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Abreu, Aleixo de

1. Dates: Born: Portugal, 1568; Died: Portugal, 1630; Datecode: Lifespan: 62.
2. Father: Aristocrat; Abreu is said to have been from a noble family; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: Portuguese; Death: Portuguese.
4. Education: University of Evora; M.A. University of Coimbra; M.D. Evora University, 1577-c.83. I assume B.A. M.A. c. 1583; Coimbra University, Licentiate in medicine-list this as M.D.
5. Religion: Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine. Abreu's book on tropical diseases was the first in this field.
7. Means of Support: Governmental office; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage, Medical practice; Initially practiced with little success in Lisbon. Through his father's friendship with Count Duarte de Castelo Branco (of Portuguese government) appointed physician to the governor of Angola in 1594, with annual salary of 24,000 reis. Apparently in Angola until 1603; In Brazil, 1603-6 as physician to governor; served as military surgeon during a Dutch attack. Returned to Portugal, ill, in 1606. In 1612, Physician to the treasury officials with a salary of 10,000 reis, a position he held until 1629. In 1616 Philip III granted him pension of 16,000 reis for services to the crown in Angola and Brazil, and made him physician of his chamber. Abreu also ran a private practice in Lisbon. Dedicated his book to Fray Antonio de Sotomayor, who had been his patient in Lisbon and who was confessor to Philip IV. Sotomayor is described as Abreu's maecenas. Abreu's book is written in Spanish for him.
8. Patronage: Court, Aristocracy, Ecclesiastical Official, Governmental Official.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practice.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Main source is the autobiographical passage at the beginning of his book, Tratado de las siete enfermedades, (Lisbon, 1632). F. Guerra, 'Aleixo de Abreu . . .,' Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71 (1968), 55-69. Dictionary of Brazilian Biography.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Francisco Sousa Viterbo, O licenciado Aleixo d'Abreu, (Porto, 1912). I cannot find this in any library catalogue; I do find reference to Noticia sobre alguno medicos portugueses, 5 vols. (Lisboa, 1895-1915) by Sousa Viterbo.


Acosta, Cristobal



1. Dates: Born: Cape Verde Islands, or possibly a Portuguese possession in Africa,1515; Died: Huelva, Spain, c.1594; Datecode: Death Date Uncertain; Lifespan: 79.
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Portuguese; Career: Portuguese and Spanish; Death: Spanish.
4. Education: Unknown; M.D. There is no apparent record, but no one doubts that Acosta had a university career, and most agree that he proceeded to the license in medicine.
5. Religion: Catholic. Jew. From a converted Jewish family. He lived as a Catholic.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural history, pharmacy, botany; Acosta was one of the pioneers in studying the plants, especially in their pharmaceutical uses, of the orient. His Tractado de las drogas y medicinas de las Indias orientales (dedicated to Burgos) contains systematic, first hand observations on oriental drugs. It acknowledges d'Orta's work but includes plants he did not mention and is illustrated by drawings. He also wrote a Tractado de la yerbas, plantas, frutas y animales (of the East) that is lost. He included (I think in the published work) a description of the oriental elephant. His work on drugs widely translated.
7. Means of Support: governmental office, medical practice. He went to the East Indies before 1550 as a soldier, and visited Persia, India, Malaya, and perhaps China. On this trip, or perhaps on his later one, he met Garcia d'Orta in Goa. After returning to Portugal, he rejoined his former captain, Luiz de Ataide, newly appointed viceroy of India. Arrived in Goa in 1568. Appointed physician to the royal hospital in Cochin, 1569. By 1571, he was collecting botanical specimens in various parts of India. When Ataide ended his term in 1572, Acosta returned to Lisbon with him. Practiced medicine in Burgos, 1576-87. He was the contracted surgeon and then the contracted physician to the city, both positions being well salaried. After the death of his wife (1587?) he retired to a hermitage.
8. Patronage: Aristocracy and City Magistrates; See his relationship with Ataide and the dedication of his book to Burgos (as well as his positions there).
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacy, Medicine.
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Umberto Giulio Paoli, 'Cristobal Acosta e le sue opere,' Archeion, 19 (1937), 317-47. Jacob Seidi, 'The Relationship of Garcia de Orta's and Cristobal Acosta's Botanical Works,' Actes du VIIe Congress International d'Histoire des Sciences, (Paris, 1955), 56407. Harry Friedenwald, The Jews and Medicine, 2 vols. (Baltimore, 1944), Essay XXXI.
M. Ferreira de Mira, Historia da medicina portuguesa. Chincilla, Historia de la medicina española, 2, 51-9.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Joachim Olmedilla y Puig, Estudio historico de . . . Cristobal de Acosta, (Madrid, 1899). I gather that this is primarily a panegyric.


Acosta, Jose de



1. Dates: Born: Medina del Campo, Spain, c.1540; Died: Salamanca, 15 February 1600; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 60
2. Father: No information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Spanish; Career: Spanish; Death: Spanish
4. Education: University of Alcala; D.D. Secondary school at local Jesuit college; University of Alcala. Must have earned B.A. He went on to teach theology in Jesuit colleges and according to one account was offered a place in the Collegio Romano. As a full Jesuit he had to have had a doctorate in theology.
5. Religion: Catholic. Jew. The family were converted Jews.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History, Geography; Subordinate: Natural Philosophy; All of this connected to his Historia natural y moral de la Indias, 1590.
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Acosta was a Jesuit from the age of 26, having been a novice since 12. After university, he taught in Jesuit colleges in Spain. At his own request, sent to New World, in 1572. He was in Peru for fourteen years where he fulfilled various duties for the order. He taught. Ultimately be became the second Provincial of the order in Peru. From Peru to Mexico where he stayed a year. Back to Spain in 87. For the rest of his life he was in various positions for the Jesuits. When he died, he was the Rector of their college in Salamanca.
8. Patronage: Court; When he returned to Spain, Acosta reported at length to Philip II, whose approval, with financial support, he won for the Jesuit college in Lima. In general, he won the favor of the court. The first publication of his book was dedicated to Philip, and the Spanish edition to the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, Philip's much beloved daughter. Acosta's account of the Provincial Council of Lima, over which he presided, was published at Philip's order. He went to Rome as an emissary of Philip to seek a general congregation of the Jesuit order, to consider the problems of the order in Spain. Upon his first trip to Rome (after returning from the New World), Acosta returned to Spain as emissary of the General to the King of Spain. He also won the confirmation of the Jesuit college in Lima by the Pope. (I do not list this.)
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None.

SOURCES:
Jose Maria Lopez Pinero, Ciencia y tecnica en la sociedad espanola de los siglos XVI y XVII, (Barcelona: Labor, 1979), 1, 293-5. José Maria Lopez Piñero, et al., Diccionaria historico de la ciencia moderna en España, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Ediciones Peninsula, 1983). Biographical articles in Diccionario enciclopedico hispano-americano, Enciclopedia universal ilustrada, and Gran enciclopedia RIALP. Francisco Mateos, 'Introduccion,' Obras del P. Jose de Acosta, (Madrid: Atlas, 1954).

Not Available and Not Consulted: L. Lopetegui, El P. Jose de Acosta y las missiones, (Madrid, 1942). Barbara Beddall, 'Father Jose de Acosta . . .' introduction to the Historia, (Valencia: Cultural, 1977). Jose Rodriguez Carracido, some work on Acosta.


Adam of Bodenstein



1. Dates: Born: Karlstadt, 1528; Died: Basel Switzerland, 1577; Datecode: Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Minister; Poor
3. Nationality: Birth: German; In Karlstadt, his father's native city? His father moved around when he was young. Career: Swiss; Death: Swiss; No indication of living anywhere but Basel once he had begun his education
4. Education: University of Basel; Ph.D., M.D. Studied arts and medicine at Basel; he had to have earned a B.A. Doctorate in arts and medicine 1548, Basel.
5. Religion: Sect; Son of Andreas Bodenstein, professor? theologian, visionary (i.e., the father was). Adam appears to have shared much of his religious outlook.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine; Subordinate: Iatrochemistry; Alchemy; Natural History; He was one of the major writers on Paracelsianism. He believed in gold transmutation. He did a little natural history.
7. Means of Support: Academic position, Medical practice; 1548-64, taught medicine at Basel, expelled for heterodoxy. Also practiced medicine.
8. Patronage: Merchant Patronage; His book on Arnald of Villanova was accompanied by a letter 'ad amplissimos et generosos dominos, dominos Fuggeros'
9. Technological Connections: medical practice, and pharmacology; Books on herbs and iatrochemistry.
10. Scientific Societies: 'Active correspondence by which [he] exchanged views and results of [his] scientific activities and discoveries.' Taught Gesner about salmon. No formal societies.

SOURCES:
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Band III, Leipzig 1876, Verlag von Duncker & Humblot; Adam, Melchior, Vitae Medicorum Germanorum, 3rd ed, (Frankfurt 1706), pt4 p.104. Thorndike, Lynn, History of Magic & Experimental Science, vol VI, p. 267 (HPS reading room); Neue Deutsche Biographie. Joecher, 'Rivinus', Allgemeines Gelehrten Lexicon, 3, reprint (Hildesheim 1961). Hirsch, A. Biographishes Lexikon der hervoragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker, 1929.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Gesner, Konrad, Historia Animalium, (Frankfurt 1604), p. 829. Schottenloher, K., Bibliographie zur deutschen Geschichte im Zeitalater der Glaubensspaltung, (1517-1588); Wolf, Rudolf, Biographien zur Kulturgeschichte der Schweiz, 4 Baende, (1858-62).


Agricola, Georgius [Georg Bauer]



