T  H  E     S  C  I  E  N  T  I  F  I  C     R  E  V  O  L  U  T  I  O  N
A Timeline of Activities & Events - Copernicus to Newton
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida

 

1451 -- Christopher Columbus (d.1506) is born as is Amerigo Vespucci (d. 1512), explorers.

1462 -- One of the major publications of Renaissance natural philosophy, the Epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest appears; the authors, Georg Peurbach (1423-1461) and Johannes Regiomontanus (1436-1476), symbolize a shift from reverence for Ptolemy and antiquity to respect coupled with confident innovation.

1469 -- Publication of the highly influential Corpus Hermeticum, a collection of writings (we now know) to have been written in the early Christian era but then thought to have been written with great authority by Hermes Trismegistus (perhaps Thoth or Moses) living c.1800 BC.

1472 -- Georg Peurbach's New Theory of the Planets (1454) sought to reconcile geometric descriptive models for predicting planetary motions by employing homocentric (nested concentric) celestial spheres.

1473 -- Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) born.

1486 -- The Malleus Malificarum (The Hammer of the Witches) is published as an influential guidebook to identifying witches and bringing them to punishment.

1494 -- Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) attacks practical magic, especially, astrology, as it calls into questions traditional notions of human free will; this concern underscores longstanding issues associated with the Condemnations of 1270 and 1277 which seems to have undermined the authority of Aristotle.

1514 -- The initial appearance of the heliocentric theory of Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) is associated with the private circulation of a manuscript known as the Commentariolus (The Little Commentary) which was published many years later.

1518 -- The London College of Physicians is granted a royal charter and functions both as a traditional professional guild as well as a learned society.

1522 -- Ferdinand Magellan famously completes the first circumnavigation of the globe.

1530 -- Girolamo Fracastoro (1475-1553) provides one of the first descriptions of a new disease in a work entitled Syphilis, or the French Disease. As an aside, the Italians called it the French disease, the French called it Italian disease.

As in England, the French established a Collège Royal in Paris, its purpose was the advancement of learning which included lectures open to the public and a forum for practitioners in medicine, philosophy, and mathematics.

1530-1536 -- Publication of Portraits of Living Plants, by Otto Brunfels's (c.1489-1534), a botanical work that employed freshly drawn illustrations from living plants, undermining the practice of copying drawings from existing accounts.

1531 -- Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) in his On the Disciplines argues for the reform of education and a more receptive approach to skills traditionally associated with the craft and trade traditions.

1532 -- Peter Apian (1495-1552) and Fracastoro observe that the tail of the comet his year, later known as Halley's Comet, pointed away from the sun, a detail also recognized by Regiomontanus.

1533 -- As the Hermetic tradition unfolded, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's (1486-1535) published his On Occult Philosophy.

1538 -- Girolamo Fracastoro continued to explore cosmological and technical alternatives to Ptolemy in his Homocentrica, again employing nested concentric spheres rather than deferents and epicycles associated with Ptolemy's Almagest.

1540 -- Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574), a friend of Copernicus and the presumed author, provides an account of the heliocentric hypothesis in his Narratio prima (First Account).

1543 -- One of the most famous publications in natural philosophy was the anatomical book of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), De fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). It was arguably the most important anatomical texts of the century, at once criticizing the work of the ancients, principally Galen, which offering new illustrations based on first-hand observation and fresh dissections.

In the same year appeared Copernicus' heliocentric theory' in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), by one tradition, these two works, if only symbolically, launched the 'Scientific Revolution'.

1545 -- In mathematics, Girolamo Cardano's (1501-1576) The Great Art contained many algebraic innovations and new methods for treating equations of the third degree.

In medicine, Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) introduced new methods in surgery and for treating wounds, arguing for ointments rather than boiling oils.

1551 -- Deriving his results from Copernicus' data and planetary models, the German astronomer Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553) publishes his Prutenic Tables, which for many astronomers replaced the outdated efforts associated with the Alphonsine Tables (1252). Reinhold's efforts were not seriously challenged until Kepler Rudolphine Tables, which were based on Tycho's data and Kepler's new calculation methods.

