the Condé family to go to Sweden as physician to Queen Christina, whom he cured of a malady that sounds largely psychological. He returned to France, laden with gifts from the Queen, in 1653. In Paris he obtained the living of the abbey of Macé in Berry, on the condition that Bourdelot practice medicine free of charge to the poor, which he did for the rest of his life. (I take the specific reference to the poor to indicate that Bourdelot also maintained a practice among those who were not poor, beyond his services to his patrons.) The abbey gave him the right to the title abbé. When the Great Condé returned from exile in 1659, Bourdelot again became his physician. 
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; See above.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: In 1640s he founded Académie Bourdelot, the biweekly meetings of which were attended by nobles, men of letters, philosophers, and scientists, including Roberval, Gassendi, Etienne, and Pascal. During the winter of 1647/1648 several new experiments on the vacuum were presented and discussed at the meetings. In 1664, he resumed the meetings of his academy. These meetings were attended by future members of the Académie Royale, by foreign scholars passing through, by violent partisans of Descartes and Gassendi, and by all sorts of alchemists and visionaries. The academy continued to meet more or less regularly until 1684.

SOURCES:
Dictionaire de biographie francaise, 6, cols. 1439-1440. D. Riesman, 'Bourdelot, a Physician of Queen Christina of Sweden,' Annals of Medical History, new ser., 9 (1937), 191. J.A.Hazon, ed., Notice des hommes les plus celebres de la Faculté de Médecine en l'Université de Paris, (Paris 1778), pp. 124-7.

Not Available and Not Consulted: R.J. Denichou, Un medecin du grand siecle: l'abbe Bourdelot, (Paris, 1928).


Bourguet, Louis



1. Dates: Born: Nimes, 23 April 1678; Died: Neuchatel, 31 December 1742; Datecode: Lifespan: 64 
2. Father: Merchant; 
Bourguet was the son of a wholesale merchant, Jean Bourguet, of Nimes, who fled to Switzerland at the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The father is called a rich merchant who had to abandon most of his possessions when he fled. However, he became an important manufacturer in Zurich; I think I can only call him wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: Sw, Italy; Death: Sw
4. Education: None Known; In 1688 he began his studies at the College of Zurich. He was forced to leave after only a year of study to participate in the family business. After 1689, while in Italy with his family on business, he studied Hebrew and the Mishnah with a rabbi. From 1711 to 1715 he was guided in his studies by Jacob Hermann, a professor at Padua, and probably by Bernardino Zendrini. He began to study Leibniz's infinitesimal calculus and astronomy. It seems clear that he earned no degree. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, his family fled to Switzerland settling in Zurich. When the refugees were expelled from the city, he settled in Neuchatel and became a citizen in 1704. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Geology; Paleontology; Mineralogy; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Bourguet was one of the first to occupy himself with the study of animal fossils on which he published, Dissertations sur les pierres figurées (1715). He studied the generation of the fossils, their evolution. His research reveals him to be one of the precursors of scientific geology and paleontology. He wrote on the generation of crystals and on petrefaction. He published Traité de petrifications in 1742, a collection of which several items were by himself. In geology he claimed the originality of the idea of salient and reentering angles. His theory appeared in a memoir on the theory of the earth (1729). Bourguet's goal was to provide a large-scale study of the theory of the earth. Although he never did accomplish his goal, Buffon adopted his idea. Buffon, unlike Bourguet, attributed the topographic formation of salient and reentering angles to the once present ocean currents in the valleys. Bourguet read widely in archaeology, numismatics, and philology. He collected medals, antiquities, and rare books. His travels for the family business aided him in building his collections and put him into contact with many savants with whom he corresponded. He was a universal savant who treated wide ranging issues in all of natural philosophy-and beyond. He founded two journals and spent liberally in order to establish and maintain them. The Bibliotheque italique was designed to present the results of Italian scientists to the French. The Mercure suisse, later the Journal Helvetique, was devoted to literary, historical, and scientific subjects. 
7. Means of Support: Merchant; Schoolmaster; In 1689 he was compelled to leave school to enter the family business. He accompanied his father to Casteseigna to establish a stocking and muslim factory. At the end of 1715, for unknown reasons, his life underwent a major change. He abandoned commerce and set about looking for employment. Following bankruptcy at Basel and Geneva in 1721, he was forced to sell his collections, retaining only his Bibles in nearly fifty languages. He tried to obtain the chair of law at Lausanne in 1717, but then withdrew from the competition. He supported himself by giving lessons in Neuchatel. In 1731 finally he was named to a professorship of philosophy and mathematics created for him at Neuchatel, though the salary was minimal. I am uncertain about this appointment except to the extent that it was not a university one; Neuchatel did not have a university. I suspect it was at a lycée; it could have been extra-instituitional. His duties included private courses in logic, philosophy, history, alchemy, minerals, meteors, true and false miracles, and the formation of the earth. 
8. Patronage: Magistrate; Early in his studies Bourguet was guided by Jakob Hermann and Bernardino Zendrini. He collected his collection of fossils with the help of Gian Girolamo Zannichelli, Valisnieri, and Giuseppe Monti of Bologna. Whether these men aided Bourguet financially is uncertain, but they did contribute to his education and his natural history collection. I retain this information, but do not list it as patronage. The professorship of 1731 was created by the government of Neuchatel. 
9. Technological Connections: Non 
10. Scientific Societies: Berlin Academy; Académie royale des sciences (Paris); He became a member of the Berlin Academy in 1731, the Académie des Sciences in Paris, and the Etruscan Academy of Cortona. Among his correspondents were Leibniz, Buffon, Scheuchzer, Vallisnieri, Bonanini, Zannichelli, Conti, Haller, Reaumur, and others, and he had connections with a number of Italians scientists mentioned under patronage. In 1740 he organized a loose association of Swiss scientists concerned with fossils.

SOURCES
Kenneth L. Taylor, 'Natural Law in Eighteenth century Geology: The Case of Louis Bourguet,' in Actes du XIIIe Congres International d'Histoire des Sciences, 8 (1971), pp. 72-80. F.A. Jeanneret and J.H. Bonhote, 'Louis Bourguet,' in F.A. Jeanneret and Eric Alexandre, Biographie neuchateloise, 1 (Le Locle, 1863), 59-80. H. Perrochon, 'Un homme du XVIIIe siecle: Louis Bourguet,' Vie, revue suisse romande, 1 (1951), 34-38. L. Favre, 'Inauguration de l'Académie de Neuchatel,' Muséeneuchatelois, 3 (1866), 288-310.


Bouvelles, Charles [Carolus Bovillus]



1. Dates: Born: Soyecourt (near Amiens), c. 1471; Died: c. 1553; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Aristocrat; Niceron says that Bouvelles came from the noble Bovelles family. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: French; Career: French; Death: French 
4. Education: University of Paris; He was studying in Paris in 1495 when the plague forced him to flee. He studied under Le Fevre d'Etaples. Apparently no degree. 1503, he travelled to Switzerland, Germany (Mainz), and perhaps Italy. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He became a priest. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; He is famous for Goemetricae introductionis, published in Latin, 1503; in French, 1542; in Dutch, 1547. In this work Bouvelles made several attempts to solve the old problem of the quadrature of the circle. He also published Liber de XII numbers (1510), which dealt with perfect numbers, and Geometrie en francoy, propably the first geometrical treatise printed in French.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; After travelling across Europe (Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Spain, and France), he returned to his home, entered the priesthood, and held a canonry in St. Quentin and another in Noyon, where he taught theology. He rarely celebrated mass.
8. Patronage: Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; The attention and affection of Charles de Hangest, Bishop of Noyon (d. 1520) provided Bouvelles with plenty of leisure for his work. Many of his works were composed at the bishop's country estate. 
9. Technological Connections: None Known;
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
J.Dippel, Versuch einer systematischen Darstellung der Philosophie des Carolus Bovellus, (Wuzburg, 1865)-Part I: 'Leben und Schriften des Bovillus,' pp. 15-40. J.P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres, 39, 158-71. 
Biographie universelle.