1. Dates: Born: Glauchau, Germany, 24 March 1494; Died: Chemnitz, 21 November 1555 Datecode: Lifespan: 61
2. Father: Artisan; Merchant; His father was probably Gregor Bauer, a dyer and woolen draper. Prosperous
3. Nationality: Birth: Glauchau, Germany. Career: Chemnitz, Germany. Death: Chemnitz, Germany.
4. Education: B.A., Univeristy of Leipzig; University of Bologna; University of Padua; M.D. Various schools in Glauchau, Zwickau, and Magdeburg (1511). 1514, matriculated at the University of Leipzig. Received a B.A. in 1515. 1523, returned to Leipzig to study medicine under Heinrich Stromer von Auerbach. 1524-6, studied in Bologna, Venice, and probably Padua. When he returned to Germany he is said to have had an M.D., though I don't know yet where from.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: Metallurgy, Mineralogy, Medicine. Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology; Famous for De re metallica, (posthumous, 1556), and De natural fossilium, 1546. He was a pioneer in the study of the diseases of miners. As a result of the plague, he published De peste, 1554. He studied the pharmacological uses of minerals.
7. Means of Support: Medicine, Merchant, Magistrate; Secondary Means of Support: Academic appointment, Schoolmaster, church living. 1515-17, a lecturer in elementary Greek at Leipzig. 1517, chosen as ludi moderator, and then rector extraordinarius (1519), at the school at Zwickau. These positions have been called equivilant to vice principal and principal. 1523, to support him during his second period of study he was endowed with a prebend of the St. Erasmus altar for three years by the council of Zwickau. He spent three years at Bologna and Venice as a member of the editorial staffs of the Aldina editions of Galen and Hippocrates. 1527-30, he was elected town physician and apothecary of St. Joachimstal, Czechoslovakia. 1533, he returned to Chemnitz to be town physician. His knowledge of mining allowed him to speculate in mining shares, which he did with great success. By 1542 he is said to have been one of the 12 richest inhabitants of Chemnitz. He was elected Burgher, and appointed mayor for 4 one-year terms (1546, 1548, 1551, & 1553), and was sent on numerous diplomatic missions (more under patronage). 1551, he visited St. Joachimstal for a few weeks and gave a 5000 taler credit to the Counts Schlick to promote prospecting.
8. Patronage: Court, City Magistrates. Duke Henry of Brunswick consulted with him on mining matters. Georg the whiskered appointed him historiographer to the court of Saxony, apparently with hoping to discover territorial claims on territories of hiers-at-law. Agricola spent twenty years working on this problem off and on. Far and away his greatest patron was Georg's successor Duke Moritz. Most of his books are dedicated to Moritz or his successor Augustus. In 1543, Moritz presented him with a house and plot in Chemnitz, and granted him special exemptions from municipal laws. Agricola was called to special diplomatic and advisory service in 1546, after the war of Schmalkalden had broken out. Thereafter, Argricola was heavily involved in the Duke's diplomacy, making him a rare Catholic representative at the protestant court. He attended the Diet of Freiburg (1546), the Council of Dresden (1546), the Diets of Leipzig (1547, 1549, & 1553), the Diets of Torgau (1550 & 1555), the Diet of Leipzig (1553), and the Diet of Dresden (1553). He was also sent on diplomatic missions to the Emperor Charles and King Ferdinand of Austria. In addition Moritz appointed him mayor of Chemnitz four times (1546, 1548, 1551, & 1553). However, after Agricola died, Moritz, sensing religious tensions, ordered that his burial in the parish plot at Chemnitz, an honor traditionally conferred on mayors, be denied. Through the intervention of his old friend Julius von Pflug, bishop of Zeitz-Naumberg, he was interred at the cathedral at Zeitz. (I do not list this.)
9. Technological Connections: Metallurgy, Medicine, Pharmacology; He practiced medicine as town physician to two towns. It is noted that he worked day and night during the plague of 1551-1552.
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
Guembel, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 1, 143-145. Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960) 1, 149-150. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960) 1, 323-324. Herbert Clark Hoover and Lou Henry Hoover, intro. to Gregorius Agricola, De re metallica (The Mining Magazine, 1912; repr. Dover, 1950) [TN617.A341]; Helmut Wilsdorf, Georg Agricola und seine Zeit [Gregorius Agricola-Ausgewaehlte Werke, vol.1] (Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1956). 

Not available in time to be consulted: Georg Agricola, Bermannus (Le mineur). Un dialogue sur les mines, ed. and trans. Robert Halleux and Albert Yans, (Paris, 1990).


Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius [Agrippa von Nettesheim]



1. Dates: Born: Nettesheim (?), near Cologne, 14 Sep 1486; Died: Grenoble or Lyon, ca. 18 February 1535; Datecode: Lifespan: 49
2. Father: Unknown; His father, Heinrich von Nettesheim, was a citizen of Cologne. Agrippa inflated his family's nobility from around 1526, leading early biographers to conclude that the title 'von' indicated nobility or knighthood. No information on financial status
3. Nationality: German; France; Germany; Italy; France; Birth: (Nettesheim?), near Cologne, Germany. Career: France, Germany, Italy; Death: Grenoble and Lyon, France
4. Education: University of Cologne; M.A. 1499, enrolled at Cologne, where he studied law, medicine, 'magic sciences,' and theology. He received an M.A. I assume then a B.A. 1506, he went to Paris to study. He probably did not have an M.D., but he claimed to have one.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed).
6. Scientific Disciplines: Occult Philosophy; Alchemy; Medical Practioner; 
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage. Secondary Means of Support: Government Position; After 1506, he went in military service to Catalonia. After a shadowy military adventure there, he wandered to Barcelona, Naples, Avignon, and Dôle. 1509, in Dôle he set up a laboratory for the alchemical production of gold. He sought to gain favor with princess Margaret. He later gave lectures (I presume at the university) on Johann Reuchlin's De verbo mirifico. Whether he came to give these lectures on account of his knowledge of the Cabbala or due to Margaret's favor is not known. Eventually, anti-semitic pressure from the Franciscans forced him to stop lecturing on the Cabbala and to flee to England. 1510, he spent a short time in London with John Colet. He then returned to Cologne and held theological disputations; 1511-18, living in northern Italy, probably earning a living as an alchemist. Contrary to standard reports, he does not appear to have served in the emperor's army or on the council in Milan. During this period he was trying to secure a university position, especially at Pavia (where he expounded hermetic writings in 1515) or Turin (where he lectured on theology). He lived cost-free with his wife and child in Casale thanks to the generosity of a fellow Cabbalist, Marchese del Monferrat. Still, he looked elsewhere for help and protection. 1517, still living as a vagrant, he delivered a lobrede to the Duke of Savoy, most probably fishing for patronage. 1518-20, he finally had an honest job as a public advocate and defense lawyer in Metz. 1520, he went to Geneva, where he practiced medicine. 1523-4, he practiced medicine in Fribourg without a qualification. According to the D.S.B. he was a salaried town physician. At any rate, he left the city in 1524. 1524, he became physician to the queen-mother at the court of King Francis I in Lyons. He also appears to have been court astrologer. He wrote a work on artillery for the king and a book on marriage for his sister, the queen of Navarre. The queen-mother left Lyons when the king was imprisoned in Italy, made vague promises of employment in Paris, and then left without paying Agrippa. This left him destitute and he even began trying to make gold again. He found another patron in Connétable de Bourbon, who subsequently died at the sack of Rome (1527). An unidentified merchant from Genoa with contacts in the Netherlands gave him enough support so that he could take his family to Paris for recuperation, and eventually leave for the Netherlands with some money in his pocket. He settled in Antwerp and attemted to get the position of court physician to Queen Margaret of Austria. He failed, but worked in Antwerp as a physician, especially during the plague, and made some good money at it. Eventually he was banned from practicing medicine without a permit by the medical faculty. 1530, he moved to Mecheln, the town where Queen Margaret had her court, and worked as court historian. 1531, he was put in debtor's prison. Cardinal Campeggio, Cardinal Lamarck, and Count Wied, the Lutheran archbishop of Cologne, helped him to escape. 1532, he fled to Cologne to the court of the archbishop. 1532, he set up a house in Bonn. 1535, he travelled to Lyons, where he was imprisoned. He escaped to Grenobles, where he died.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; . With the patronage of the Anthony I, archbishop of Besançon, he established an alchemical laboratory in Avignon. The archbishop also appears to have helped him lecture in Dôle. Margaret, queen of Austria and Mistress of Dôle and Burgundy (see text above). Francis I (see text above). Count Hermann von Wied, archbishop of Cologne, assisted him to escape from prison and sheltered him thereafter. Chapuys was a patron. He comissioned Agrippa to write a pamphlet against Henry VIII. Connétable de Bourbon (see text above).
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; I can't take that supposed book on military engineering seriously.
10. Scientific Societies: In Paris (I assume around 1506) he founded a secret society whose members were sworn to help eachother advance through astrology, magic, the Cabbala, and alchemy.

SOURCES:
Heinrich Grimm, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1953), 1, 105-106. Fritz Mauthner, ed., introduction to Agrippa von Nettesheim, Die Eitelkeit und Undsicherheit der Wissenschaften und die Verteidigungsschuft, (Munich: Georg Müller, 1913), pp. vi-xlv. [B781.A3 I48].

Note: Agrippa is difficult because he was a self-aggrandizing liar. I have relied primarily on Mauthner.


Aguilon, Francois d'



1. Dates: Born: Brussels, 1567; I am accepting the date in Ziggelaar. Several sources (de Backer, Biographie nationale, Moreri) say 1566. DSB has a misprint here-1546. Died: Antwerp, 20 March 1617; Datecode: Lifespan: 50
2. Father: Aristocrat; The family was a distinguished Spanish noble family. The father, Pedro Aguilo'n, was secretary to Philip II during an embassy to France. Nothing is said about the economic status of the family. It had to have been affluent at the least. Note that he was probably a self-supporting novice in the Jesuit order, living outside the crowded house in Tournai.
3. Nationality: Birth: Brussels, Belgium; Career: Belgium; Death: Antwerp, Belgium
4. Education: University of Douai; University of Salamanca; M.A., D.D. He studied three years in the Jesuit Collège de Clermont in Paris (clearly secondardy level for Aguilon). He then went to Douai for two years, and having completed the course in humanities, he began to study philosophy. (This would be the beginning of university level study.) After eight months this course of study was interrupted in 1686, and he was sent to Tournai for his novitiate. He returned to Douai in 1588 to study philosophy and mathematics (probably under Laurent Delepré, S.J.) M.A. in 1590. He completed theological studies in Salamanca in 1592. I interpret this to mean a doctorate in theology, as would be standard for a Jesuit.
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Jesuit. He took his vows in 1588 and was ordained in 1596.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Optics, Mathematics. Only work: Opticorum libri sex, (Antwerp, 1613). 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Personal Means. He became a Jesuit in 1586. After having taught syntax and logic, and then theology, he was charged with organizing the teaching of the exact sciences in Belgium. 1590-1: taught philosophy at Douai; professor of philosophy there in 1596. 1598: left Douai to be confessor to the Italians and Spaniards in Antwerp. 1598-1608: procurator (treasurer) of the Jesuits in Antwerp. 1600: counsellor to the rector (of the Jesuits) in Antwerp. 1605: 'admonitor' to the rector. 1611: vice-rector. 1614-16: rector of the Jesuits in Antwerp. During the years in Antwerp Aguilon may have substituted occasionally as a teacher, but teaching was by no means his primary duty. 1591-2: Aguilon returned to Spain to settle the family affairs. We know that he had an argument with his brother about the inheritance, but we do not know how much Aguilon received. In 1599, in accordance with his vows, Aguilon had to renounce his possessions and the right to inherit them. At that time he gave 300 ducats (considered a large sum) to the Jesuit College at Pamplona.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Government Official; Aguilon dedicated his Opticorum libri to Inigo Borgia, the commander of the Spanish fortress at Antwerp (and I gather governor of the Spanish Netherlands). Inigo Borgia was the great grandson (this is what it says) of St. Francisco de Borgia, the third General of the Society of Jesus. Within the order, Aguilon's immediate superior, Carlo Scribani, the son of an Italian noble, was Aguilon's friend and may have led the way to Aguilon to succeed him as rector. After some hesitation, I am not listing this as a form of patronage, although it obviously verges on it.
9. Technological Connections: Architecture; It appears that Aguilon was the originator of St. Ignatius (later St. Charles) in Antwerp, perhaps in cooperation with a lay brother, Peter Huyssens, an accomplished architect. Aguilon was certainly responsible for the first phases of construction. He worked on other architectural projects.
10. Scientific Societies: None Known.

SOURCES:
E. Quetelet,'Aiguillion' in Biographie Nationale, I, pp. 140-2, (Brussels, 1866). L. Moreri, Dictionaire historique, (Paris, 1749), I, p. 190. Augustin de Backer, Bibliothéque des écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus, 2nd ser., 2 (Liége, 1854). Joseph MacDonnell, Jesuits Geometers, (Vatican City, 1989). August Ziggelaar, Francois d'Aguilon, (Rome, 1983), esp Chapter II, 'The Life of François de Aguilon.' This is easily the best source on Aguilon.