Founding of the Collegio Romano, as a Jesuit university, many of whose teachers and students were active scientists during the Scientific Revolution.

1553 -- A man of religious conviction, Michael Servetus (1511-1553) proposed a radical new theory concerning the pulmonary circulation of the blood, a theory motivated in part by esoteric theological concerns involving the trinity. Servetus was found guilty of heresy and burned at the stake in Geneva by the religious reformer, John Calvin.

1554 -- Long considered a major precursor to Galileo Galilei, the Italian Giovanni Battista Benedetti (1530-1590) opposed the work of Aristotle arguing that freely falling bodies move with speeds proportional to weight.

1556 -- In his influential De re metallica (later translated by President H. Hoover), Georgius Agricola's (1494-1555) presented a detailed and sophistical text concerning mining and metallurgy; a handsome volume, it was lavishly illustrated with detailed woodcuts.

1558 -- Sprawling in scope and arguably less than critical in method, Giambattista della Porta's (1535-1615) Natural Magic was widely sited on numerous topics, from theories of vision to sympathetic attraction; della Porta was concerned to demonstrate that many marvels were natural not demonic.

1559 -- A noted Renaissance anatomist, Realdo Colombo's (1510-1559) De re anatomica (On Anatomy) treats pulmonary circulation of the blood, and like Vesalius, argues against a number of conclusions put forward by the ancient anatomist, Galen.

1561 -- Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1562) announces his discovery of the fallopian tubes in his Anatomical Observations.

1564 -- Galileo Galilei born at Pisa, Italy, February 16; Michelangelo Buonarroti dies at Florence, 18 February; William Shakespeare born in England, 23 April.

1566 -- Publication of the works of Pedro Nunez (1502-1578) on navigation, explaining the use of new instruments and how to sail on a great circle course.

1569 -- The noted cartographer Gerard Mercator (1512-1594) publishes his justly famous cartographic projection system.

1570 -- The noted geometer and some-time mystic John Dee (1527-1608) publishes an influential Preface in an English translation of Euclid's geometry.

1572 -- A famous year known for 'Tycho's Star' or the 'Star of 1572' witnessed a dramatic supernova, the talk of Europe. Tycho published De nova stella in the following year, 1573. The star blazed for 18 months as brightly as -4 magnitude. Its key importance, by tradition and as Tycho and others argued, was that the New Star was clearly located beyond the sphere of the Moon. If this were so, it would undermine the Scholastic belief, adapted from Aristotle, that the heavens were immutable.

1576 -- An early account of Copernicus's heliocentric theory, and a description of the cosmos and distribution of the stars as infinitely extended, is offered by the Englishman Thomas Digges (c.1546-1595) in the appendix to a work by his father, Leonard Digges, possibly a Copernican himself. An infinity of stars may have suggested to some the possibility of a plurality of worlds, which in turn eventually raised theological concern.

In this year construction began on the observatory made famous by Tycho Brahe's (1541-1601), Uraniborg, the 'Fortress of the Heavens, on the Danish island of Hven (now a possession of Sweden). Here Tycho made observations and collected astronomical data aided, over a period of nearly twenty years, by some 48 assistants.

1577 -- The year of the 'Comet of 1577' made famous by Tycho Brahe, and again challenging a central tenet inherited from Aristotle, that the celestial spheres were 'solid' perhaps even crystalline. Because the path of the comet seemed to many astronomers to be above the sphere of the moon (that is, superlunary) the apparent path of the comet would 'shatter' anything in its path. If Tycho's observations 'shattered the crystalline spheres' then a reasonable question might be 'What moves the planets'.

1582 -- Pope Gregory XIII suggested reform of the Julian calendar, thus leading much of Catholic Europe away from the Julian (Old Style) calendar to the Gregorian (New Style).