Boyle, Robert



1. Dates: Born: Lismore, Ireland, 25 January 1627; Died: London, 31 December 1691; Datecode: Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Aristocrat; Boyle was the son of the fabulously wealthy Earl of Cork, an Elizabethan adventurer who enriched himself in Ireland. Boyle was the fourteen (and next to youngest) child, the seventh son. Wealthy is the undoubted word.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: None Known; Boyle attended Eton for four years and then was educated by private tutors, mostly on the continent. He had no university degree. However, he was resident in Oxford for about twelve years, from 1656 to 1668, and he clearly absorbed a great deal of university culture. He was created M.D. at Oxford in 1665; I do not list this degree, which was clearly honorary.
5. Religion: Anglican; I think it is clear that he conformed to the established church. He was, however, deeply influenced by his Puritan sister.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Chemistry; Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Physics; Alchemy; His work in chemistry and in the promotion of the mechanical philosophy of nature is too well known to need repetition here, as also the work that established Boyle's Law. I hesitated some before listing alchemy, but his interest and involvement in the Art are in fact well established.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Boyle inherited wealth more than sufficient to support him throughout his life without ever having gainful employment of any sort. He was dependent on nobody and was in fact quite wealthy.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Charles II offered various honors to Boyle, such as the provostship of Eton College and a peerage, which he declined. There is no suggestion that the King's patronage involved any financial dimension (though Eton would have). Nevertheless Boyle did receive some favors that he wanted from Charles, such as appointment to the Board of the East India Company (of interest to Boyle in order better to propagate the Gospel) and membership in the Company of Royal Mines. In 1662 the court granted him a forfeited estate in Ireland, the income of which he attempted to use for the advancement of learning and the dissemination of Christianity. As Maddison says, he was much in favor at court. In 1661 he was appointed Governor of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, a position he held until 1689. Note that Boyle himself was probably one of the petitioners who requested the charter of the society. It is of interest to note that wealthy Robert Boyle did not dedicate many books to others. He dedicated a translation of an anatomical work that he had commissioned to Hartlib. He dedicated Seraphic Love, 1659 to one sister, Considerations Touching the Style of the Holy Scriptures, 1661, to a brother, and Occasional Reflections, 1665, to another sister. All the rest of his many books came out without dedications. Interestingly, his last posthumous work, Free Discourse Against Swearing, 1695, was dedicated by the publisher to Boyle's brother, the second Earl of Cork. With his wealth, Boyle became rather a patron himself. Already in 1651 Highmore dedicated a work to him. In the 50's Starkey called Boyle his patron and dedicated Pyrotechny Asserted, 1658, to him. Two other authors also dedicated two other books to him in 1658. Hooke dedicated his first publication, in 1661, to Boyle. Lower, Sydenham, and Wallis all dedicated books to him, and there were quite a few others that I have not bothered to list. He bestowed a pension of L50 per year on Robert Sanderson to write on cases of conscience.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Chemistry; Pharmacology; I list the air pump, although the instrument itself was primarily Hooke's work. More asserts flatly (p. 204) that Boyle was involved in, and perhaps organized, a commerical enterprise that produced chemicals. Undoubted he refers to the enterprise of Ambrose Hanckwitz, who was Boyle's assistant for a time. The issue is obscure. However, in a publication Hanckwitz did thank Boyle for his assistance and called Boyle his promoter. More also asserts (p. 117) that Boyle carried out explorations for the Royal Company of Mines for industrial and medical resources. Perhaps I should list this under metallurgy or mining, but, knowing a fair bit about Boyle, I confess to some skepticism. Boyle was involved in a project to distill salt water into fresh at sea. From an early age he was interested in medicine and medicines. He was chronically ill, looked industriously for cures, and wrote and published on this as well. Thus, Experimental History of Mineral Waters, 1685, Of the Reconcileableness of Specifick Medicines to the Corpuscular Philosophy, 1685, and Medicinal Experiments: or, a Collection of Choice Remedies, 1692 (posthomous).
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: the Invisible College (Hartlib's circle), 1640's to 1656, and the Oxford group, 1656 to at least 60. Considerable correspondence is published in his Works and more will appear in the new Works when it is completed. Royal Society, 1660-91. He was present and active during the early days of the society, especially after he moved definitively to London in 1668 (though he was frequently in London before 1668). He was often on the Council and was elected President in 1680, though he declined the office.

SOURCES
M.B. Hall, Robert Boyle on Natural Philosophy, (Bloomington, IN, 1967). _____, Robert Boyle and Seventeenth-Century Chemistry, (Cambridge, 1958). L.T. More, The Life and Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, (New York, 1944). R.E.W. Maddison, The Life of the Honourable Robert Boyle, F.R.S., (London, 1969). John F. Fulton, A Bibliography of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Fellow of the Royal Society, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1961). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 2, 1026-31.


Brahe, Tycho



1. Dates: Born: Skane, Denmark (now Sweden), 14 December 1546; Died: Prague, 24 October 1601; Datecode: - Lifespan: 55
2. Father: Aristocrat; Natural father: Otte Brahe, a member of the powerful Brahe family. He was later governor of Helsingborg castle, and, from 1563, a member of the Rigsraad, an approximately 20 member oligarchy that ruled Denmark. Natural mother: Beate Billie, a member of the Billie family, which also had a significant number of seats on the Rigsraad. Foster father: Jorgen Brahe (d. 1565), brother of Otte. Commander first of Traneker, then Naesbyhoved, and finally Vordingsborg castle. By 1558 he had one of the greatest assemblages of fiefs in Denmark. However, this was seriously compromised in the power struggle of 1558 in which Peter Oxe was sent into exile. At this time Jorgen relinquished the fiefs given to him by the King and transfered to Nyboking, a fief given to him by Queen Sophie. He was the vice-admiral of the Danish fleet when he died in 1565. Foster mother: Inger Oxe, member of the Oxe family, which had one member on the Rigsraad. She was the sister of Peter, the strongman who essentially ruled Denmark from about 1566.
3. Nationality: Birth: Skane, Denmark [now Sweden]. Career: Hven, Denmark; Czechoslovakia; Death: Prague, Bohemia [now Czechoslovakia].
4. Education: University of Copenhagen; University of Leipzig; University of Wittenburg; University of Rostock; University of Basel; no degree; c.1554-9, probably at the cathedral school around Vordingborg. 1559-62, University of Copenhagen. He may have matriculated in 1559, though noblemen's sons generally had no reason for registering. 1562-5, University of Leipzig. He registered in 1562. He studied humanities, and astronomy on the side under Scultetus. 1566, University of Wittenberg. Did not matriculate, began astronomical studies under Caspar Peucer, but fled after a few months because of plague. 1566, University of Rostock. He matriculated, but returned home after his dueling injury in 1567. He returned in 1568, but left again five months later after having been fined for the dueling incident. 1568, matriculated in University of Basel, but there only a few months. However, Basel left a profound impression, and Tycho later intended to settle there when he emigrated.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy; Scientific Instruments; Iatrochemistry; Subordinate Disciplines: Cartography; Astrology; Mtr; The astrology was both judicial and medical; eventually Tycho became disillusioned with it. Thoren talks a great deal about alchemy, but it always sounds like Paracelsian iatrochemistry to me. Tycho was greatly influenced by Paracelsus. Over long years Tycho kept records of the weather, convinced that he would find correlations with other things, such as positions of the planets.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Patronage; His education and travelling expenses, 1568-1570, were certainly paid by his father. Otte Brahe died in 1571; the will was finally straightened out in 1574. Tycho shared the patrimonial estate of Kundstrup with his brother Steen. The estate was comprised of 200 farms, 25 cottages, and 5 1/2 mills. It was a rather small inheritance given Tycho's family, but enough to support him in comfort. In the early 1570s he lived and worked at Herreved abbey, which was run by his maternal uncle Steen Billie. In 1576, King Frederick II granted him the island of Hveen rent-free for the rest of his life and the expenses to establish and maintain a place where he could undertake his astronomical work. The maintainance grant was 500 daler per year. He left Uraniborg in 1597. In 1577, he was granted the revenues and firewood from the manor of Kullagaard. In 1578, he was given the use of 11 farms near Helsingborg. 1579-97, he held a canonry in Roskilde cathedral. In 1580 he was granted the fiefdom of Nordfjord in Norway. [Tycho estimated the combined revenue from the fiefs, farms, and canonry above to be approximately 2400 daler. A modern estimate makes this 1% of the entire crown revenue.]; In 1599, the emperor Rudolf II appointed Tycho imperial mathematician.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Aristocratic Patronage; Certainly one of Tycho's most poweful patrons was Peter Oxe, who rapidly reassimilated his power after he was allowed to return to Denmark in 1566. Oxe was made governor of Copenhagen in 1567 and Lord High Steward-head of the government in all but name. Both Otte and Jorgen Brahe were linked to Oxe's power. Jorgen fell out of favor after Oxe's exile in 1558 because of his association with him. And Otte probably received Helsingborg castle because of Oxe's influence. It was through Oxe that the first vacant canonry at Roskilde cathedral was reserved for Tycho as early as 1568 (see 6). Paul Hainzel subsidized Tycho's construction of a very large instrument on his estate outside of Augsburg in 1569. About the same time, Tycho gave Hainzel a portable sextant that he had designed and used. King Frederick II (d. 1588), before deciding on Hveen (see 6), offered Tycho a variety of choice fiefs in an effort to get him to stay in Denmark. (See Thoren, pp. 102-4 for the extraordinary measures to keep Tycho in Denmark.) In return for his patronage, Tycho composed nativities for the Frederick's sons in 1577, 1579, and 1583; composed a report on the astrological inplications of the comet of 1577 (and maybe also those of 1580 and 1582); and provided Frederick with some kind of annual prognostications. Tycho gradually lost favor at court after Frederick's death, when Christian IV became King. In early 1577 Tycho wrote a letter to Peder Soerensen, who was complaining about the burdens of court life, commenting extensively on the lot of the client. This letter sounds revealing. (See Thoren, p. 116); Tycho was elected Rector of the University of Copenhagen in 1577, proposed by the theologian Niels Hemmingen, who was in hot water at that time because of the accusation that he was a crypto-Calvinist. Tycho declined. Tycho himself acted as a patron to a number of students and assistants. Notables at Hveen include Peder Jacobsen Flemlose, John Hammond, Christian Sorensen [Longomontanus], Elias Olsen Morsing, Gellius Sascerides, Paul Wittich, and Willem Janszoon Blaeu; and in Bohemia Longomontanus, David Fabricius, Johannes Mueller, Melchior Joestelius, and Johannes Kepler. The Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II hired Tycho as imperial mathematician in 1599. Tycho had dedicated his Mechanica to Rudolf in 1598 in an effort to solicit such support. Tycho was first given his choice of some castles for his work (he chose Benatky), and the emperor later bought the house of the late vice-chancellor Curtius in Prague for Tycho's use at the estimated cost of 10,000 gulden.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Cartography; Pharmacology; Tycho was involved in the design and fabrication of instruments from 1569. He maintained a staff of instrument makers at Hveen, whom he closely supervised, and was a designer of the highest caliber in accuracy and innovation. His Mechanica (1598) contains descriptions of some of his greatest instruments. He claimed to have spent 5000 daler on a 1.5 meter brass-covered celestial sphere alone. He had discussions with King Frederick II about mapping Denmark, and sent his assistant Olsen out with Anders Vesel on a tour of Denmark in 1589, and his assistant Flemlose made surveys in Norway in 1590 and 1592. He finally only produced a new chart of Hven (printed 1592), but this clearly a work of advanced cartography. Tycho the Paracelsian iatrochemist constantly produced medicines, some of which made it into the official Danish pharmacoepia.
10. Scientific Societies: Correspondents: William IV, Landgrave of Hesse, Christoph Rothmann