Alberti, Salomon



1. Dates: Born: Naumburg, Germany, 30 October 1540; Died: Dresden, 29 March 1600; Datecode: Lifespan: 60
2. Father: Engineer; His father Johannes, was an engineer and master-builder, who died in 1542. His mother, the daughter of the mayor of Naumburg, was left quite poor, so the city council of Nuremberg (where they were living by then) took care of the boy, paying his expenses and enabling him to study at Wittenberg.
2. Nationality: Birth: Naumburg, Germany; Career: Germany; Death: Dresden, Germany
3. Education: University of Wittenburg; M.D. He had his elementary education at Naumburg, then studied medicine at Wittenberg, getting M.D. in 1574. I assume a B.A. or its equivalent. 
4. Religion: Lutheran (assumed)
5. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy, Medicine Most noteworthy achievement was the study of the venous valves. He was the first to provide illustrations of venous valves in Tres orationes (Nuremberg, 1585). Having studied the lacrimal apparatus, he published De lacrimis in 1581. He also provided an extended account of the ileocecal valve, the cochlea, and, as an original contribution, the renal papillae. In Oratio de surditate et mutitate (Nuremberg, 1591), he discussed the problem of deafness and muteness. His treatise De achorbuto, published in the same year, was led by his interest in the problem of scurvy.
6. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; He taught in the medical faculty at Wittenberg for many years, and became physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Saxony in 1592. There he was dean of the philosophical faculty, thrice dean of the medical faculty, and also thrice rector of the University. He was physician to Duke Friedrich Wilhelm from 1592-1600.
7. Patronage: Court; Duke of Saxony.
8. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner. 
9. Scientific Societies: None Known.

SOURCES:
Lynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Experimental Science, 6, pp.229-230. Claudius F. Mayer, 'Bio-bibliography of XVI Century Medical Authors. Fasciculus I, Abarbanel-Alberti, S.,' Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Library, ser. 4, 3rd supp., (Washington, D.C., 1941). Z6676 .U5; Aug. Hirsch, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 1, 214. Magnus Schmid, Neue deutsche Biographie (Berlin, 1952- ) 1, 141-2. Christian Gottlob Joecher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1750-1751; repr., Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 1, 209-10. Johann Christoph Adelung, Forsetzungen und Ergaenzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Joechers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexicon (Leipzig, 1784-1897; repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1960), 1, 460-1. W. Friedensburg, Geschicht de Universität Wittenberg, (1917), passim.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Georg Andewas Will, Nurnbergisches Gelehrten-lexicon, 1, (Nuremberg, 1755).


Albinus, Bernard



1. Dates: Born: Dessau, 7 January 1653; Died: Leiden, 7 September 1721; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Magistrate; Aristocrat; Burgermeister in Dessau. Lindeboom says that the family was enobled by the Emperor, Ferdinand III in 1656, and at that time Latinized their original name, Weiss. It seems clear that at the very least they were affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dessau, Anhalt, Germany; Career: Germany, Netherlands; Death: Leiden, Netherlands
4. Education: University of Leiden; M.D. University of Frankfurt (an Oder); PD; First educated by a private tutor and later attended the public school, and later followed his teacher to Bremen. Entered the University of Leiden in 1675; M.D., at Leiden, 1676. Ph.D., awarded by the University of Frankfurt-an-der-Oder, 1681. This degree seems funny; it came shortly after Albinus joined the faculty at Frankfurt, where he would soon be the object of exceptional patronage from the Elector. Nevertheless, since it was not years later, I will count it.
5. Religion: Protestant. Nothing at all is said about his religion. He had to have been Protestant in view of his career, and Anhalt was Protestant. Perhaps one could infer he was Calvinist from the appointment at Leiden, but by the 18th century I doubt it. Anhalt had been Calvinist during the first half of the 17th century, but ceased to be shortly before Albinus' birth.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medical Practioner; With Boerhaave, he was responsible for the fame of Leiden as a world center of the study of medicine, but his publications were not of importance.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Medical Practioner; After his degree he settled briefly in Dessau, where he must have practiced. Professor of medicine at the University of Frankfurt-an-der-Oder, 1681. A couple of sources state that the skill he showed in his practice in Frankfurt led to his appointment by the Elector. Let me add that Boerhaave, in his funeral oration for Albinus, called him one of the most skilled and accomplished physicians. Very soon after the appointment in Frankfurt he was appointed court physician to the Elector of Brandenburg, Freidrich Wilhelm, and lived in Berlin where he was also a privatae counsellor to the Elector until his death in 1688. He returned to Frankfurt. In 1694 the University of Groningen offered him a chair in medicine. The Elector Friedrich increased his salary at Frankfurt to get him to stay, and in 1697 appointed him as his personal physician. Professor of theoretical and practical medicine at the University of Leiden, 1702-1721. The appointment, which of course involved the agreement of the King (as he now was) of Prussia for him to leave, was the result of extensive, high level diplomatic negotiations. Lindeboom says that the Curator of the University of Leiden sent an extaordinary ambassador to Berlin to negotiate. Surely this would have been rather the State of Holland. At Leiden Albinus received an unusually high salary.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; The Elector of Brandenburg, see above. In addition to what is there, Friedrich bestowed a prebend in the cathedral of Magdeburg on him, and allowed him to sell the position for cash. When he left, Friedrich gave him a gold medal of great value. See also the favors from the government of Holland. 
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
A Hirsch, 'Bernhard Albinus' in Algemeine deutsche Biographie, I, 1875, pp.221-222. G.A. Lindeboom, Dutch Medical Biography, pp. 9-10. Neue deutsche Biographie Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek. A.J. van der Aa, 'Bernard Albinus' in Biografisch woordenboek de Nederlanden, I, 156-7.

Not Consulted: F. Chaussier and N.P.Adelon, 'Bernard Albinus' in Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, 1, (1843), p.346.


Aldrovandi, Ulisse



1. Dates: Born: 11 September, 1522; Died: 4 May 1605; Datecode: Lifespan: 83
2. Father: Lawyer; Government Position; Teseo Aldrovandi, a notary (lawyer) and secretary to the Senate of Bologna. He died when Ulisse was only seven. It is clear that the family was poor while Ulisse was growing up, and remained so until the election of Pope Gregory XIII, from the family of Ulisse's mother, around 1570. Ulisse was apprenticed as a scribe to a merchant when he was fourteen-though he did not stay long in that position.
3. Nationality: Birth: Bologna, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Bologna, Italy 
4. Education: University of Bologna; University of Padua; M.D., Ph.D. In Bologna he studied mathematics under Annibale della Nave, Latin under Giovanni Gandolfo, then Law and Philosophy. There was plenty of independent roaming, mostly before his serious academic study. Studied medicine and mathematics at Padua, 1548-9. He carried legal studies to the point of almost taking a doctorate in the mid 40's. M.D., 1553 at Bologna. Ph.D., 1553 (in the usual Italian style) at Bologna. 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was charged (along with others from Bologna) with heresy around 1550, but was found innocent upon the election of a new pope. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History; Botany; Zoology; Subordinate Disciplines: Entomology; Mineralogy; Pharmacology; Carried out studies in several fields of natural history: especially botany, but also teratology, embryology, icthyology, mineralogy, and ornithology, and published 12 books on natural history from 1600 through 1668 (that is, most of the large work appeared after his death). He and Coiter were the first to examine the development of the chick in the egg day by day. (In most accounts of his work, however, this does not bulk large.) He was responsible for the founding of the botanical garden in Bologna in 1568, of which he was the director. He helped significantly with the pharmacopoeia of Bologna. He collected the outstanding museum of natural history of his time.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Schoolmaster; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Law; For a time in the early 40's, Aldrovandi practiced as a notary (i.e, lawyer) to earn a living. He abandoned law as soon as his economic means permitted. In 1553 he was admitted to the Collegio dei Dottori of Bologna, a membership entitled him practice medicine (though I have seen no evidence that he did practice) and teach in the university. He was also appointed a teacher of logic and philosophy in the university of Bologna. He became professor of the history of 'simples' in 1556-7, and received a full professorship in 1561. Aldrovandi himself mentions lots of private lessons. I consider the directorship of the botanical garden as a governmental position. He was also the medical examiner (protomedico) of Bologna.
8. Patronage: Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; Rondolet and Ghini (both about 1549) befriended Aldrovandi and introduced him to natural history. There is no indication in what I have read of more than intellectual stimulation here, and I am not considering this as patronage. Pope Gregory XIII (who was a member of the family of Aldrovandi's mother) granted him a large sum of money to aid him in the publication of his works. He received other support from Gregory and from Sixtus. Aldrovandi was invited to a chair in Rome, but Gregory died before arrangements were completed. In building up the botanical garden in Bologna, Aldrovandi was in constant conflict with the College of Medicine; he was able to prevail because of the support of the Pope and of the Senate of Bologna. Owed his teaching position to his uncle, a senator. Aldrovandi's autobiography frequently mentions interventions of the Senate in his career at the university and he owed his professorship to the Senate; I assume the uncle was active in all such cases. As with the support of the Pope, this case is filled with ambiguity, but I am counting both as patronage. The autobiography also mentions other well placed men with whom Aldrovandi was familiar. Cardinals of the Church were godfathers to his children. Through the intervention of such men, including the Grand Duke of Tuscany, he received a large sum (from the city, I assume) for the botanical garden. Mazzuchelli mentions support from Card. Montalto (Alessando Peretti, Aldrovandi's nephew), the Duke of Urbino, Giovanni Battista Campeggio, the Bishop of Baleari, and Giovanni Vincenzio Pinelli. From the Grand Duke of Tuscany he also received, as a gift, much material for his museum. He dedicated the first volume of Ornithology to Clement VII, and volume 2 and 3 to Cardinal Montalto. Aldrovandi states in the dedication that without the Cardinal's monetary support he would not have been able to publish the volumes. He decidate Insects to the Duke of Urbino. After his death the Senate of Bologna, because of the advantage to the republic of learning if his papers on natural history were published, paid annual stipends to two successive men to publish Aldrovandi's works. (Mazzuchelli, 1, pt. 1, 405.)
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; He did not practice medicine, but he was much involved in questions of pharmacology.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Collegio dei Dottori, 1553. Later was was usually in conflict with the college. He corresponded with the leading botanists of Europe.

SOURCES:
L. Frati, 'La vita di U.Aldrovandi' in Intorno alla vita e alle opere di Ulisse Aldrovandi, (Bologna,1907). Also other articles in this volume. G.B. De Toni, in Aldo Mieli, Gli scienziati italiani, (Roma, 1923), pp. 328-36. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901). G. Montalenti in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 2, 118-24. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 1, 403-8. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 17-19. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed,(1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical. 

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Fantuzzi, Memoria sulla e sulle opere di U.Aldrovandi, (Bologna, 1774). It is not quite true that this was not consulted; it is effectively included in the Frati article.