1584 -- A talented clockmaker, Joost Brugi (1552-1632) invents a novel design for an escapement that greatly increased accuracy.

1585 -- In mathematics, Simon Stevin (1548-1620) proposes the use of decimals.

1587 -- Conrad Gessner (1516-1565) publishes a massive and highly influential work, the History of Animals.

1588 -- Thomas Harriot (c.1560-1621) travels to what would be called America and, in his A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia discusses its wonders, among them tobacco. It appears Harriot may have died from this new world vice, the American disease?

Although steeped in controversy, the geo-heliocentric model of Tycho Brahe was brought to light in 1588. Here Brahe argued for a model whereby the planets are imagined to revolve around the Sun while, in turn, the Sun revolved around the fixed, central earth.

1591 -- In mathematics, Francois Viète's (1540-1603) published his Introduction to the Analytical Art, a brilliant work on analytic geometry by yet another man from Poitou.

1596 -- Gresham College, founded by the London merchant Sir Thomas Gresham, was designed to provide public lectures on a variety of subjects from astronomy and geometry to concerns in medicine. By one tradition, Gresham College was a key gathering place for the core group that founded the Royal Society of London.

In his first publication in astronomy, Johannes Kepler's Cosmographic Mystery presented a stridently Copernican worldview dedicated to drawing together mathematical astronomy, physics, and a quasi-Pythogorean religious perspective in hope of a new astronomy.

1599 -- Tycho Brahe, having been ousted from Uraniborg by the King of Denmark, moves to Benateky, outside Prague, under the patronage of Rudolph II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1600 -- Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), an early Copernican, albeit philosophical and religious rather than technical, Bruno also argued form an infinite universe and a plurality of worlds. He was burned at the stake in Rome for his heretical opinions.

1600 -- In his On the Magnet the Englishman William Gilbert (1540-1603) provided a hyper-empirical study of magnets, magnetism, and electricity with speculations about cosmology. Gilbert collected dozen of diamonds to magnetize, rub magnets with garlic, and otherwise to the English tradition to extreme lengths. It is a pioneering classic in 'empirical' method.

1601 -- Thomas Harriot (c.1560-1521) proposed the sine law of refraction, which he failed to publish. Tycho Brahe dies at his castle new Prague.

Tycho Brahe dies 24 October in Prague and Kepler soon appointed Imperial Mathematician on 6 November; Kepler was able to retain Tycho's astronomical data following a lawsuit with Tycho's heirs.

1603 -- The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, becomes the patron of Johannes Kepler, who thus becomes Imperial Mathematician.

The Accademia dei Lincei (Academy of Lynxes or Lynx Eyed) is established in Rome, by Frederigo Cesi, as private learned society dedicated to natural philosophy.

1604 -- In optics, Johannes Kepler publishes his Ad vitellioem paralipomena quibus astronomiae pars optica traditor (The Optical Part of Astronomy) where he argues that light rays are rectilinear, that they diminish in intensity by the inverse square of their distance as they travel from the light source. Kepler also argues that the retina is the seat of vision, and it is there that a 'pictura' is formed, an inverted image that is somehow transmitted to the 'seat of judgment'.

1607 -- Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) demonstrates that a projectile follows a parabolic path.

1608 -- The telescope (sometime translated as 'spyglass') is invented in the Netherlands; it employs a convex objective lens and a concave eyepiece.

1609 -- Galileo Galilei constructs his first telescope and turns it toward the heavens; his instruments begin at magnifications of approximately 3X and 10X, the most powerful achieving a magnification of 30X, an instrument he eventually gave away as a gift.

Johannes Kepler's (1571-1630) Astronomia nova (New Astronomy) shows that Mars moves non-uniformly in an elliptical path and proposes a quasi-magnetic power or virtue emanating from the sun (a curious bi-polar magnet) as partial explanation for the planetary motions.

Thomas Harriot in England independently obtains or builds a telescope and begins to observe the heavens; Harriot eventually makes drawings of the heavenly bodies, most notably the moon.