SOURCES
Victor E. Thoren, The Lord of Uraniborg: A Biography of Tycho Brahe, (Cambridge, 1990). Victor E. Thoren, 'Tycho Brahe as the Dean of a Renaissance Research Institute,' in Margaret J. Osler, ed., Religion, Science, and Worldview (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).


Bramer, Benjamin



1. Dates: Born: Felsberg, Germany ca. February 1588; Died: Ziegenhain, Germany 17 March 1652; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64; 
2. Father: Church Living; Scientist; His father was a minister; his foster father, Joost Bürgi, was an instrument maker and mathematician (who is also in this catalogue). No clear information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: None Known; Secondary Means of Support: Joost Bürgi directed Bramer's education, incl. tutoring him in mathematics. University: None.
5. Religion: Protestant (unclear whether Lutheran or Reformed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: mathematics, military engineering
7. Means of Support: Engineer; Patronage; 1603 or 1604, Bramer accompanied Buergi to the imperial court at Prague. 1609, he returned to Kassel. 1612, Landgrave Moritz of Hesse-Kassel appointed Bramer the master builder of the court in Marburg. 1618, advised Count Christian von Waldeck on building a church (war prevented its being built). 1620, began directing the construction of fortifications of Marburg castle and in the town. 1625, consultant to the count of Solms at the fortress of Rheinfels. 1630-4, in charge of the fortifications in Kassel. 1635, appointed princely master builder and treasurer of the important Hessian fortress of Ziegenhain.
8. Patronage: court, aristocracy, scientist; Court of Hesse-Kassel, also other aristrocrats. His brother-in-law (who was also his foster father), Joost Buergi (q.v.) was the court clockmaker in Kassel. Architect to various princelings (see above).
9. Technological Connections: Military engring, architecture, instruments; See above. Bramer also built buildings. He devised instruments for measurement.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
M. Cantor, in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 3, 234 - nothing really new. Christian Gottlieb Jöcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1, (Leigpzig, 1750), 1328 - nothing relevant. Not in Neue Deutsche Biographie.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Johann Heinrich Zedler, Universal Lexikon, 4, (Halle-Leipzig, 1733), 997. Friedrich Wilhelm Strieder, Grundlage zu einer hessischen Gelehrten- und Schriftsstellergeschichte, 1 (Goettingen, 1781), 521 ff - not in Library. Nouvelles annales de mathematiques (Bulletin de bibliographie), (Paris, 1858), 75f. Wolfgand Medding, 'Das Projekt einer Zentalkirche des hessischen Hofbaumeisters Benjamin Bramer,' Hessenland, Heimatzeitschrift fuer Kurhessen, 49 (Marburg, 1938), 82f. Karl Justi, 'Das Marburger Schloss,' Veroeffentlichungen der Historischen Kommision fuer Hessen und Waldeck, 21 (Marburg, 1942), 94, 98, 105.


Briggs, Henry



1. Dates: Born: Worley Wood, Yorkshire, February 1561; Baptized on 23 February 1561. Died: Oxford, 26 January 1630. Datecode: Lifespan: 69; 
2. Father: Unknown; Thomas Smith, writing early in the 18th century, said that Briggs' parents were 'humble of class and rather slender of means.' Humble of class could mean too many things to guess, but I take the slender means to state unmistakably that they were poor. Smith indicates that Briggs could not have attended Cambridge without financial assistance from his college. 
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England; 
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. Local grammar school. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1577-85; B.A., 1581; M.A., 1585. 
5. Religion: Calvinist; He is described in one fairly contemporary source as a severe Presbyterian, and he was active in the Puritan cause while he was at Cambridge.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy; Navigation; Gog; Briggs is especially known for his publication of tables of logarithms to the base 10, first Logarithmorum chilias prima, 1617, and later Arithmetica logarithmetica, 1624. He also composed a work on trigonometry (basically tables, both of the functions and of the logs of sines and tangents) that was left unfinished at his death; Gellibrand completed and published it. And he left quite a few mathematical manuscripts that remained unpublished. Briggs also devoted some attention to astronomy and saw logarithms initially primarily as a device to aid in astronomical calculations. He published Tables for the Improvement of Navigation, 1610, and North-west Passage to the South Sea, 1622. Briggs was consulted by the Virginia Company about the northwest passage, and from information about tides and currents he deduced the existence of such a passage. From the flow of rivers in Virginia and in the Hudson Bay area, he also deduced the existence of the mid-continental range of mountains. He produced a map of North America that Purchas published.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Fellow of St. John's College, 1589. I find no information about what he did between 1585 (his M.A.) and 1589. Appointed Dr. Linacre's Reader of the Physic Lecture, 1592-6. (I am pretty sure that this was internal to St. John's College.); Professor of Geometry, Gresham College, 1596-1620. Briggs was the first Gresham Professor of Geometry. Savilian Professor of Geometry, Oxford, 1620-30. Also Fellow of Merton.
8. Patronage: Gentry; Court Patronage; He was appointed Professor of Geometry at Oxford at Henry Saville's invitation. He held the position in the last decade of his life. [Source on patronage: J. Ward, The Lifes of the Professors of Gresham College, pp. 124-6, LF795.G8A2]; In his early life of Briggs, Dr. Smith says that he condemned riches and preferred a life of retirement to one of splendor. Nevertheless he did dedicate Arithmetica logarithmetica to Prince Charles. 
9. Technological Connections: Mathematics; Navigation; Cartography; Instruments; See above. Virtually the whole of his work in mathematics was devoted to making computation more easy. Briggs' first publication, Concerning the Construction, Description and Use of Two Instruments Invented by Mr. Gilbert, was devoted to the concept of determining latitude from magnetic declination. The work included tables for this purpose. He also constructed several tables of astronomical phenemena useful to navigation, which were published in Wright's book. See above about the map of North America. Note also that he considered (I do not know how deeply or how long) the problem of constructing a canal from the Isis to the Avon. Without more information I am unwilling to list this.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Friendship with Sir Henry Bourchier, Dr. Ussher and Henry Gellibrand. Two of his (apparently many) letters to Ussher, a correspondence about astronomy and chronology, survive. He journeyed to Scotland twice to meet and discuss with Napier. He exchanged a couple of letters with Longomontanus.