Alpini [Alpino], Prospero



1. Dates: Born: Marostica (Vicenza), 23 November 1553; Died: Padua, 23 November 1616; Datecode: Lifespan: 63
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Francesco Alpino, an eminent physician. As always, I assume that such were affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Marostica (Vicenza), Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Padua, Italy
4. Education: University of Padua; M.D., Ph.D. Educated in University of Padua, 1574-8. M.D., 1578; Ph.D. 1578. Alpini was a prominent student, elected to various offices in the university.
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany, Medicine; Pharmacology; Subordinate Disciplines: Natural History; Zoology; Main works: De plantis Aegypti, (1592) a pioneering study of Egyptian flora that introduced exotic plants to European botanical circles. He had already published De balsamo dialogus (1591), which was on a specific plant. As a physician he was greatly interested in the pharmacological properties of the plants. De rerum aegyptarum, published long after Alpini's death, was a pioneering contribution of Aegyptology. It was more about Egyptian natural history than anything else. De medicina Aegyptiorum (1591) was one of the earliest studies of non-European medicine. De praesagienda vita (1601) was a detailed study of prognostics. There were other publications in medicine and botany. Bk IV of De rerum aegyptarum describes many of the animals of Egypt.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Physician; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Schoolmaster; He practiced medicine in Camposampiero (near Padua) for a short time (1578-80) with a stipend from the municipal government, but then became physician to Giorgio Emo, the Venetian consul to Cairo, in 1580. After a hard trip, he arrived in Cairo in 1581 and remained there until 1584. After his return from Egypt, he practiced for a time in Bassano. About 1587 he became personal physician to Andrea Doria in Genoa, where he also had a private practice. He returned to Venice in 1590. He was elected by the Venetian Senate to be lettore dei semplici at the University of Padua in 1594, and became director of the botanical garden at Padua in 1603. Like all professors at Padua, he gave private lessons. He continued to be active as a physician in Padua.
8. Patronage: Aristocrat; Giorgio Emo and Andrea Doria; see above. Antonio Morosini, a friend of the family to whom Alpini dedicated De medicina aegyptiorum, recommended him to Emo. When Alpini was pursuing appointment in Padua, he dedicated his De balsamo dialogus (1591) to the Riformatori (in effect the Trustees) of the university. He republished it, with the same dedication in 1592. He was appointed in 1594. In 1601, the year of his reappointment, he dedicated De praesagienda vita to the Riformatori.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; Pharmacology; 
10. Scientific Societies: His master was Melchiore Guilandino, the second director of the otanical garden at Padua. Alpini carried on correspondence with other naturalists, in Italy and abroad.

SOURCES:
Augusto Beguinot,' Prospero Alpini' in Aldo Mieli, ed., Gli scienziati italiani dall'inizio del medio evo ai nostri giorni, I, pt. I (Rome, 1921), pp.84-90. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901). Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Giuseppe Ongaro, 'Contributi alla biografia di Prospero Alpini,' Acta medicae historiae patavina, 8-9 (1961-2 and 1962-3), 82-128. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 1, 518-21. Pietro Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVII, 2 vols. (Rome, 1925-28), 1, 20-3. In the copy I have, vol. 1 is from the second ed,(1932) and vol. 2 from the first (1928). I gather that pagination in the two editions is not identical.

Not Available and Not Consulted: G. Fasoli and C. Cappelletti, ' Prospero Alpini(1553-1616)' in Rassegna trimestrale di odontoiatria, 41 (1960) pp. 597-613. G.B. Marangoni, Prospero Alpino, cenno biografico-scientifico, (Bassano, 1897).


Amontons, Guillaume



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 31 August 1663; Died: Paris, 11 October 1705; Datecode: Lifespan: 42
2. Father: Lawyer; His father was a lawyer from Normandy who settled in Paris. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Paris, France; Career: France; Death: Paris, France
4. Education: None Known; Amontons studied physical sciences, mathematics, and celestial mechanics. He also studied drawing, surveying, architecture.
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mechanics, Instrumentation Published his only book, Remarques et experiences physiques sur la construction d'une nouvelle clepsydre (Paris, 1695), and many papers. Main contributions are made in experimental physics and scientific instruments.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; He was employed on various public works projects. He became a member of the Académie.
8. Patronage: Scientist. Amontons tried out his optical telegraph in the presence of the royal family sometime between 1688 and 1695. There is no evidence that anything came of this. He dedicated his only book, Remarques & experiences physiques sur la construction d'une nouvelle clepsydre, sur les barometres, thermometres, & hydrometres, to the Académie des Sciences.
He was proposed as a member of the Académie by LeFévre.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Civil Engineer; Navigation; Mechanical Devices. Hygrometer, 1687; Optical telegraph, 1688-1695. I am listing this under Civil Engineering. Cisternless barameter, 1695; Air themometer independent of the atmospheric pressure, 1695. Thermic motor, 1699; He proposed that his Clepsydra could be used to keep time at sea. 
10. Scientific Societies: Académie des Sciences. He was one of the membre premier titulaire of the reformed Académie in 1690. He was 'elevated' by the astronomer LeFévre.

SOURCES:
Maurice Daumas, Les instruments scientifique aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles, (Paris, 1953).  No biographical information. Bernard le Bovier de Frontenelle, 'Eloge de M. Amontons' in Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences (1705), pp. 189-94. Académie des Sciences, Index biographique de l'Académie des Sciences, (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1979), p. 106.


Andreae, Johann Valentin



1. Dates: Born: Herrenberg, Württemberg, 17 August 1586; Died: Stuttgart, 27 June 1654 Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Church Living; His father was Mag(ister). Johann Andreae, a Lutheran minister. He was pastor at Hagelloch (1576-1578), pastor at Moessingen (1578-1582), superintendant at Herrenberg (1582-1591), and an evangenical abbot at Koenigsberg (1591-1601). He is said to have neglected his family and his ministry to pursue his interest in alchemy. He died in 1601. After the death of his father, his mother, Maria Moser Andreae, moved the family to Tübingen where she supported her children by her pharmaceutical activity, especially in her position of court apothecary.
3. Nationality: Birth: Herrenberg, Wuerttemberg, Germany. Career: (Primarily Calw), Wuerttemberg, Germany. Death: Stuttgart, Wuerttemberg, Germany.
4. Education: B.A., University of Tübingen; M.A., University of Tübingen; Early education at home in Koenigsbronn. 1601, entered the University of Tübingen. Received his B.A. (1601), and M.A. (1605). He began to study theology, but was expelled in 1607 for associating with students found guilty of having relations with prostitutes. 1607-12, Wanderjahre: visited Strasbourg (then the center of alchemical publishing) in 1606, then Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Mainz, Lauingen (1607), and Dillingen. 1608, returned to Tübingen, and spent two years as a tutor to two young noble brothers. By 1610, he was preparing for a theological disputation under Andreas (II) Osiander, when the city was hit by plague. He then travelled to Bern, Fribourg, Lausanne, and arrived finally at Geneva (1611). He then visited Lyon, Paris, Zuerich, Basel, Tübingen (where he served for a short time as a tutor), Venice, Padua, Verona, Rome, and Augsburg. 1612-14, returned to Tübingen and studied theology at the Tübingen Stift. He was ordained in 1614. 1641, made doctor of theology at Tübingen (honorary).
5. Religion: Lutheran
6. Scientific Disciplines: Alchemy; Subordinate Disciplines: astrology, mathematics
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Secondary Means of Support: Schoolmaster; 1607-12, period of extensive travel interrupted stints at tutoring in Teubingen. 1614-20, 'deacon' (roughly: assistant parson) at Vaihingen/Enz. 1620-38, Spezialsuperintendent (chief pastor) at Calw. 1639-50, Hofprediger (court preacher) and Konigstorialrat (councillor) at Stuttgart, where he was in charge of rebuilding the church after the terrible destruction wrought by Catholic forces. 1650, withdrew to Bebenhausen as Generalsuperintendent and evangelical abbot. 1654, given the titulary appointment of abbot of Adelberg, which had been destroyed. This permitted him to retire to Stuttgart.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; 1638, Eberhard III, whose return to Wuerttemberg Andreae had negotiated the previous year, offered him the choice of a chair of theology at Tübingen or the position of constitorial councillor and court preacher at Stuttgart. He accepted the offer (the latter position) after hesitation. Primary patron: Duke August of Braunschweig-Lueneburg. Andreae dedicated his Rei Christianae and Literariae subsidia (1642) to him. August underwrote his doctoral promotion, and upon receiving the dedication he responded with a gift of 100 imperials and shortly thereafter appointed Andreae as one of his ecclesiastical councillors at a salary of 400 imperials per year. In the summer of 1553, August sent a special litter in the hope that the terminally-ill Andreae would make it from Bebenhausen to the court at Wolfenbuettel. When Andreae finally retired in Stuttgart, August provided a house for his use.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: None

SOURCES:
John Warwick Montgomery, Cross and Crucible: Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654), Phoenix of the Theologians, vol. 1 )The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973), section two: 'Andreae's Life from the Sources,' pp. 23-111.


Angeli, Stefano degli



1. Dates: Born: Venice, 21 September 1623; Died: Venice, 11 October 1697; Datecode: Lifespan: 74
2. Father: No information. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Venice, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Venice, Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; Studied mathematics in the University of Bologna. The fact is, I find no mention of a degree.
5. Religion: Catholic. Angeli entered the Order of the Jesuates of Saint Jerome. After the Jesuates were suppressed in 1668, he became a secular priest.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics, Mechanics, Physics Works: De infinitorum spiralium spatiorum mensura, (Venice, 1660). De infinitorum cochlearum, (Venice, 1661). De infinitorum parabolis, (Venice, 1654). Della gravita dell aria e fluidi, (Padua, 1671-2). And quite a bit more mathematics. In a series of dialogues, Angeli considered the motions of falling bodies on a turning earth-in polemics with Borelli and Riccioli.
7. Means of Support: Academic; Church Living; Reader of literature, philosophy and theology in the faculty of his order at Ferrara, 1644. He was transferred to Bologna in 1645, and here he was influenced by Cavalieri. He was Rector of a Jesuate house in Rome, 1647-52. Prior of the monastery of the Jesuates in Venice, and then for a time provincial definer (whatever that may have been), 1652-1668; Professor of mathematics at University of Padua, 1662-1697.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; City Magistrate; Court Patronage; In about 1660, when Angeli was seeking the chair in Padua, he dedicated one book to the Riformatori of the university, and another (De infinitorum spatiorum mensura) to Card. Barbarigo, a Venetian patrician influential with the Riformatori. He got the appointment in 1662. In 1659 he dedicated a book of mathematics to the Senate of Bologna. In 1661 he dedicated a book to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and apparently to his brother Leopold. Angeli's letters to them (published in the Michieli article) make clearer the expectations from a dedication than anything else I have seen.
9. Technological Connections:
10. Scientific Societies: He carried on an extensive correspondence that included Cavalieri, Torricelli, Viviani, Ricce, et al. With Rizzetti, his student, he discussed the latest developments in science.

SOURCES:
M.Gliozzi, 'Angeli, Stefano degli' in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 3, Rome, 1961, pp. 205-06. A. Favaro, Amici i correspondetti di Galileo, pp. 989, 1051, 1054, 1072, 1138, 1146. A.A. Michieli, 'Un maestro di Iacopo Riccati,' Atti di Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 107, 2 (1948-9), 73-81. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2, 740-2.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: J.E.Montucla, Histoire des mathematiques, (Paris, 1758), I, p. 537, II, p. 69; P. Magrini, Sulla vita e sulle opere del P. Stefano degli Angeli, (Rome, 1866).
G. Favaro, 'I successori di Galileo nello studio di Padova,' Nuovo archivo veneto, n.s. 33, (1917), 117-21.