1610 -- In his highly influential Sidereal Messenger, Galileo Galilei publishes his telescopic findings with subtle Copernican twists. Among his observations, Galileo argues there are innumerable stars invisible to the naked eye, mountains on the Moon (which he eventually measures), and four moons circling Jupiter. These observations were made for the most part in 1609; later in 1610 Galileo observes the phases of Venus, which suggested to him that waning and waxing planet must circle the Sun. Further, Galileo noted that Saturn appeared to have 'handles' (anses) and troubled over what could give rise to such an appearance; Huygens would later propose a brilliant hypothesis which served as one of the most subtle arguments for the motion of earth.

1611 -- Johannes Kepler's Dioptrics analyzes optical refraction and proposes a practical means to improve the Galilean telescope.

1612 -- Simon Marius (b. 1573) mentions for the first time (in modern Europe) the Andromeda galaxy, now known as M31. As Ismaël Boulliau later noted (1667) the galactic cloud had been observed centuries before by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi.

1613 -- In his Letters on Sunspots Galileo took exception with the views presented by the Jesuit astronomer, Christopher Scheiner (1573-1650). Here Galileo appears clearly in the Copernican camp and also provides an early formulation for the principle of inertia.

1614 -- In mathematics, John Napier (1550-1617) in his Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descripto (Description of the Wonderful Principle of Logarithms) establishes rules for logarithms and supplies useful tables.

1616 -- The year of the infamous Injunction against Galileo, the famous Italian astronomer is warned by the Inquisition not to hold or defend the hypothesis asserted in Copernicus' On the Revolutions, though it has been debated whether he was admonished not to 'teach in any way' the heliocentric theory. This work was in turn placed on the Index of Prohibited Books until corrected.

1618 -- A famous 'controversy on comets' erupted in this year involving Galileo and prominent Jesuit astronomers.

1619 -- Johannes Kepler's Harmonice mundi (Harmonies of the World) presents his so-called 'Third Law' which draws attention to the relationship between the annual periods of the planets and their mean distances from the sun.

1620 -- The English attorney and advocate of the 'New Science', Francis Bacon (1561-1626) published his justly famous Novum organum, which sought to establish a method based on observation and experiment in opposition to Aristotle (who wrote the 'original' Organon).

1622 -- Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639) published his Apologia pro Galilaeo writing in support of Galileo's Copernicanism and providing supporting arguments, among many other things, for the relationship between science and religion.

Christian Severin (Longomontanus) (1563-1647), Tycho Brahe's former assistant, reminds astronomers of the geometrical equivalence of the Ptolemaic, Tychonic, and Copernican models; Longomontanus devises a simple variation on the Tychonic model by retaining Tycho's configuration but asserting that the central earth rotated daily, thus removing that requirement for the sphere of fixed stars.

1623 -- Galileo publishes his strategic essay, The Assayer where he argues against Aristotle and the Scholastics in favor of mathematical and experimental methods, moving deftly across many topics, from statics and dynamics to his theory of matter.

1624 -- The French philosopher Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), opposing Scholasticism, argues for what has been called 'mitigated skepticism' whereby natural philosophy would be content with empirical methods and probable, not certain, conclusions.

1626 -- In his New Atlantis Francis Bacon present an idealized institution of learning based on collaborative research turned to the common good. Bacon would later become a symbol and rallying cry for the core group that founded the Royal Society of London. Bacon's principles of cooperation and utility were also repeated by Huygens and others as they lobbied for the establishment of the Académie des Sciences in Paris.

1627 -- Johannes Kepler's Rudolphine Tables, based on Tycho's data and his own laws of planetary motion, provide the most accurate astronomical tables up to that time.

1628 -- A classic work in the history of physiology and medicine is published by William Harvey (1578-1657), his Anatomical Exercises on the Movement of the Heart and Blood, or De motu cordis. Here Harvey employed brilliant experiments and new quantitative arguments to show that the blood circulates, thereby opposing Galen and other ancients.