SOURCES:
J. Ward, The Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, pp. 120, 124-6. LF795 G8A2; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 2, 1234-5. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 2, 586-9. D.M. Hallowes, 'Henry Briggs, Mathematician,' Transactions of the Halifax Antequarian Society (1962), pp. 79-92. Thomas Smith, a biography of Briggs published originally in Smith's Vitae quorundam eruditissimorum et illustrium virorum, (1707), republished in Alexander J. Thompson, Logarithmetica britannica, 9 vols. (Cambridge, 1924-52), 1, lxvii-lxxvii. H.W. Turnbull, James Gregory Tercentenary Memorial Volume, (London, 1939), p. 17.


Bromell [Bromelius], Magnus von



1. Dates: Born: Stockholm, Sweden, 26 March 1679; Died: Stockholm, Sweden, 26 March 1731; Datecode: Lifespan: 52. 
2. Father: Physician; A prominent physician; I assume that all such were affluent. The family may well have been wealthy, for it was an old family. The father had a large botanical library and herbarium which Bromell inherited.
3. Nationality: Birth: Swedish; Career: Swedish; Death: Swedish
4. Education: University of Leiden; University of Rheims; M.D. Bromell attended the gymnasium in Gothenburg, and after the gymnasium he had private teachers. In 1697, at the age of 17, he left for Leiden, when he stayed for three years. He studied surgery and anatomy under Bidloo, botany and therapy under Hotton. He went on botanical excursions with Hermannis and accompanied Dekker on hospital rounds. He attended Lemort's lectures on chemistry and pharmacy during a year. He also studied physics. He visited Leeuwenhoek to learn how to use the microscope. (Bromell is said to have been very eager to learn.) I assume a B.A. or equivalent. Bromell left the Netherlands for London and Oxford, where he visited libraries and colleges. He returned to Leiden in September 1700 to attend Boerhaave's lectures. He disputed twice under Bidloo (first, 'De phlyctenis' and two weeks later, 'De non existensia spirituum'). In the fall of 1702 he went to Paris where he got more training in anatomy and surgery from Petit and Duverney and got a chance to practice dissection for himself. He became friends with Tournefort who gave him free lectures. Bromell also received several rareties from Tournefort's herbarium. He also studied anatomy under Littie and surgery under Mery. After a year he went to Rheims where he received his doctorate in medicine in 1703. After this he left France for Amsterdam where he attended the lectures of Fredrik Ruysch.
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Paleontology; Botany; His Lithographiae suecanae specimen secundum, 1727, is a study of fossils in Sweden. Olov Celsium asserted that after Rudbeck Bromell was Sweden's most celebrated botanist. (I trust this was said before the time of Linnaeus.)
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Official; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Schoolmaster; Bromell's father paid for his studies and travels around Europe, and later he inherited 16,000 rixdollars from his brother. 1704 Bromell returned to Stockholm, practiced medicine, and periodically gave lectures as a professor of anatomy. He was borough medical officer in Gothenburg when his father was too ill to work. In 1710 he became a pestphysician in Vasteras with great success. It is said that he cured many patients. In 1705 he was already prominent enough in the medical community of Stockholm to be considered a leader of the Collegium medicum. He became physician to the King and to the court in 1705. He gave public demonstrations of anatomy, both human and animal, In my experience, such lectures were never gratis. 1713, he became a medical assistant at the University of Uppsala, where he also taught natural history and botany. He started dissecting again and studied humans as well as animals, birds, fish, and reptiles. In 1716 he was elected professor of medicine in Uppsala, but was soon called to Stockholm by the King, or to be more explicit ordered by the King, to be as professor of anatomy. 1720 named assessor of the chemical laboratory of the Board of Mines and in 1724 superintendent of the laboratory and president of the Lappis Mines. In addition to his private practice he was physician to the court; Regnell mentions he was Archiater.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; In addition to the other items above, Bromell was ennobled in 1726.
9. Technological Connections: Civil Engineer; Medical Practioner; I am classifying mining as civil engineering). I am informed that mining drove the Swedish economy at that time and that service with the Board of Mines meant active involvement. Note that he published on paleontology.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Introduced to the Collegium Medicum in 1705, and elected head of it in 1724.

SOURCES
G. Regnell, 'On the Position of Palaeontology and Historical Geology in Sweden Before 1800,' Arkiv for meralogi och geologi, 1, no. 1 (1950), 1 - 64. Bromell's science rather than his life. O. Hult, 'Nagra anmarkningar om Olof och Magnus Bromelius,' Svenska Linnesallskapts Arsskrift, (1926). Svensk Uppslagsbok.


Brouncker, William



1. Dates: Born: Castle Lyons, Ireland, c.1620; Died: Westminster, 5 April 1684; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 64
2. Father: Gentry; Government Position; Sir William Brouncker was a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Charles I and held a number of governmental appointments. His financial status is a bit unclear. It is reported that he spent all of his resources to buy an Irish peerage in 1645. However, this was during a time when he was probably cut off from the income of his Irish estate. His son lived well on the estate he inherited. I think that wealthy is the description before the Civil War impinged on him.
3. Nationality: Birth: Irish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.D. Oxford University, 1636-47; Doctor of Physick, 1647. 
5. Religion: Anglican 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Mus; Brouncker was the first to introduce continued fractions and to give a series for the quadrature of a portion of the equilateral hyperbola. He translated Descartes's Musical Compendium, 1653, and prepared a new division of the diapason into 17 equal semitones.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position; He inherited an estate from his father, including the title of viscount, in 1646. The Office of Chancellor to Queen Catherine, 1662. Commissioner for the Navy, 1664 until his death, with an interlude from 1679-81 because of the Popish Plot. Comptroller of the Treasurer's Accounts (for the Navy), 1668-79. Master of St. Catherine's Hospital, 1681-4. This position must have involved considerable income; Brouncker waged a long legal struggle to establish his right to it. President of Gresham College, 1664-7. I do not know how to list this; it is not academic in my definition. I think it should be considered a governmental appointment; Charles appointed him. I also think it carried a salary.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; With the Restoration, Brouncker's fortunes bloomed; he had remained a loyal royalist. See the appointments above. The King also nominated him as the President of the Royal Society. (Source on patronage: Scott and Hartley, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15, 147-157.)
9. Technological Connections: Navigation; In 1662 Brouncker had a yatch, designed by him and his friends along new lines, built for the King. Apparently it attracted some attention. In his diary Pepys mentions Brouncker's application of his mathematical knowledge (conics are mentioned) to the design of ships.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal Connections: Correspondence with John Wallis, Samuel Pepys and others. He was an intimate friend of John Evelyn. President of Gresham College, 1664-7. Royal Society, 1660-84; President, 1662-77, nominated by the King.

SOURCES
J.F. Scott and Harold Hartley, 'William, Viscount Brouncker, P.R.S. (1620-1684),' Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 15 (1960-1), 147-57. T. Birch, History of Royal Society, 4, 338. Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 2, 613-14. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 2, 1377-8. Anthony à Wood, Fasti oxonienses (attached, with separate pagination, to Athenae oxonienses), (London, 1813-20), ii (in 4 of Athenae), 98-9.


Browne, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: London, 19 October 1605; Died: Norwich, 19 October 1682 Datecode: Lifespan: 77
2. Father: Merchant; Thomas Browne was a silk merchant, who died when our Thomas Browne was eight years old. Our Thomas Browne was the only son. At the very least, the father was clearly prosperous. A contemporary source says that he left a 'plentiful Fortune.' Sir Thomas Browne went to Oxford as a Gentleman Commoner and had enough money to spend four years beyond his M.A. studying medicine on the continent. Add to this the fact that the widow remarried, to Sir Thomas Dutton, who had an estate in Ireland. The more I look at the evidence, the more I become convinced that 'wealthy' is a better word to describe the circumstances in which Sir Thomas rowne grew up.
3. Nationality: Birth: English; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Oxford University, M.D. University of Leiden; M.D. University of Montpellier; Pad Winchester College, 1615-1623. Oxford University, 1623-9; Pembroke College, B.A. 1626; M.A., 1629. Studied medicine at Montpellier, Padua and Leiden, 1630-3; M.D. at Leiden, 1633. M.D. at Oxford, 1637. 
5. Religion: Anglican; He remained steady in his loyalty during the entire Interregnum.
6. Scientific Disciplines: natural history; Pseudodoxia epidemica: or Enquiries into Very Many Received Tenents, and Commonly Presumed Truths, 1646, was the only scientific work (or presumably scientific) that Browne published. Although it contains a chapter on magnetism, and discussions of optics and astronomy, natural history is nevertheless its primary focus. Browne kept notes on birds and fish found in Norfolk; he had an extensive collection of birds' eggs. He was also as good botanist.
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Browne may have practised near Oxford for a time after his M.A. Medical practice in Yorkshire, 1633-7; Keynes (in DSB) suggests that he may have practised in Oxfordshire during this period. There is no doubt that he moved to Norwich in 1637 and practised there until his death. There are references to a thriving practice. At least one source suggests that Browne spent his inheritance on his education, and this seems plausible.
8. Patronage: Court; When Charles II visited Norwich in 1671, he was anxious to knight someone. The mayor declined, and rather hastily (as I understand it) they decided that Browne should be the one. This is as tenuous patronage as I care to recognize. Browne never paid court on the King, and no continuing relation developed. Nevertheless, the act conferred status. Other than this, it is hard to find anything that smells seriously of patronage in Browne's life. In 1637 three men from Norwich who may have known Browne at Oxford, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Sir Justinian Lewyn, and Sir Charles le Gros, sollicited him to move to Norwich to practise. As far as I can understand the transaction, they were more concerned to have a competent physician in Norwich than to bestow a favor on Browne. Apparently Browne remained on friendly terms with them, especially with Bacon, and the only two dedications he made of books are to Nicholas Bacon and Thomas le Gros, who I take to be the sons of the men above. I have read the dedications; they sound more like prefaces and have very little indeed of the standard rhetoric of patronage. Browne clearly prospered in his profession, and did not seek patronage. Religio medici went through eight editions during his life (in addition to the original pirated ones); None carries a dedication. Pseudodoxia epidemica went through six editions, all likewise without dedications. Browne received a dedication, a tract of 1662 on tumors by the physician Robert Bayfield.
9. Technological Connections: medical practice 
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Informal Connections: correspondence with Henry Oldenburg, John Ray, C. Merrett, J. Evelyn and others. Volume four of Browne's Works, ed. Geoffrey Keynes, (London, 1964) publishes what survives of his correspondence. Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 1664-82.