Anguillara [Squalermo], Luigi



1. Dates: Born: Anguillara (Sabazia) ca.1512; Died: Ferrara, 5 September 1570; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 58
2. Father: Physician; Francesco Squalermo, physician to Leo X. I assume that he was reared in affluent circumstances. However, there are contradictions in his career. He had no university education. Conceivably his father died while he was young. I find nothing said.
3. Nationality: Birth: Anguillara, Sabazia, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Ferrara, Italy
4. Education: None Known; Little is known about his early life. In 1539 he became associated with Luca Ghini at Ghini's private garden in Pisa, where perhaps he received his botanical training. It is clear that he had no university education. 
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Subordinate Disciplines: Pharmacology 
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Government Official; In 1539 he became associated with Luca Ghini at the latter's private botanical garden,first in Bologna, then in Pisa in 1544, 1546-61, the first director of the botanical garden in Padua. 1561-70, herbalist to the Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso II.
8. Patronage: Scientist; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; See above for the roles of Luca Ghini and the Duke of Ferrara. In 1561 he prepared a spice garden for the Duke of Savoy after receiving an invitation from him. He was friendly with the Venetian patrician, Pietro Antonio Michiel, who helped him build up the botanical garden and who defended Anguillara from enemies. 
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; His enterprise in botany gets listed under 'simples,' i.e, the use of plants as medicines. He was known for the preparation of antidotes.
10. Scientific Societies: He was in touch with other botanists such as Aldrovandi, though I find frequent suggestions that they disdained Anguillara because of his lack of education.

SOURCES:
Giovanni Battista De Toni, 'Nuovi documenti intorno Luigi Anguillara, primo prefetto dell'Orto Botanica di Padova,' Atti del Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti, 70 (1910-11), 289-307. Nouvelle biographie générale. Aldo Mieli, Gli scienziati italiani, (Roma, 1923), pp. 76-8. P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901). G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2, 791. What Mazzuchelli says about Anguillara's life before 1546 is in conflict with all other sources and I think should be rejected.


Anthelme, Voituret



1. Dates: Born: Chatenay-Vaudin, France, ca. 1618; Died: Dijon, 14 December 1683; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 65
2. Father: unknown; No information on financial status 
3. Nationality: Birth: Chatenay-Vaudin, France; Career: France; Death: Dijon, France
4. Education: No information 
5. Religion: Catholic. He was a Carthusian monk.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy. Discovered the nova Variable R volpecula in 1672. Publised Explication de la comete and other treatises
7. Means of Support: Church Living; He was a Carthusian monk.
8. Patronage: None Known; 
9. Technological Connections: None Known; 
10. Scientific Societies: Correspondence with Edme Mariotte

SOURCES:
P. Humbert, 'Don Anthelme...,' Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 6 (1949) pp.303-311.  P.Humbert,' Les Astronmers francais de 1610 a 1667,' Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan, Mémoires, 63 (1942), pp.1-72.

Not Available and Not Consulted: P.Delamare, 'Mémoires' in Mémoires commencés en l'an 1682, II, p.73. This is a manuscript in Dijon. There is just not a lot on Anthelme.


Anthonisz, Adriaan



1. Dates: Born: probably in Alkmaar, c.1543; Died: Alkmaar, 20 November 1620 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 77
2. Father: No information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Dutch Career: Dutch Death: Dutch
4. Education: None Known; Nothing known. Before 1571, he married Suida Dircksd
5. Religion: Calvinist
6. Scientific Disciplines: Engineer; Cartography; Mathematics; Subordinate Disciplines: Astronomy, Instrumentation; Already in 1568 he prepared a map of the Berger lake. As a surveyor, he was commission in 1573 to prepare plans for the enlargement and strengthening of the city, and to carry the plans out. In 1578 he was summoned to Utrecht as master of fortification, and in 1579 entrusted by the States of Holland with strengthening of Naarden and Muiden. He had other such tasks in the 1580's. He was the chief of fortifications of the United Netherlands in 86, 87, 88, 90-96, and he did much work on fortification under the Princes of Orange. At the request of the Prince he composed a piece on the quadratuare of the circle in 1584. He did other mathematical work. He also wrote on the calendar, on sun dialing (including the problem of determining latitude from the length of shadows. He wrote as well on the astrolabe.
7. Means of Support: Government Official; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; Magistrate; Cartographer and miltary engineer for the States of Holland. Between 1582 and 1601 elected burgomaster of Alkmaar several times. He was both engineer of the states of Holland and mathematician to the Prince of Orange around 1580.
8. Patronage: Court, City Magistrates.
9. Technological Connections: Military Engineer; Cartography; Instruments; Built fortifications in the war against Spain, and drew charts of cities and military works. He made some sort of instrument that showed the position of the moon.
10. Scientific Societies: None; A friend of the mathematician van Ceulen

SOURCES:
C. de Waard, 'Anthonisz,' Nieuw Nederlandsch Biographisch Woordenboek, I (Leiden, 1911), 155-8.


Apian [Bienewitz or Bennewitz], Peter



1. Dates: Born: Leisig, Saxony, 1495; Died: Ingolstadt, 21 April 1552 Datecode: Lifespan: 57
2. Father: No Information; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality. Birth: Germany Career: Germany Death: Germany
4. Education: Univeristy of Leipzig; Went off to school in Rochlitz. By 1518, at Leipzig. Studied astronomy under Caspar Borner and mathematics under Kalb and Heinrich Stromer. It is not known how long he stayed or what degree he might have achieved. I assume B.A. Studied at Vienna. It is not known how long he stayed, but it was long enough to form a lasting relationship with his teacher Georg Tanstetter.
5. Religion: Catholic
6. Scientific Disciplines: astronomy, mathematics, geography; Subordinate Disciplines: cartography, astrology
7. Means of Support: Academic; Patronage; Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Pub; Stayed in Landshut and Regensburg for undetermined amounts of time, means of support also uncertain. 1527-52, Professor of Mathematics at Ingolstadt. After moving to Ingolstadt Apian became a property owner. He owned his own valuable home in Ingolstadt. In 1547, he bought the manor house at Itlhofen, and was given the hunting rights and judicial authority in the area by the Kurfuerst Friedrich. In 1548, he bought the manor at Brunnstein, and he owned not less than four farms at Kemnath. Founded his own press in Ingolstadt, called in his brother Georg to help run it. It was very busy and had a branch office in Landshut. Among other things, be published maps.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Government Official; Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; 1523, Apian made his first application to the senate at Ingolstadt. He indicated various literary projects which he would be able to realize with the presses in Ingolstadt, hoping at the same time to take advantage of the tax-free status of members of the university, and asked for a loan of 200 fl. to help him publish one of his works. He was denied. 1524, the Chancellor Leonhard von Eck took up Apian's cause, the senate entered into direct negotiations with Apian, and in the next year he received loans of 32, 110, and 30 fl. Apian dedicated his world map of 1530 to von Eck. c. 1527, Leonhard von Eck instigated his hiring at Ingolstadt, at a salary of 100 fl. (his predecessor got 16fl.). 1529, because of his many publishing endeavors, Apian found himself in financial straits and had to ask the senate for a loan of 500 fl. It was denied. In 1530, due to the personal intervention of the Duke Wilhelm IV, it was granted. The Cosmographicus liber is dedicated to the Cardinal-Archbishop of Salzburg. Apian married Katharina, daughter of Thomas Mosner, a councilman from Landshut (Apian's hometown), who was later transferred to Ingolstadt as a member of the senate. Already in 1532, the Kaiser Charles V, who is said to have studied under Apian, granted Apian a privilege ('ein Privileg'). In 1540, Apain dedicated his major work the Astronomicum Caesareum to the `Fuerstenpaar Karl-Ferdinand.' Charles paid for the printing, gave Apian a great sum of money (reportedly 3000 gulden), and in that year Apian was named court mathematician. In 1541, Charles Knighted Apian and his brothers Nikolaus, Georg, and Gregor. A few days later the Cardinal Contarini named him Comes et Miles sacri Palatii et Aulae Lateranensis. In 1544, Apian was knighted as a Hof- and Pfalzgraf (von und zu Ittlkofen) by Charles. This gave him the right to create notaries and registrars, to legitimize illegitimate children (!), and the authority to create doctors, licentiates, bachelors, and poets laureate; He was also supported to some degree by Duke Georg of Saxony.
9. Technological Connections: Instruments, Cartography; Apian made sundials and astronomical instruments, inventing his own quadrant and armillary sphere, and also devoted himself to constructing instruments that would solve spherical-trigonometric problems mechanically. His special form of the quadrant was useful in surveying. Apian was a cartographer, although more an editor and publisher of maps than one who prepared them. In 1520 he did a world map based on the larger Waldseemüller world map. Apian's is the oldest world map that uses the name America. In 1530 he did another world map which was much more his own work. It used the heart projection, which was not however Apian's invention. In 1533 he published a map of Saxony prepared from an earlier one by Sevastianus a Rotenhan. Apian was the first to propose the use of moon distances (I am virtually certain this means the moon's distance from fixed stars) to determine longitudes.
10. Scientific Societies: None known

SOURCES:
Neue deutsche Biographie, 1 (Berlin, 1952), 325-6. S. Guenther, 'Peter und Phillipp Apian: Zwei deutsche Mathematiker und Kartographen,' Abhandlungen der Koeniglich boehmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 6th ser., 11 (1882). Edmond R. Kiely, Surveying Instruments, (New York, 1947), p. 166. Leo Bagrow, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum, 2 vols. Ergänzungsheften Nr. 199 & 210 zu 'Petermanns Mitteilungen,' (Gotha, 1928-30), 1 (Nr. 199), 30-6.


Aranzio [Aranzi], Giulio Cesare



1. Dates: Born: Bologna, ca. 1530 (some sources say ca. 1529); Died: Bologna, 7 April 1589; Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 59
2. Father: Unknown; Medical Practioner; His parents (about whom nothing is known) were poor. He was reared and aided in his medical education by his maternal uncle, Bartolomeo Maggi, lecturer of the university and principal court physician of Julius III. Aranzio tended to call himself Aranzi-Maggi. Given all this, I gather that he grew up in affluent circumstances.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Bologna; He studied medicine at the University of Bologna, and received both M.D. and Ph.D. at Bologna in 1556. He was a favorite pupil of his uncle. 
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy, physiology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine, surgery; He dicovered the pedes hippocamp, the cerebellum cistern, the fourth ventricle, and the arterial duct bewteen the aorta and the pulmonary duct. Aranzio published De humano foetu libellus in 1563, and Liber anatomicarum observationum in 1579. In these he presented the new direction of anatomy, based not mere on simple description of the organs of the body but also on experimental investigation of their functions. His work on the foetus led to advice on delivery. He was the first firm advocate of the lesser circulation of the blood. 
7. Means of Support: Academic; Medical Practioner; Lecturer in medicine and surgery at the University of Bologna, 1556-1570; Professor of surgery and professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, 1570-89. It is said that his works contain the fruits of his medical and surgical practice. I need to add that in the biographies I do not find explicit mention of his practice, however. Nevertheless, by analogy to other doctors, I assume it without hesitation.
8. Patronage: Medical Practioner; Obviously he followed his uncle, and it is impossible to imagine his immediate appointment at the university upon the year of his degree apart from the influence of the uncle. This is a case where family and patronage overlap, but I am going to list it as patronage.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; He performed rhinoplastic surgery.
10. Scientific Societies: Medical College (Any One); Aranzio dedicated his De humani foetu to the College of Medicine in Bologna. He corresponded with Aldrovandi.