1630 -- The French physician Théophraste Renaudot, originally from Loudun, establishes the Bureau d'Adresse in Paris, a clearinghouse for local public services and a new forum for learned communication. The Bureau d'Adresse offered weekly conferences and debates, which were open to the public, dealing with a variety of issues, many of them scientific, medical, and philosophical. Renaudot's sons continued the efforts of their father by making many of the topics of discussion available in print, first in French, later in English.

Christopher Scheiner, a talented Jesuit astronomer, presented detailed observations of sunspots, thereby adding his voice, at least in part, to that of Galileo in challenging Aristotelian notions and methods.

1631 -- Pierre Gassendi, familiar with Kepler's astronomical tables, becomes the first to observe a transit of the planet Mercury across the disc of the sun. His data for Mercury were used by Boulliau in his Astronomia Philolaïca (Paris 1645).

1632 -- In one of the major publications of the century, Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican argues for a Copernican system; Galileo uses every tactic available to him, drawing on his telescopic findings, his new view of motion, and not a little rhetorical skill.

1633 -- Galileo is called before the Inquisition in Rome; he is vehemently suspected of heresy for supporting and teaching the Copernicanism hypothesis. After he abjured, Galileo was placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life, his visitors, his mail, and his daily actions were monitored. While the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books, Galileo lived to see it translated into Latin, for a larger European audience, and he also saw his second major work, the Discours on the Two New Science published (Leiden, 1638).

1634 -- Kepler's Somnium (The Dream) was published after his death, a fanciful account of a voyage to the Moon. The work provides subtle arguments for the Copernican hypothesis and is arguably among the first pieces of 'science fiction' writing.

1637 -- One of the classic essays of the century, Descartes' Discourse on Method was published along with his Geometry. These essays appeared shortly after Galileo's condemnation and Descartes' decision not to publish his magnum opus, Le monde (The World). The importance of the Discourse, in conjunction with the Mediations, can hardly be overstated.

1638 -- Galileo's second major book, the Discours on Two New Sciences, was published outside of Italy in Protestant Leiden. The work drew together much of Galileo's earlier efforts on the problem of motion; the second 'new science' (where Galileo, in retrospect, was less successful) dealt with the strength of materials.

The Englishman John Wilkins (1614-1672) published his Discovery of a World in the Moone, a curious work that drew together many of the findings of Kepler and Galileo into an imaginative landscape. Aimed at what might be called the general reader, Wilkin's book (perhaps like Kepler's The Dream) lays claim to one of the earliest writings in 'science fiction'.

1639 -- The first observation of a transit of Venus across the Sun, a rare phenomenon used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for determining the distance of the earth from the Sun, is made by the brilliant but short-lived Jeremiah Horrocks (1618-1641) at Toxteth Park near Liverpool. Few others offered observations of this telling event, as sky conditions were not favorable on the continent, certainly not in France.

1641 -- René Descartes' Meditations presents his famous (or infamous) 'grand bi-furcation of the universe', that is, his dualistic metaphysical belief in res cogitans (mind) and res extensa (matter), the foundational belief of mechanistic natural philosophy.

1644 -- The Italian physicist and mathematician Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), having filled a sealed tube with mercury, and with the open end immersed in mercury, noted that the height fell in the tube to a consistent level, leaving a void above it. The problem was addressed by a number of members of the Cimento and challenges to explain the phenomenon were sent to others outside of Italy.

René Descartes' Principles of Philosophy supplies arguments for the Mechanical Philosophy, most notably that the Universe is filled with uniform matter and united across space and time by uniform principles of motion and hence mechanical forms (contact, impact, pressure) of causation.

1645 -- Publication of Ismaël Boulliau's (1605-1694) Philolaic Astronomy, perhaps the most influential work published between Kepler and Newton. The large folio volume is widely cited for promoting acquaintance with Kepler's elliptical planetary paths. For all that, Boulliau roundly rejected Kepler's peculiar mix of ideas concerning the physical causes of the planetary motions.