SOURCES:
J. Bennett, Sir Thomas Browne, (Cambridge, 1962). Biographia Britannica, 2nd ed. (London, 1778-93), 2, 627-38. Lilly library; Jeremiah Finch, Sir Thomas Browne: A Doctor's Life of Science and Faith, (New York, 1950). Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 3, 64-72. Geoffrey Keynes, A Bibliography of Sir Thomas Browne, (Cambridge, 1924).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: F.L. Huntley, Sir Thomas Browne, (Ann Arbor, 1962). L. Nathanson, The Strategy of Truth: A Study of Sir Thomas Browne, (Chicago, 1967).


Brozek, Jan [Broscius, Brocki, Broski, Broszcz, Brzoski, Zbroek]



1. Dates: Born: in a small town (Kurzelow) in the province of Sieradz (central Poland), 1 November 1585; Died: Bronowice, 21 November 1652; Datecode: Lifespan: 67
2. Father: Gentry; Jakub (1542-1608), an educated landowner with a modest holding by Polish standards. This is what I call gentry. Neither wealthy nor poor; I guess affluent is the word. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Polish; Career: Polish; Death: Polish 
4. Education: Krakow, M.D. Padua; Brozek began his education by learning the art of writing and the principles of geometry from his father. He went to primary school in Kurzelow and then to the University of Krakow, where he passed his baccalaureate in March 1605. In 1618 travelled to Torun, Gdansk, Warmia and Ducal Prussia to gather memoirs and manuscripts of Copernicus, with the intention of writing his biography. From 1620 to 1624 Brozek studied medicine in Padua, received M.D. in 1624. He passed his baccalaureate in 1629, received the master of theology in 1648, and the doctor of theology in 1650, at Krakow. (Coming that late, and in view of his whole career, I won't list the theology degrees.) 
5. Religion: Catholic. He took part, on the side of the University of Krakow, in the fight against the Jesuit domination of schools, sending reports to Rome and making ten trips to Warsaw in order to defend the university's rights.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy, Cartography; Brozek was the author of more than 30 publications. The ones concerning Copernicus, and particular those dealing with mathematics, won him the reputation of being the greatest Polish mathematician of his time. In the second group were his pure mathematical works and opuscules, the most important being Arithmetica integrorum (1620), in which logarithms were introduced in schools; Aristoteles et Euclides defensus contra Petrum Ramum ( 1638), a dissertation containing original research on the star-shaped polygons.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; Patronage; It appears that Brozek did not come from a particularly wealthy family. There is no indication of his initial benefactors. Nevertheless, what appears in the course of his adult career is a progression of increasingly lucrative ecclesiastical appointments, the most lucrative of which came in 1632 (see below). In the last two decades of his life, he was wealthy enough to bestow large sums of money on Krakow University. (Perhaps a note on the relatively meager support for academics in Poland is in order here. According to Brückner (pp. 519-20), inadequate support in part explains the low level of scholarly production and the domination of scholarship by the Jesuits and Dominicans.); 1605, taught at cathedral school in Wloclawek. 1607, consenior at St. Anne's parish school in Krakow. 1608, private tutor of the son of the magnate, Martin Zborowski. In 1610 Brozek won the rank of magister, and in 1611 he was ordained a priest. 1611, rector of All Saints College; 1614-29, professor of astrology at the Collegium Minus of the University of Krakow. Note that his medical studies in Padua fall right in the middle of this appointment. 1624, personal physician to Bp. M. Syszkowski. 1624-5, physician to the bishop of Krakow. 1625-30, professor of rhetoric. 1629-39, professor of theology. 1629-32, appointed parson in Jangroc by Bp. Syszkowski. 1629, became canon of St. Anna's church. 1630, promoted to Canon of St. Florian's. 1631-8, director of the library of the Collegium Minus. 1632, received wealthy parsonages in Staszow and Miedzyzrzecz from the Palatine of Krakow. 1639, resigned from St. Florian Canonate. 1649, Canon of Krakow Cathedral. 1652, rector of the University of Krakow. 
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; It is impossible to distinguish all of the sources of patronage. The early relationship to Zborowski certainly looks suggestive. Someone had to stand behind all of those appointments, and they could not all have come from ecclesiastical patrons, although the permission to study in Padua while holding a chair and his immediate appointment as personal physician to the bishop sound as though he certainly enjoyed large ecclesiastical patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: 1611-12, came into contact with the Belgian mathematician Adriaan van Roomen, who had a significant influence on his later studies. Corresponded with Galileo in 1621. Corresponded with T. Turner, 1624.

SOURCES
A.Birkenmajer, 'Brozek, Jan', in Polski Slownik Biograficzny, 3, (Krakow, 1937), 1-3.
Pollak, Roman, Bibliografia literatury polskiej. Pismiennictwo staropolskie, (Warsaw: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawn, 1963-65), 2, 49-53.

Not Available and Not Consulted: S. Temberski, Roczniki, (Krakow, 1897). J.Krakowski, Se septem sideribus, quae Nicolao Copernico vulgo tribuuntur, (Krakow, 1926). Babski, B., 'Jan Brozek, wielki polski tworca nauki,' Polonia, nr. 3910. Barycz, H., 'Rozwoj nauki w Polsce w dobie Odrodzenie,' Odrodzenie w Polsce. Materialy Sesji Nauk. PAN 25-30 Pazdziernika 1953 r. T. 2: Historia Nauki. Cz. 1 w-wa 1956 i osob. pt. Dzieje nauki w Polsce w epoce Odrodzenia. ____, 'Zwiazki intelektualne Pomorza z Uniwersytetum Krakowskim w XIV-XVII w.' Przeglad Zachodne, 1955 nr. 1/2 s. 243. Bukowski, T. 'Jan Brozek, wybitny matematy polski,' W. ksiazce: Nauke Polska w sluzbie postepu. W-wa, 1953. Franke, Jan. N., Jan Brozek, akadimik krakowshi, jego zycie i dziela. (Krakow, 1884). Majer, J., 'Zawod lekarski J. Brosciusca,' Roczn. Wydz. Lek. University Jagiel. t.5 (1842). Sawicki, 'Prof. dr. Jan Brozek z Kurzelowa,' Przeglad Geodezyjny 1954 nr. 3. 