SOURCES:
A.L.J. Bayle, et al., Biographie médicale, (Paris, 1855). G.Fantuzzi, 'Aranzio' in Notizie degli scrittori bolognesi, I, (Bologna, 1781) pp. 266-72. A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962), Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2, 932.

Not Available and Not Consulted: U. Cesarano, 'Giulio Cesare Aranzi', in Comune di Bologna, 1 (1929). L. Simeoni, Storia dell'Universita di Bologna, (Bologna, 1940), 2, 7, 24-5, 30, 32, 34, 50-4.


Arbuthnot, John



1. Dates: Born: Arbuthnott (sic), Kincardineshire, Scotland, late April 1667; Baptized 29 April 1667; Died: London, 27 February 1735; Datecode: Lifespan: 68
2. Father: Church Living; Alexander Arbuthnott (sic) was an episcopal clergyman. He refused to subscribe to the Presbyterian settlement in 1687 and was deprived in 1689. No information on economic status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Scottish; Career: English; Death: English
4. Education: University of Aberdeen; Oxford University; University of St Andrews; M.D. Marischal College (Aberdeen), 1681?-5. M.A. 1685. The M.A. was the basic degree in a Scottish university; I count it as equivalent to a B.A. University College, Oxford, 1694-6. Doctor of Medicine by examination from St. Andrews, 1696.
5. Religion: Anglican
6. Scientific Disciplines: Demography; Subordinate Disciplines: Mathematics; Medical Practioner; Arbuthnot was primarily a political satirist. His most important scientific work was a paper in the Philosophical Traqnsactions on the regularity in the proportion of male and female births, a paper that used the calculus of chance without advancing it, a paper more in demography than anything else. He also published (his first publication) The Laws of Chance, 1692, and Essay on the Usefulness of Mathematical Learning, 1701. Toward the end of his career Arbuthnot published several minor works on medicine.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Schoolmaster; Teacher of mathematics in London, 1691-4. In 1694 he entered University College, Oxford, as companion to young Edward Jeffreys, son of a wealthy London alderman and M.P. Here me made some important friends and decided to go into medicine. Immediately upon receiving his degree in medicine, Arbuthnot established a practice in London, which continued until his death as nearly as I can find out. His practice concentrated on the prominent citizens of London. After the chance of being available when Prince George wa seriously ill (and succeeding in curing him), Arbuthnot was appointed Physician Extraordinary to Queen Anne, 1705-9. Appointed Physician in Ordinary to Queen Anne, 1709-14. Appointed to a post in Customs, c.1711. Appointed Physician at Chelsea Hospital, 1713. By all indications, this was a governmental appointment. Appointed Second Censor by the Royal College of Physicians, 1723. (I greatly doubt that this entailed income.)
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official; See his relationship with Jeffreys above. By Queen Anne's command he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to the Queen in 1705 and appointed Physician in Ordinary to the Queen in 1709. He kept the latter position until the death of the Queen. He dedicated a work on ancient coins to Prince George in 1707. His close relationship with the leading statesmen of the Harley administration strengthened his position at court and surely allowed his appointments to public offices (perhaps sinecures). The sinecure in customs had to be due to patronage. There is a letter from Viscount Dupplin to the Earl of Oxford about Arbuthnot's appointment to Chelsea Hospital that also mentions the position in customs in the language of patronage. Later, upon the accession of George I, he lost his place at court. (Source on patronage: Aitken, pp. 20-32.)
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; He practiced medicine. He was interested in possible practical applications of mathematics. (In my usage this does not qualify as a true technological connection.)
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Medical College (Any One); Informal connections: The Scriblerus Club, a group of Tory wits-Arbuthnot, Pope, Swift, Gay, Thomson Parnell, and others, 1713-14. (This was literary.) Correspondence with the members of the club. Correspondence with Dr. Hans Sloane, an eminent physician and naturalist. Note that much of Arbuthnot's correspondence appears to be available, and some is published. Royal Society, 1704-35. He was one of the committee (dominated by Newton) to oversee the publication of Flamsteed's Historia coelestis. And he was a member of the committee that supposedly investigated the calculus controversy and did publish Commercium epistolicum, an assault on Leibniz that Newton himself in fact composed. The Royal College of Physicians, 1710-35. Censor, 1723. He delivered the Harveian Oration in 1627.

SOURCES:
G.A. Aitken, The Life and Works of John Arbuthnot, (Oxford, 1892). PR3316.A5Z5; L.M. Beattie, John Arbuthnot, Mathematician and Satirist, (Cambridge, Mass., 1935). PR3316.A5Z52; Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 534-7. Robert C. Steensma, Dr. John Arbuthnot, (Boston, 1979). Anita Guerrini, Natural Philosophy; Medicine and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain: George Cheyne and Some Contemporaries, forthcoming. I have read the first two chapters in manuscript.

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: Angus Ross, The Correspoondence of Dr. John Arbuthnot, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1956. Contains 200 letters. George Sherburn, ed., The Correspondence of Alexander Pope, 5 vols. (Oxford, 1956). Harold Williams, The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, (Oxford, 1963-5). Stephen S. Weidenbroner, The Influence of John Arbuthnot on the Scientific Attitudes Expressed by Pope, Swift and the Scriblerus Club, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1969.


Argenville, Antoine-Joseph Dezalier d' [Dezalier d'Argenville]



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 1 July 1680; Died: Paris, 29 November 1765; Datecode: Lifespan: 85
2. Father: Publishing. His father, Antoine Dezalier, was a Parisian librarian-i.e, the owner of a book store. The father owned the d'Argenville estate near Versailles. d'Argenville's grandfather was a merchant of lyonese linen. Nothing is said explicitly, but in view of that estate and the life d'Argenville led they can scarcely have been less than affluent, which I will put down although I am convinced they were wealthy.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France; Death: France; 
4. Education: None Known; After studying at College du Plessis, he continued his studies under the engraver Bernard Picart, the painter Roger de Piles, and the architect Alexandre Le Blond. Studied in Italy, 1713-16 
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Natural History. In 1709 he published Traité sur la théorie et la pratique du jardinage. He republished this work in 1747 with an added section on hydraulics suitable for gardens. After his return from Italy, he settled in Paris where he acquired a reputation as an expert collector of objects of art and curiosities of nature. His travels to Germany, Holland, and England widened his circle of acquaintance and enlarged his collection of objects. In 1742 he published a work of natural history, L'Histoire naturelle, 2 vols., which contained information on minerology, fossils, and shells. The work was republished in 1755 and 1757. D'Argenville is most well-known for his work on the life of artists, Abregé de la vie des plus fameux peintres (1745-52, 1762). 
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Official; After two years of travel in Italy, he purchased the post of secretary to the king in 1716, and became maitre des comptes in 1733 and counsellor to the king in 1748. The chancellor, d'Aguesseau, favored d'Argenville with an office of natural history. He was able to form one of the outstanding private collections of art and natural history in France.
8. Patronage: Court Patronage; Patronage of Government Official. He was consulted on the selection of objects and their arrangement for a royal collection. After some hesitation, because it must have been objets d'art in question here, I am leaving this in. He was favored by the chancellor of France who formed an office of natural history for him. 
9. Technological Connections: Hydraulics; Agriculture; That hydraulic system for gardens.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); 1750-1765 He became member of the Société Royale des Sciences de Montpellier in 1740, of the Royal Society (London); of London in 1750, and of the Académie de La Rochelle in 1758. He entered into correspondence with a great number of savants of Europe primarily concerning objects for his natural history collection. 

SOURCES:
Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie générale, (Paris, 1857-66), 14, 10-11; Michaud, Biographie générale, 11, 598-9; Dictionnaire de biographie francaise, 3, (Paris, 1939) cols., pp.581-583

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: de Ratte, 'Eloge de M.Desallier d'Argenville' in d'Agenville's La conchyliologie, 3rd ed., (Paris, 1780) 1, ix-xxiv. Pierre Remy, Catalogue d'une collection de dessins . . . de feu M. d'Argenville, (Paris, 1778).


Argoli, Andrea



1. Dates: Born: Italy, 1570; Died: Italy, 1657 Datecode: Birth Date Uncertain Lifespan: 87
2. Father: a lawyer; No information on financial status.
3. Nationality. Birth: Italian Career: Italian Death: Italian
4. Education: None Known. He reportedly studied with Magini, which would put him in Padua around 1600. According to his own statement, however, he studied without the help of a master. I assume no B.A.
5. Religion: Catholic. After recovering from a serious illness in 1646, Argoli wore the monastic habit (I am not sure if this means that he tooks orders) for the rest of his life in gratitude.
6. Scientific Disciplines: astrology, astronomy; Subordinate Disciplines: medicine
7. Means of Support: Academic Position; Secondary Means of Support: Patronage; 1622-7, held chair of mathematics at Sapienza in Rome. Argoli's astrological studies together with his inability to restrain his tongue about them made it advisable for him to leave Rome. Recall that this was the time of Urban's scare. Argoli decided that Venice would be a safe haven. 1632-57, Professor of Mathematics at Padua, at an initial salary of 500 florins, which was later increased.
8. Patronage: City Magistrate; Ecclesiastic Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; After Castelli replaced him at the Sapienze, Card. Biscia supported him for five years. The Republic gave him the chair at Padua. In 1638, the Republic gave him the title of a knight of St. Mark, presented him with a gold chain, and raised his salary 'considerablement;' by 1651 his salary was 1100 florins. Argoli dedicated his Ephemerides, 1623, to the Abbot of the Congregation of the Camaldolesi of Santa Maria. He dedicated an Ephemerides of 1629 to Prince Filippo Colonna. He dedicated De diebus criticis, 1652, and Ptolomaeus parvus, 1652, to Queen Christina of Sweden.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Students: He reportedly taught Wallenstein and his astrologer Giambattista Zenno. In Venice, he was secretary of the Accademia degli Incogniti, of which I know nothing though it is not mentioned as a scientific society.

SOURCES:
M. Gliozzi, 'Argoli,' Dizionario biografico degli italiani, IV (Rome, 1964), 132-4.  R.P. Niceron, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des hommes illustres, 39 (Paris, 1738), 325-31.  M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2.


Arnauld, Antoine



1. Dates: Born: Paris, 6 or 8 February 1612; Died: Brussels, 6 August 1694; Datecode: Lifespan: 82
2. Father: Lawyer; His father was a lawyer, an 'avocat' to the Parlement of Paris, one of the most celebrated lawyers of his day and a passionate opponent of the Jesuits, who had twenty children (ten of whom survived) of which Antoine was the last. The father of Antoine's mother was 'avocat général' to the Parlement of Paris. The family was more than merely prominent. In view of Arnauld's career and the prominence of many members of the family, it seems clear that he was reared in circumstances that were, at the least, affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: France; Career: France, Belgium; Death: Belgium
4. Education: University of Paris; D.D. Arnauld was a student at the collège Calvi and then at the collège Lisieux at the Sorbonne. He studied theology under Lescot, who was Richelieu's confessor and thus not entirely happy with Arnauld's ultimate views. Arnauld defended his bachelor's thesis in 1635 and received the doctorate in theology in 1641. 
5. Religion: Catholic. Ordained as a priest in 1641, Arnauld became the leader of French Jansenism in 1643 upon the death of du Vergier; he was expelled from the Sorbonne in 1656 for his Jansenist views.
6. Scientific Disciplines: Mathematics; Natural Philosophy; His Elemens (1667) reworked and reordered the Euclidean theorems in the light of contemporary literature and Pascal's influence. His philosophical contributions are to be found in his objections to Descartes' Meditations, in his dispute with Malebranche, and in the Port-Royal Logic, which he wrote with Pierre Nicole. The Port-Royal Logic, a text developed from Descartes' regulae, had an enormous influence as a textbook until comparatively recent times. Despite the work above, Arnauld was primarily a theologian and a metaphysician. His history was completely entwined with that of Port-Royale. 
7. Means of Support: Church Living; Personal Means; Patronage; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; 1638, he received a sub-deaconship. 1639, he received two benefices, the cantorship and canonry of Verdun, which he had qualms about accepting and resigned fairly soon. 1641, he was ordained and afterwards received a pension from the Seminary Bons-Enfants. He entered the Sorbonne in 1643. I gather that this means that he was admitted to the faculty of theology, and I assume that he received income. He was expelled because of his Jansenism in 1656. It seems clear that Arnauld always had inherited means on which he lived, at least in part. He gave all of his wealth (whatever it was) to Port-Royale, keeping for himself only the usufruct, which was his only income. His history is completely entwined with that of Port-Royale. I have been unwilling to make the effort to become the master of the truly enormous body of literature about Port-Royale, so that I remain somewhat uncertain about the material details of Arnauld's life. I think that he lived in Port-Royale from 1648 to 56 and again from 1668-79. (Though initially a convent, it appears to have had some male residents during the 17th century.) Part of the difficulty of Arnauld is that he lived extensive periods (1644-48, and 1656-68) in hiding. Apparently he was dependent largely on wealthy and prominent patrons who concealed him during these periods. He exiled himself in 1679, when the crown again began to persecute Port-Royale and Jansenism, to Belgium and finished his life there. I have found nothing at all to explain what he and the circle around him lived on, and I do not see how it could have been anything other than his own personal means.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Patronage of Government Official; 1639, Arnauld's cousin by marriage, the Marquis de Feuquières, had him named cantor of the church of the city of Verdun, of which the marquis was governor. Initially Arnauld refused. He was scrupulous about absentee benefices; he said later that no more than five out of a hundred holders of such benefices found their salvation. However, du Vergier de Hauranne, abbot of Saint-Cyran, his teacher and the leader of Jansenism, forced him to reverse his decision and accept the position in order that it not fall into the hands of the opposition. This episode was confined to the early years of Arnauld's career. After the death of de Vergier, Arnauld succeeded him as the leader of Jansenism. He dedicated his Tradition de l'eglise, 1644, to the Queen. In view of the outcome of that work and Arnauld's need to go into hiding, I am reluctant to see the dedication in terms of patronage, except in so far as Arnauld undoubtedly hoped it would win protection. In 1644, when Arnauld declined to answer the summons to Rome, he took refuge with M. Hamelin, a high government official, with whom he stayed for a number of years. In the period 1656-68, when Port-Royale was under persecution, it was saved by bishops of the Church, especially four and among the four especially Nicolas Pavillon, Bishop of Aleth. In 1667 the bishops engaged the new Pope, Clement IX, in the project that led to peace in 1668. During the period of persecution, Arnauld had several refuges. About 1666 the Duchess of Longueville (the sister of the great Condé and sister-in-law of Louis XIV) gave him refuge, and after the peace of 1668, which allowed Port-Royale to flouish openly again, she continued to defend it and Arnauld, until her death in 1679. NBG calls Innocent XI Arnauld's protector; Sainte-Beuve says that under Innocent Arnauld always had a sure refuge in Rome. In 1679, when Arnauld chose exile, he stayed in Mons for about six months with M. Robert, President of the Council of Hainault.
9. Technological Connections: None
10. Scientific Societies: Voluminous correspondence with Descartes and Leibniz, among others. Dispute with Malebranche. Objections to Descartes' Meditations. Collaboration with Pierre Nicole.

SOURCES:
New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1, 841-2. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 3, 859-67. H.L.Brekle, ' Semiotik und linguistische Semantik in Port-Royal,' Indogermanische Forschungen, 69 (1964), pp. 103-121. Nouvelle biographie générale, 3, 282-90. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royale. Gazier, Histoire générale du mouvement janseniste, (Paris, 1922).

Not Available and/or Not Consulted: K.Bopp, 'Arnauld als mathematiker' in Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften, 14 (1902). Noam Chomsky, Cartesian Linguistics,( N.Y., 1966). P123 .C54; Pasquier Quesnel, Histoire abregée de la vie et des ouvrages de Mr Arnauld, (Cologne, 1695). C. Gazier, Histoire du monastère de Port-Royale, (Paris, 1928).


Aromatari, Giuseppe degli



1. Dates: Born: Assisi, 25 March 1587; NBG, Hirsch, and Saccardo all say 1586. However, De Fabris cites the baptismal record for 1587. Died: Venice, 16 July 1660; Datecode: Lifespan: 73
2. Father: Medical Practioner; Favorino degli Aromatari was a physician. Giuseppe was educated during adolescence by his paternal uncle, Raniero Paolucci, a learned and wealthy physician. Since nothing is said about the father's economic status, I will assume affluence.
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: Personal Means; University of Padua; M.D. He studied medicine and philosophy initially in Perugia; he left for Montpellier but stopped in Padua on the way and never left. In Padua he attended Fabricius' lectures. After graduating M.D in 1605 (at 18), he remained at Padua until 1610.
5. Religion: Catholic. 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Botany; Medical Practioner; Aromatari is remembered today for his hypothesis of the preformation of the germ in seeds. The hypothesis was published in Epistola de generatione plantarum ex seminibus (1625), which immediately made him famous and established his priority on the doctrine of the preformation of the germ. I should note that the Epistola is all of two pages long; one short paragraph mentions chickens, but he does not appear to have made any investigation of them. He also investigated the so called permeability of the interventricular septum of the heart, but on this subject no writing exists. He also wrote on rabies. 
7. Means of Support: Medical Practioner; Medical practice at Venice, 1610?1660.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; He was requested as personal physician by King James I of England, the Duke of Mantua, and Pope Urban VIII, but he declined, not wanting to leave Venice. I do not count invitations declined as patronage. The Epistola de generatione was addressed to Count Arundel, whom I take to have been Thomas Arundell, Baron Arundell of Wardour and Count of the Holy Roman Empire.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; 
10. Scientific Societies: Aromatari carried on active correspondence with physicans throughout Europe.

SOURCES:
L. Leonelli, ed., Memorie di Giuseppe Aromatari letterato medico e naturalista, (Asisi, 1887). This slender pamphlet contains the Epistola and Giovanni Battista De Febris, Vita dell'eccellentissimo Gioseppe degli Aromatari, (Venice, 1661), both published in full. Nouvelle biographie générale.

A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901). Dizionario biografico degli italiani. G.M. Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2, 1115-17. Biographie medicale.


Aselli, Gaspare



1. Dates: Born: Cremona, 1581; Died: Milan, 9 September 1625; Datecode: Lifespan: 44
2. Father: Aristocrat; Ancient patrician family. No information on financial status. 
3. Nationality: Birth: Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Italy
4. Education: University of Pavia; M.D. He studied medicine at the University of Pavia. His anatomy teacher was Giambattista Carcano-Leone, a pupil of Fallopio. He earned an M.D., and I assume as always the equivalent of a B.A. 
5. Religion: Catholic 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Anatomy, Physiology; Subordinate Disciplines: Medicine; Aselli discovered (or rediscovered) the chylous vessels, and studied systematically the signifigance of these vascular structures. The results of these investigations were collected in De lactibus sive Lacteis venis (1627). He is said to have been the first to understand the importance of vivisection (the emphasis on first I find difficult to accept), thus opening a new road for physiology. He also left behind some medical manuscripts that were not published.
7. Means of Support: Medicine; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Academic; He practiced surgery in Milan very successfully; he was made a citizen of the city. 1612-20, appointed first surgeon of Spanish army in Italy. In 1624, he was appointed to the chair of anatomy in the Atheneum of Pavia. I find this word Atheneum a lot in the italian literature on this period. Ducceschi calls it a university. Aselli did receive an M.D. from the same institution. It must be considered a university.
8. Patronage: Unknown; He received honorary citizenship in Milan; I don't know who stood behind this act. Someone had to have pushed the appointment in Pavia.
9. Technological Connections: Medicine; 
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
V.Ducceschi, 'I manoscritti di Gaspare Aselli,' Archivio di storia della scienza, 3 (1922), 125-43.  Capparoni, Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVIII, (Rome, 1928), 2, 79-81. Because of the peculiar combination of first and second editions in the copy of Capparoni I read, these pages may not correspond to others. G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt, 2, 1159-60. Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Nouvelle biographie generale.

Not Available and Not Consulted: R. von Toply, 'Geschichte der Anatomie' in Theodor Puschmann, Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin, pp.215-216. R131 .98; G. Zoia, Cenno sulla vita di Gaspare Aselli, (Pavia, 1875).