Brunfels, Otto



1. Dates: Born: Mainz, Germany ca. 1489; Died: Bern, Switzerland 23? November 1534; Datecode: Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Artisan; He was a cooper; No firm information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: German; Career: German; Death: German
4. Education: Mnz, M.A. Secondary Means of Support: received his early education in Mainz. University: 1508/9, M.A from U Mainz. Late 1532, M.D. from University of Basel (this I won't list).
5. Religion: Catholic, then Lutheran ('Lutheraner mit wiedertäuferischem Einschlag')
6. Scientific Disciplines: botany (primary); Subordinate Disciplines: medicine, pharmacology; He translated older works and wrote on herbal pharmacology
7. Means of Support: Church Living, Schoolmaster; Secondary Means of Support: governmental position, medical practice; 1508 or 1509, entered Carthusian monsatery in Strasbourg. 1521, left the monastery (and Catholicism); through Ulrich von Hutten, 'one of Luther's principal defenders,' obtained a curacy in Steinau; religious persecution soon forced him to flee. July 1522 - March 1524, preacher (Prediger) at the Stadtkirche of Neuenberg; stayed in the Franciscan monastery there ('konnte ... Unterkunft finden'). 1524, returned to Strasbourg and opened his own school (DSB). Took a teaching position at the Carmelite school at Strasburg, held it until beginning of 1532 (Grimm). Between 1530 and 1532, moved to Basel (DSB). 3 October 1533, appointed town physician in Bern for 6 years.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Magistrate; He was aided by Ulrich von Hutten; The Neuenburg position was legally in the gift of Austria, but the town council had the right to nominate the officeholder. While in Neuenberg B. wrote 'Lectiones sive annotationes aliquot hebraica' on the Old Testament and dedicated it to a distinguished man in Heitersheim: 'Joanni Warmundio patroni et pretori integerrimo atque nobilissimo presidi in Heytersheim amico optimo Otho Brunfelsius.'
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; Medical Practioner; He compiled practical pharmacological texts to be used by physicians and apothecaries, including the city ordinance for apothecaries in Bern. Apparently also medical practice.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal:while in Strasbourg, associated with the local humanists, one of whom, Johann Schott, printed many of his books. He collaborated with Jerome Bock and Leonhard Fuchs. Extensive correspondence.

SOURCES
Heinrich Grimm, in Neue Deutsche Biographie, 2, 678. Erich Sanwald, Otto Brunfels 1488 - 1534: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Humanismus und der Reformation: I. Hälfte 1488 - 1524, (Bottrop, Germany, 1932). - Stacks BR 350 . B8 S2 - mostly about his religious activities

Not Available and Not Consulted: Stannard says biographical information is meager and ultimately derived from the preface of Brunfels' Annotationes in Quatuor Evangelia - this work is not in the library. Karl Hartfelder, 'Otto Brunfels als Verteidiger Huttens,' Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, n.s. 8 (1893), 565-78.


Bruno, Giordano



1. Dates: Born: Nola, Italy, 1548; Died: Rome, 17 February 1600; Datecode: Lifespan: 52 
2. Father: Soldier; His father was a soldier in the service of the Spanish master of Naples. It would seem probable that the family was very far from being wealthy, although the Brunos may have been a branch of the noble family of that name at Asti. I take this definitely to say they were poor. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Nola, Italy; Career: Italy, England, France, Germany; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: Non; No B.A. Though he obtained a Ph.D. at Toulouse, it does not sound like an earned degree. We don't know in what manner he was educated at Nola. At about the age of eleven, he was sent to Naples 'to study humane letters, logic and dialectic'. He attended the public lectures of Il Sarnese, and also received private lessons in logic from Fra Teofilo da Varano, an Augustinian monk, who afterwards lectured on metaphysics in Rome. 
5. Religion: Catholic, Heterodox; Bruno entered the Dominican order in 1563. Even during his novitiate, a case had been drawn against him, because he had given away some images of saints, retaining for himself only a crucifix, and again because he had advised a fellow-novice to throw The Seven Delights of the Madonna aside and take rather The Lives of the Fathers or some such book. But the deposition was merely intended to terrify him, and the same day was torn up by the Prior. In 1576, however, the suspicions of his superiors took a more active turn. He was told that the Provincial was proceeding against him for fresh heresy, and was reviving the affair of his novitiate. Bruno left Naples while the process was pending, and went to Rome. His accusers did not leave him in peace, however, a process against him was threatened at Rome with 130 articles. He escaped from Rome, abandoning his Dominican order and casting its habit aside. In Germany, Bruno got into difficulties with a Protestant pastor at Helmstedt who excommunicated him. Soon after he retuned to Italy, he was accused of heresy against the Catholic faith, arrested at Venice on 23 May 1592, and eventually burned in Rome on 17 February 1600.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Occult Philosophy 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Schoolmaster; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; In 1563, Bruno was admitted, as a probationer, to the monastery of St. Dominico in Naples by the Prior, Ambrogio Pasqua. He became a priest in 1572. To avoid the process against him, he left Naples in 1576. 1576-9, wandered through Italy: Bruno went to Rome first. Having escaped from Rome he spent 4-5 months at Noli, a little coasttown near Genoa, supporting himself by teaching grammar to children and the Sphere to certain gentlemen of condition. Then he went to Savona, Turin, Venice, Padua, Bergamo, and other cities, receiving hospitality in spacious, dignified monasteries or under the homelier shelter of some kindly Italian roof. 1579-91, wandered through Europe: First he went to Geneva, and Lyons. 1579-81, at Toulouse, where he gave private classes, procured his doctorate through the Dean of Arts, and then was appointed professor of philososphy at the university. (I am not listing this degree.); 1581-3, in France, he first gave public lectures, and then was offered a chair at the university (it was not an ordinary professoriate). His reputation reached the court. The king offered him an extraordinary lectureship with a salary at the Sorbonne or at the College de Cambrai. 1583-5, in England. Bruno lived as a gentlman attached to the French Embassy. He accompanied the ambassador to Court habitually. 1585, in his second visit to France he lived for the most part at his own expense and in the society of gentlemen whom he knew. 1585-91, in Germany. 1586-8, at Wittenberg, taught as university teacher or professor. In 1588 Bruno left Wittenberg for Prague where he stayed for about 6 months. The emperor gave Bruno money for his mathesis against methematicians, but did not give him a positon. In January 1589, Bruno matriculated at the Julian university of Brunswick, at Helmstedt. 1590-1, in Frankfort. He lectured. he also taught at Zurich. Bruno stayed with Hainzel, who had an estate at Elgg, for several months. In 1591, returned to Italy. Stayed in Padua for three months. In March 1592 arrived Venice. He lived with Mocenigo and taught him. On May 26th 1592, he was incarcerated.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocrat; The king of France, Henry III, interested in Bruno's work, offered him an exordinary lectureship at an university of Paris with salary, and gave him letters of recommendation to the French ambassador in England. The French ambassador in England received Bruno into the French embassy, where during the two years of his stay in England he lived comfortably. Bruno often went to court with the ambassador. In 1585, when the ambassador returned to France, Bruno went with him. The young Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel was rather kind to Bruno, and allowed him, with payment, to deliver an oration to the university of Brunswick on the death of his father, Duke Julius. The Polish Prince, Albert Laski, let Bruno go to visit Oxford in his train. The lord of Elgg, Hainzel, allowed him to stay in his estate for several months. 
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: In Paris, Bruno made acquaintance of Regnault, secretary to the Grand Prior of France. In London Bruno renewed his acquaintance with Gwynne, and became friendly with John Florio, an Oxford man, who introduced Bruno at Oxford as Nolano in Second Fruites, published in 1591. Alexander Dickson, a follower and friend of Bruno's in 1583 published The Shadow of Reason, a poor imitation of Bruno's The Shadows of Ideas. Bruno said that Dickson was dear to him as his own eye. There were other adherents who remained unidentified. Connection with Coebinelli, del Bene and their circle. 

SOURCES:
Frances A.Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition,; (Chicago, 1964). W. Boulting, Giordano Bruno, (London, 1931). J.J. Mclintyre, Giordano Bruno, (London, 1903). 

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Vincenzo Spampanato, Vita di Giordano Bruno, (Messina, 1921). Documenti della vita di Giordano Bruno, (Florence, 1933). 


Buergi, Joost



1. Dates: Born: Liechtenstein, (NDB: Toggenburg) Switzerland; 28 February 1552; Died: Kassel, Germany 31 January 1632; Datecode: Lifespan: 80; 
2. Father: No information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Swiss; Career: German; Death: German; 
4. Education: Non; He probably received no systematic education; did not know Latin. Whatever education he had, he probably finished while working at Kassel.
5. Religion: evangelical Protestant-i.e, Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Int (watchmaking), Mathematics; Astronomy. As a mathematician, computation (esp. logarithms), geometry.
7. Means of Support: patronage; From 25 July 1579 court watchmaker to Duke Wilhelm IV, Landgrave of Hesse; worked in the Duke's observatory; after Wilhelm's death in 1592, continued to serve in Hesse under Moritz, but was in frequent demand from Emperor Rudolf II. 1603-22, Bürgi went to Prague, became court watchmaker to Rudolf II and his successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. Became assistant and computer for Kepler. Remained in Prague even after the Imperial court moved to Vienna; he was there through the defeat of the Bohemian anti-Hapsburg revolt (1620). Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie and Neue Deutsche Biographie: 1622, left Prague for Kassel. DSB: ca. 1631, returned to Kassel.
8. Patronage: court; Duke Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel (died 1592) then Duke Moritz (died 1627); Emperors Rudolf II, Matthias, and Ferdinand II. Bürgi met Rudolf in 1592 when he brought the Emperor a silver celestial globe which Duke Wilhelm had him construct for the Emperor.
9. Technology: Scientific Instruments; Mathematics; Constructed clocks, and astronomical and practical geometry instruments (notably the proportional compass and a triangulation instrument useful in surveying). Note that as a mathematician he developed the 'prosthaphairesis,' and possibly thought of and developed logarithms. I'll list this as applied mathematics.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal: was part of the scientific circle at Prague. Formal: None