Ashmole, Elias



1. Dates: Born: Lichfield, Staffordshire, 23 May 1617; Died: South Lambeth (virtually London), 18 or 19 May 1692; Datecode: Lifespan: 75
2. Father: Artisan; Military; Simon Ashmole was a saddler, but he spent more time as a soldier, in Ireland and on the continent. Ashmole certainly implies that he plunged the family into poverty. Although I am accepting this, I do have doubts. Ashmole inherited a house from him.
3. Nationality: Birth: England Career: England; Death: England
4. Education: None Known; Lichfield grammar school. Legal training in London, 1633-8. Ashmole studied in Oxford in 1645, and was a member of Brasenose College. He took no degree, but he must have developed a considerable affection for the university, as his later benefaction testifies. Oxford conferred an M.D. on him in 1669; I do not list this degree.
5. Religion: Anglican 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astrology; Alchemy; Subordinate Disciplines: Botany; Although he never published on astrology, Ashmole became deeply interested in it about 1645 and never lost his fascination for it. In alchemy he published Fasciculus chemicus (1650), Theatrum chemicum britannicum (1652), and The Way to Bliss (1658). Ashmole became a simpler in Oxford and developed a fair knowledge of plants. About 1660 he became primarily an antiquarian. He published quite a few books in that area and gathered a collection that he gave to Oxford, along with Tradescant's collection, which had been given to him
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Government Position; Secondary Means of Support: Lawyer; Patronage; Ashmole established a law practice in 1638, and for a few years law was his principal means of support. His marrige of 1638 may have provided him with independent means, although this is unclear. Josten thinks that there was no dowry. However, it is worth noting that she was a spinster fourteen years older than Ashmole and from a family of prosperous gentry. In any case, this first wife died in 1641. A royalist in the Civil War, he was appointed by Charles I to collect the excise in Staffordshire in 1644. Appointed commissioner, receiver and registrar of Excise of Worcester, 1645. Controller and assistant master of Ordnance in Worcester, 1646. In 1649 he married a well-to-do widow, Lady Manwaring, who was twenty years his senior; it was her fourth marriage. Her estate established Ashmole's fortunes, even though he ceased to receive the income from her estate after her death in 1668. In every way except for Ashmole's finances the marriage was a disaster. With the Restoration Ashmole's fortunes really looked up. He was appointed Comptroller and Auditor of the Excise and continued with the Excise until his death. Charles also appointed him Windsor Herald in the same year 1660. He was also appointed Secretary and Clerk of the Courts of Surinam (duties and recompense unknown). 
8. Patronage: Government Official; Aristocratic Patronage; Court Patronage; In 1633 James Pagit, Baron of the Exchequer (I gather this makes him a judge), whose second wife was the sister of Ashmole's mother, brought him to London to live in his house and continue his education in music. Ashmole studied law with Pagit's sons. It seems manifest that the Pagit connection made possible Ashmole's first marriage above his station. In 1640 Lord Keeper Finch employed him for a time until Finch was forced to flee the country. Apparently Baroness Kinderton, whom he met through his wife's family, who were gentry, rather adopted Ashmole, and Peter Venables, Baron Kinderton, became his patron. The process is unclear but Ashmole clearly charmed circles of gentry and nobility. Note his success in marrying a woman (to be sure, a spinster fourteen year older than he) well above his station. And during the early fourties Ashmole successfully insinuated himself into royalist circles in Oxford. Once he acquired knowledge of astrology (though this was only about 1645), I suspect it increased his attractiveness. The King, in 1645 inserted his name in the commission instead of that of one John Hanslopp who had originally been appointed. Charles II granted him the position of Comptroller and Auditor of the Excise for the city of London in September of 1660, and Comptroller of the entire Excise in October of the same year. This position gave him more than enough money for living. The King also granted him the office of Windsor Herald and full power and authority to keep accounts of all entries, receipts and payments. He was given the right to peruse, to collect, and to transcribe any documents he might wish to use in his work. His position in the Herald's office was strengthened by a royal warrant in the October of 1660 which granted him precedence over the others newly appointed. In 1661 the King also made him Secretary and Clerk of the Courts of Surinam for life. Along with his offices Ashmole performed various commissions for Charles, such as caring for the King's medals. Ashmole dedicated his book on the Garter (The Institutions, Laws, and Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, 1672) to Charles II, and gave the first presentation copy, richly bound, to the King. Charles granted him a pension of L400 from the customs on paper. In the presentation copies to six foreign princes who were members of the order, Ashmole inserted specially printed dedications to them. From these came gifts of a gold chain and medal (the King of Denmark) and a similar gift from the Elector of Brandenberg. The other rulers also acknowledged the gift. In 1677 Ashmole was offered the post of Garter King at Arms; he arranged for it to be conferred instead on his then father-in-law (by his third marriage), William Dugdale. When his second marriage made him wealthy; Ashmole became something of a patrong himself-for example to George Wharton, a fellow royalist and astrologer, who dedicated a book to him in 1652. In 1656 Nathaniel and Thomas Hodges dedicated a translation of Maier's Themis aurea to Ashmole. Also a book on astrology in 1657 was dedicate to him, and in 1655 one on plants. And in fact there were quite a few more dedications throught the rest of his life. In 1682 or 83 he bequeathed the Tradescant collection, which he had received, together with his own collection to Oxford-the initial source of the Ashmolean Museum.
9. Technological Connections: Pharmacology; He was deeply interested in the medicinal uses of plants.
10. Scientific Societies: Royal Society (London); Informal connections: Friendship and correspondence with G. Wharton, W. Lilly, J. Heydon, Dr. Dee, W. Backhouse, R. Plot, M. Lister and many other mathematicians, astrologers and naturalists. Royal Society, 1661, but he was not active in it.

SOURCES:
Elias Ashmole, 5 vols., ed. with a biographical introduction by C.H.Josten, (Oxford, 1966). Volume one is the biography. I suppose this has to be the leading source, but it can hardly be called a penetrating book. Dictionary of National Biography (repr., London: Oxford University Press, 1949-1950), 1, 644-6. Biographia Britannica, 7 vols. (London, 1747-63), 1, 223-36.


Assalti, Pietro



1. Dates: Born: Acquaviva (Picena), 23 June 1680. Earlier sources (Hirsch and Saccardo) say Fermo, 1685. But the DSB article sounds pretty definite. Died: Rome, 29 April 1728; Datecode: Lifespan: 48 
2. Father: Magistrate; Assalti is said by one source to be the descendent of a family that held public office in Fermo in the 15th and 16th centuries. The source says nothing about the father except that he wanted his son to study law. I am willing to infer that the father also held public office. No information on financial status.
3. Nationality: Birth: Acquaviva Picena, Italy; Career: Italy; Death: Rome,Italy
4. Education: None Known; Studied languages at Fermo, 1695-9. Studied law in Rome. I did not find any mention of a degree or of medical studies, although the medical studies seem probable from the rest of his career. 
5. Religion: Catholic (by assumption) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Medicine Lancisi, Assalti's mentor and friend and physician to the Pope, was instructed by the Pope to publish the Metallotheca of Michele Mercati, the description of the museum of natural history that Mercati collected in the Vatican during the second half of the 16th century. Lancisi thought that the work needed extensive annotations to bring it in to line with knowledge in the early 18th century; he entrusted this work to Assalti. It was published in 1717. Opera omnia in duos tomos distributa, 2 vols,1718; Edited Lancisi's work, which more than anything else won attention for Assalti.
7. Means of Support: Patronage; Academic; Physician; 'Writer' (whatever that may mean) of the Vatican Library, appointed by Pope Clement XI, 1700s; Professor of botany at the University of Rome, 1709-1719; Prefect of the botanical garden of the University of Rome. Professor of anatomy at University of Rome, 1719-21. Professor of theoretical medicine at the University of Rome, 1721-8. I assume medical practice in careers such as this. I did not meet with any mention of it until I read Mazzuchelli. He is quite explicit about practice, and he lived rather close to Assalti's time.
8. Patronage: Patronage of Ecclesiastic Offical; Pope Clement XI, and I assume subsequent Popes. It is impossible to imagine those academic appointments in Rome without the patronage of the Pope, or of someone in the Curia.
9. Technological Connections: Medical Practioner; Although I have not entered medical practice as a means of support, I am willing to enter it here for a professor of theoretical medicine.
10. Scientific Societies:

SOURCES:
A. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Voelker (3rd ed., Munich, 1962). P.A. Saccardo, 'La botanica in Italia,' Memorie del Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 26 and 27 (1895 and 1901). G.M.Mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'Italia, (Brescia, 1753- ), 1, pt. 2.

Not Available and Not Consulted: Bibioteca Comunale di Fermo,MSS8/3, in Notizie raccolte da Rodolfo Emiliani sulla familia Assalti e su Pietro Assalti. V. Caria, L'universita degli studi di Fermo Ancona, 1880, p.71. G. Panelli, Memoire degli uomini illustrie chiari in medicina del Piceno, II, (Ascoli, 1767), pp.364-383. There is not much information on Assalti. The Italian biographical dictionary, the enormous one, does not include him. I have no idea of why the DSB chose to include him.


Auzout, Adrien



1. Dates: Born: Rouen, 28 January 1622; Died: Rome, 23 May 1691; Datecode: Lifespan: 69
2. Father: Government Official; Aristocrat; A clerk of the court in Rouen. I list this as a governmental position. The Dictionnaire de biographie francaise says that the father was also Viscount of Rouen. Since Auzout was apparently able to live on his own means both before and after the brief time in the Académie, the family must have been at least affluent.
3. Nationality: Birth: Rouen, France; Career: France, Italy; Death: Rome, Italy
4. Education: No information. 
5. Religion: Catholic (assumed) 
6. Scientific Disciplines: Astronomy, physics, mathematics; Works and letters on astronomy, physics, and mathematics. His published works are reprinted in Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, depuis 1666 jusqu'à 1699 (Paris, 1729). Many Physical experiments and systematic astronomical observations.
7. Means of Support: Personal Means; Secondary Means of Support: Government Official; Estate Administration. I stumbled upon a letter written in the summer of 1648 to Mersenne by Hallé de Monflaines, an abbé and a native of Rouen apparently of the same generation as Auzout and Pascal, which stated that Auzout was about to leave Paris for the service of the abbeé de Saint-Maixent (in Poitou), one Jacques de Crevant de Brigueil. Combine this with the information about his apparent service with M. d'Elbene mentioned below. He was a member of the Académie des Sciences briefly, from 1666 to 1668. He was also a founding member of the Royal Observatory. He engaged in a dispute with M. Perrault, a physician who was the client of Colbert. Perrault produced a flawed translation of Vitruvius which Auzout criticized severely. This may have been the cause for which he was forced to resign from the Académie. He left Paris for Italy, where he lived in Rome until his death, except for the period 1676-85. There seems to be no information about his means of support during these final twenty years. It seems to me that the absolute silence has to mean that he had personal resources on which he lived. Note as well the general silence about how he lived before the appointment to the Académie (the apparent service with the abbeé and with M. d'Elbene being all we know), and note as well that he apparently did not attend a university, which was not for the upper classes. Recall that his father was an aristocrat.
8. Patronage: Aristocratic Patronage; Ecclesiastic Official; Court Patronage; 
Auzout was a friend of M. d'Elbene and so greatly increased the revenue of one of d'Elbene estates that d'Elbene gave him 20,000 francs. He dedicated his Ephémérides du comète de 1664, (1665) to Louis XIV, urging the establishment of a public observatory in the dedication. As mentioned, he was a founding member of the Royal Observatory.
9. Technological Connections: Scientific Instruments; Court Patronage; He made a significant contribution to the final development of the micrometer and to the replacement of open sights by telescopic sights. He wrote a memoir on the measurement of the earth in which he advised the attachment of telescopes to surveying instruments.
10. Scientific Societies: Académie royale des sciences (Paris); According to the Dictionnaire de biographie francaise he collaborate with Etienne Pascal in Rouen and following him to Clermont in 1647. Withdrew from Academie des Sciences in 1668. Collaboration with Picard and Gilles Personne de Roberval.

SOURCES:
Robert McKeon, 'Auzout' in Encyclopaedia universalis.  Robert M. McKeon, 'Le recit d'Auzout an subject des experiences sur le vide' in Acts of XI International Congress of the History of Science, Warsaw, 1965, Sec.III. Robert McKeon, 'Le debuts de l'astronomie de precision,' Physis, 13 (1971), 225-88; 14 (1972), 221-42; especially 13, 246-54 270-83, and 14, 231-3. Harcourt Brown, Scientific Organizations in 17th Century France (1620-1680), Baltimore, 1934.  Nouvelle biographie générale, 3, 804. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 4, 807-8. P. Humbert, 'Les astronomes françaises de 1610 à 1667,' Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques et archéologiques de Draguignan et du Var, 42 (1942), p.20. Condorcet, Éloges des académiens, (1773), 153-5. Blaise Pascal, Oeuvres compltes, (Paris, 1970), 2, 627 and 631.

It is surprising how sparse the biographical information on Auzout is. Additional sources just repeat the same meager budget. I stumbled by accident upon the reference to his service with the abbeé de Saint-Maixent in the Oeuvres of Pascal.





Robert A. Hatch - xii.98.
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Community
Compiled by Richard S. Westfall

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