SOURCES:
Ernst Zinner in Neue Deutsche Biographie, 2, 747. M. Cantor, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, 1604-6. Rudolf Wolf, Geschichte der Astronomie, (Munich, 1877), pp. 273-6. Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 224. There is no biography of Bürgi. Novy (DSB) lists some works which contain bibliographic information.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Bertele, H. von, 'Precision Timekeeping in the Pre-Huygens Era,' Horological Journal, 95 (Dec 1953), 794-816. Folti, Jaroslav, and Lubos Novy, 'Zu Buergis Anleitung zu den Logarithmentaflen,' Acta Hist. Rerum Nat. Tech., 4 (1968), 97-126. Groetzsch, H., 'Die Kreuzschlaguhr und Globusuhr von Jost Buergi - Wissenschaftliche Instrumente aus dem Arbeitsgebiet von Johannes Kepler,' Actes XIIIe Cong. Int. Hist. Sci., 1971, 6 (1974), 246-250. Horsky, Zdenek, 'Eine Handschrift ueber das Triangularinstrument,' Acta Hist. Rerum Nat. Tech., 4 (1968), 127-142. , 'Sextant astronomique de Buergi,' Acta Hist. Rerum Nat. Tech., 1 (1965), 125-129. Jourdain, Philip E.B., 'John Napier and the Tercentenary of the Invention of Logarithms,' Open Court, 28 (1914), 513-520. Karlsen, Helge B.J., 'A 16th Century Astronomical Tableclock by Jost Buergi with Non-Uniform Motions of the Sun and Moon,' Antiq. Horology, 14 (1983), 63-75. List, Martha, and Volker Bialas, Die Coss von Jost Buergi in der Redaktion von Johannes Kepler: Ein Beitrag zur fruehen Algebra (Nova Kepleriana, 5) (Munich, 1973). Mackensen, Ludolf von, 'Erfindung und Bedeutung des universalen Reduktionszirkels von Jost Buergi,' in M. Folkerts, and U. Lindgren, eds., Mathemata: Festschrift fuer Helmuth Gericke (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1985). _____, Die erste Sternwarte Europas. mit ihren Instrumenten und Uhren: 400 Jahre Jost Buergi in Kassel. Mit Beitragen von Hans von Bertele und John H. Leopold (Schriften zur Naturwissenschafts- un Techniks-geschichte), (Munich: Callwey, 1979). Mautz, Otto, 'Zur Basisbestimmung der Napierschen und Buergischen Logarithmen' (Suppl. to Jahresber. Gynasiums Realsch. Toechtersch. Basel, 1918-1919). _____, 'Zur Stellung des Dezimalkommas in der Buergischen Logarithmentafel,' Verhandl. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel., 32 (1921), 104-106. Roessler, G., 'Ein unbekanntes Instrument von Joost Buergi im Hessischen Landesmuseum zu Kassel,' Z. Instrumentenk., 52 (1932), 31-38. Voellmy, E., 'Jost Buergi und die Logarithmen,' Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fuer Elemente der Mathematik, no. 5 (1948). Zinner, E., Deutsche und niederlaendische astronmische Instrumente des 11.-18. Jahrhunderts, (Munich, 1956), 268-76.


Buonanni [Bonanni], Filippo



1. Dates: Born: Rome, 7 January 1638; Died: Rome, 30 March 1725; Datecode: Lifespan: 87
2. Father: Unknown; I find only that his name was Ludovico Buonanni. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Rome,Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Rome,Italy
4. Education: Collegio Romano; D.D. He was a pupil of Athanasius Kircher in the Collegio Romano. I assume a B.A. The theological degree was not mentioned, but it went with the status of a full member of the order.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Jesuit, having entered the order in 1654.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Mcr; Buonanni collected shells of sea life, which he interpreted within an Aristotelian framework. He supported their spontaneous generation. Some of his observations employed a microscope. He published a catalogue of the Kircher museum.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; After completing his education, Buonanni taught first in the Jesuit college in Orvieta and then in the one in Ancona. He was called to Rome in 1576 to be the Archivist of the casa professa, Il Gesua (I think this was some house of the Jesuit order). According to DSB, he became a teacher of mathematics at the Collegio Romano in 1580. I did not see this mentioned elsewhere. He became Rector of the College of the Maronites in Rome, 1695-1725. In 1598, he was appointed curator of the Kircherian Museum at the Collegio Romano.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; His succession of position does not look like patronage in any ordinary sense of the word but rather the utilization of his talents by his order. He dedicated a work on shellfish (1581) to Prince J.B. Panfili. He dedicated microscopical observations of shellfish (1591) to D. Leoni Strozzi, the son of Duke Strozzi. He dedicated a non-scientific work (1596) to Card. Bullioneo. He dedicated a non-scientific work (1720) to the Ambassador of the King of Portugal. 
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; He constructed a microscope with three lenses.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES
A. Neviani,' Un episodio della lotta fra spontaneisti ed ovulisti. Il Padre Filippo Buonanni e l'Abate Anton Felice Marsili,' Rivista di storia delle scienze mediche e naturali, 26 (1935), pp. 211-232. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 2, pt. 4, 2329-33. Carlos Sommervogel, ed. Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, (Brussels, 1891), 2, 376-84.

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.A. Battarra, Rerum naturalium historia existentium in Museo Kircheriano edita iam a P.Phil. Bonanni, nunc vero novo methodo cum notis illustrata ac observationibus locupletata a Johanne Antonio Battarra, 2 vols. Rome, (1773-1782).


Buonamici (Bonamico), Francesco



1. Dates: Born: Florence, first half of 16th century; Died: 29 September 1603 Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: 
2. Father: Aristocrat; The only information is the statement in one source that Buonamici was of a noble family. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italian; Career: Italian; Death: Italian 
4. Education: Non; There is no evidence whatsoever
5. Religion: Catholic. (by assumption)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic Philosophy; Medical Practioner; Buonamici's principal work was De motu libri X, 1591, a work on natural philosophy in the scholastic mode; it cited much recent work, but mostly to reject it. He also published a work on medicine, De alimento.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Buonamici taught in Pisa for forty-three years before his death in 1603, first logic, and then, after 1665, philosophy. He was teaching in Pisa when Galileo was a student there, and people once assumed that Galileo's early commentary on De caelo came primarily from Buonamici. Quite frankly that illusory connection with Galileo is the only reason he got into the DSB. DSB says that he was a physician in Florence. Although I find no mention of practice elsewhere, I do notice that he published on medicine, so I will accept the statement.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; One source states that he was very dear to the Grand Duke. The appointment in Pisa, which must have been virtually from the year of the university's foundation, surely supports the statement.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies: He was a member of the Florentine Academy.

SOURCES
Not in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Galileo, Opere, 20, 405. Galileo, On Motion, Drabkin and Drake, eds., (Madison, Wis., 1960), pp. 10, 49n, 55n, 78n, 79n. Alexandre Koyré, Études Galiléennes-extensive quotations from Buonamici's De motu but no biographical information whatever. Zedler, Universal-Lexikon, 4, col 569. There is in fact very little information about this shadowy man.


Buono, Paolo del



1. Dates: Born: Florence, 26 October 1625; Died: Poland, toward the end of 1659; Datecode: Lifespan: 34
2. Father: Unknown; Leonido Buono; no information other than his name. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Florence, Italy; Career: Italy, Germany, Poland; Death: Poland
4. Education: Pisa, Ph.D. There is evidence that he was a pupil of Galileo near the end of Galileo's life. He studied in Pisa under Famiano Michelini, and received his degree in 1649. The sources specifically mention the doctorate. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a member of the Poor Regular Clerics of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Physics. His contributions include an instrument to demonstrate the incompressibility of water and the proposition that water enclosed in glass vials generates air in amounts dependent on the temperature of the environment. His letter to Prince Leopold that Middleton prints, the whole of our first hand knowledge of Buono's scientific capacity, outlines an impressive program of pneumatic experimentation, including an experiment like that which led to Boyle's law.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Patronage. Apparently Buono and Michelini were in charge of some hydaulics project for the Grand Duke. Everything is obscure. However, Michelini fell from favor in 1655, and that is the precise year when Buono left Florence. In 1655, he went to Germany in the service of Emperor Ferdinand III, who appointed him president of the mint. Buono acted for a time as a mining engineer in the imperial mines in the Carpathians. After the death of the emperor, he went to Poland in 1558. There he died.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage. Although everything is obscure, I gather that for a time he enjoyed the favor of the Grand Duke Ferdinand. The letter to Leopold speaks of Ferdinand as Buono's master. The letter also makes it clear that then, 1657, he was under a cloud. The Emperor of Germany; see above. The emperor also offered him honors and prizes if he could devise a mechanism to draw water from mines. He wrote several letters to Prince Leopold about his observations of a comet. 
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Civil Engineer; Hydraulics; He is said to have made an instrument to demonstrate the incompressibility of water. I have a hard time imagining what this could mean, though it must refer to an experimental apparatus expounded (along with other things) in the letter to Prince Leopold. In that letter he also described an inclined barometer. He worked on a pumping mechanism to drain mines. In a letter Michelini indicates that he and Buono were in charge of works along the Arno at Varlungo at some time.
10. Scientific Societies: Accademia del Cimento. He participated, as a correspondent from Germany in Leopold's Accademia del Cimento.

SOURCES
A short biography of Del Buono in Galileo's Opere, national ed., 20, 406; see also 15, pt.3, p.325, letter from Ward to Galileo of 7 September 1641. R. Caverni, Storia del metodo sperimentale in Italia, 6 vols. (Florence, 1891-1900), 1, 194. Not in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Not in G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753-); W.E.K. Middleton, 'Paolo del Buono on the Elasticity of the Air,' Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 6 (1960), 1-28.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Lettere inedite di uomini illustri, Angelo Fabronio, ed., I, (Florence, 1773), pp. 94, 151, 200.

There is not much information about this obscure man whose scientific accomplishments were as minimal as those of anyone in the DSB.


Buot, Jacques



1. Dates: Born: unknown; Probably France, 1675; Datecode: Birth Date Unknown; Lifespan: 
2. Father: No Information; On financial status: No Information
3. Nationality: Birth: France (assumed); Career: France; Death: France (assumed)
4. Education: None Known; i.e., unknown
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed)
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, Physics, Geometry
7. Means of Support: Patronage, Governmental position; Condorcet describes him as 'ingenieur du Roi, & Professeur du Mathematiques des Pages de la grande écurie.' From 1666, received an annual salary from the Académie of 1200 livres [E. Maindrou, L'Academie des Sciences (Paris, 1888), p. 121]
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Position; Buot dedicated his Usage de la roue de proportion, 1647, to Chancellor Seguier.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Invented an astronomical instrument, the équerre azimutale.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); Original member of the Académie des Sciences, evidently appointed as an astronomer, see 6b.

SOURCES
Condorcet, Eloges des Acadmiens de l'Academie royal des sciences, morts depuis 1666 jusqu'en 1699 (Paris, 1773), p. 157. Jean Mesnard, 'Le mécénat scientifique avant l'Académie des sciences,' in L'âge d'or du mécénat. Roland Mousnier and Jean Mesnard, eds. (Paris, 1985), pp. 107-17, esp. p. 115. Note: A very obscure figure.


Burgersdijk [Burgersdicius], Franco



1. Dates: Born: near Delft, 3 May 1590; death: Leiden, 19 February 1635; Datecode: Lifespan: 45
2. Father: Farmer; No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch; Career: Dutch; French; Death: Du
4. Education:Leiden, both B.A. and Ph.D.
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Scholastic Philosophy; Burgersdijk was the last major representative of Scholastic Philosophy in the Netherlands
7. Means of Support: Academic; 1616-19, Professor of philosophy at the Protestant academy at Saumur. 1620-8, Professor of logic and ethics at Leiden. 1628-35, Professor of philosophy at Leiden. Rector of the university 1629, 1630, and 1634.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy, Scientist; DuPlessis Mornay was instrumental in Burgersdijk's appointment at Saumur. His appointment in Leiden was part of the political-religious struggle in the Netherlands between the house of Orange (and orthodox Calvinism) against the oligarchy of Holland (and Arminianism). The orthodox party installed Burgersdijk. Willibrord Snel sponsored him.
9. Technological Connections: None 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES: Nieuw nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek, 7, 230-1. Edward G. Ruestow, Physics at 17th and 18th Century Leiden, (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1973).

Not Available and Not Consulted: P.C. Molhuysen, Bronnen tot de geschiedenis der Leidsche universiteit, (1916). J.N. Paquot, Mémoires, 2 (1763), 240-4.


Burnet, Thomas



1. Dates: Born: Croft, Yorkshire, c.1635; Died: London, 27 September 1715 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Unknown; It is known only that his name was John Burnet. Burnet attended Clare Hall as a pensioner; the father had to be prosperous at least.
3. Nationality: Birth: English Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: Cambridge University, M.A. The Freeschool of Northallerton. Cambridge, 1651-8. Burnet enrolled initially in Clare Hall, where he was a pupil of Tillotson; in 1654 he moved to Christ's College, following Cudworth. B.A., 1655; M.A., 1658.
5. Religion: Anglican; Heterodox; The treatment of Scripture in Archaeologiae philosophicae, 1692, forced Burnet to retire from his appointment at the court. Upon the death of Tillotson he was passed over for the Archbishopric of Canterbury because of doubts about his orthodoxy. Toward the end of his life he composed De fide et officiis christianorum and De statu mortuorum, more or less deistic books which Burnet forebore to publish during his life, although they were published after his death.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural Philosophy; Subordinate Disciplines: Geology; Burnet's most important book was Telluris theoria sacra, 1681. Also Archaeologiae philosophicae, 1692. Burnet was one of the first to look at the material world in terms of historical development.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; 
Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Fellow of Christ's College, 1657-78. He went abroad in 1671 as governor of the young Earl of Wiltshire. He then made a second tour with the Earl of Orrery, who was the grandson of the Duke of Ormonde. Apparently he was abroad until 1681. Master of the Charterhouse, 1685- death. Chaplain in ordinary to the King (William III) and Clerk of the Closet, 1688-92.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Patronage of an Ecclesiatic Official; His close relationship with the family of the Duke of Ormonde secured his mastership of the Charterhouse. Dedicated first part of Telluris theoria sacra to Earl of Winchester, second part to Duke of Ormonde; first part of English translation to Charles II, entire English translation, when all published, to Queen Mary. Dedicated Archaeologiae philosophicae to William III. His intimate friend, John Tilloston, made him Chaplain in Ordinary to the King and Clerk of the Closet in 1688. 
9. Technological Connections: None.
10. Scientific Societies: Informal Connections: Close relationship with Ralph Cudworth, John Tilloston, and Henry More. 

SOURCES: M.H. Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory, pp.184- 270. PR508 .N3N6; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950) 3, 408-10. Mirella Pasini, Thomas Burnet: una storia del mondo tra ragione, mito e rivelazione (Pubblicazioni del Centro di Studi del Pensiero Filosofico del Cinquecento e del Seicento in Relazione ai Problemi della Scienza, 20), (Firenze, 1981).
Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 7, 858-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Ralph Heathcote, life of Burnet, prefaced to the 7th ed. of Sacred Theory of the Earth, 1759. John and John A. Venn, Alumni catagrigienses.


Buteo, Johannes



1. Dates: Born: Charpey (France), ca. 1492; Died: Canar (France), between 1564-1572; Datecode: Both Birth & Death Dates Uncertain Lifespan: 80
2. Father: Aristocrat; His father, a seigneur d'Espenel, was from a noble family of Germany which had twenty children. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France
4. Education: University of Paris; He studied languages and mathematics. In 1522 he was sent to Paris, where he studied under Oronce Finé. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a monk of the order of St. Antoine de Viennois.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Buteo's fame rests only on his books, published after he was sixty years old. His most important book, the Logistica, deals with arithmetic and algebra. In other books he discussed mechanical, arithmetical, and geometrical problems, criticizing errors of many his contemporaries, particularly in terminological questions.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Buteo entered the Abbaye de St.-Antoine about 1508. He was abbot during two of his years there. In 1562, he left the monastery because of the civil war and took refuge in Romans-sur-Isere. He died near there of boredom (according to Moreri, of grief). Shortly after his return to St. Antoine in 1528, he was provided with the commandery of St. Croix-en-Guint. For a short period he was acting abbot of St. Chamond.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Moreri implies that the Dauphin was a patron. Buteo had a nice house from the Dauphin at the abbey but was obliged to flee during the civil war because of the trouble that the strife caused to the royalty, particularly the Dauphin.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments; Moreri says that he was skilled at making musical instruments and new machines. Nouvelle biographie générale says that he invented many mathematical instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: He was a solitary figure. He had no pupils, and his criticism must have estranged other mathematicians.

SOURCES:
L.Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, (Paris, 1740), 2, under 'Botéon, Jean,' 368-9.
Nouvelle biographie générale, 7, 898-9.  Dictionnaire de biographie française, 6, 1115. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: J.A.de Thou, Histoire universelle ... depuis 1543 jusqu'en 1610, The Hague, 1740), III, p.493.




Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

BACK - HOME