Michael Florentz van Langren (1598-1675) published a short work that presented one of the first engraved lunar maps accompanied by a system of nomenclature (mostly aimed at obtaining patronage and gaining friendships).

1647 -- A much more detailed description with illustrations of the surface features of the Moon is given by Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) in his Selenographia. Unlike van Langren, Hevelius chooses to avoid naming lunar features in honor of those still living.

Otto von Guericke (1602-1686 constructed was it believed to be the first air pump.

Blaise Pascal's (1623-1662) New Experiments Concerning the Void describes observations concerning the Torricelli mercury tube, arguing that the presence of matter above certain liquids (spirits) cannot be detected, that is, that the existence of a void cannot be demonstrated by experiment.

1648 -- Jan Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644) argues for medical chemistry and the view that 'chemistry' is central to understanding physiology.

Oxford Philosophical Society meets for the first time; the group is experimental in approach, and by tradition this group may have been instrumental in establishing the Royal Society of London.

1651 -- A self-described student of geometry, atomism, and optics, Thomas Hobbes's (1588-1679) published his classic work on political theory, The Leviathan, which seems to have reflected notions evident in his study of natural phenomena, most notably mechanistic concepts relating to physiology and sensation. Famously, Hobbes held human life 'solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short'.

A competent astronomer, the Jesuit Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598-1671) published his massive New Almagest, a work that treated the efforts of both Copernicus and Kepler but which sought to show that the earth does not move.

1653 -- In Paris, the first meetings of the Montmor Academy take place, signaling one of the most important French semi-private scientific societies. The group evolved rapidly under its patron, 'Montmor the Rich', H. L. Habert de Montmor (c.1600-1679). Several members of the group, most famously Huygens, most notorious Roberval, were appointed the Académie des Sciences.

Christiaan Huygens applies the sine law of refraction to spherical lenses.

1654 -- Walter Charleton's (1620-1707) presents atomism to the English in his highly influential work, Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charletoniana, a paraphrase, sometimes a caricature, of the ideas present by Pierre Gassendi. It now seems likely that this is the major source of Newton's information about Gassendi's work on atomism and the Frenchman's views on the probable character of knowledge.

James Ussher (1581-1656), a Biblical scholar who argued, having analyzed Holy Writ, that the date of Creation was 23 October 4004 B.C., apparently at 9.00am. With simian mirth, the defending lawyer in the Scope's Monkey Trial was unable to discover if the time was GMT or perhaps EDT.

1656 -- Christiaan Huygens' pendulum clock opens the possibility of determining the equation of time directly, which would side-step key difficulties associated with a key problem of planetary theory, solar parallax.

1657 -- Founding of the Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiments) in Florence under the auspices of Prince Leopold of Tuscany and his brother, Ferdinando II; the Accademia thrived for about a decade but with fewer than half-a-dozen active participants, chief among them Borelli.

Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) demonstrates the pressure of air by showing that teams of horses could not pull apart two metal hemispheres from which air had been removed, the outside air, he concluded, pressed the two hemispheres immovably together.

1658 -- Christiaan Huygens provides still further information on his improved but still controversial pendulum clock yielding a substantial increase in accuracy, now a matter of seconds per day.

Publication of a detailed exposition of Epicurean philosophy by Pierre Gassendi which incorporates Christian elements and aspects of atomism. The result has been called Gassendi's 'baptism of Epicurus'.

1659 -- Huygens explains the changing appearances of Saturn as due to its being surrounded by a flat, thin ring of matter. Controversy continued regarding how the appearances were to be explained and, perhaps more importantly, concerning the details of Saturn's inclination and the periodicity of its cycle.

1661 -- The Italian Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) uses the microscope to observes capillaries joining arteries and veins. Malpighi showed in fine detail that blood circulates.

In his Sceptical Chymst Robert Boyle argues for experiment against Aristotelian and Paracelsian practitioners, and distinguishes acids and bases.

1662 -- René Descartes' Treatise on Man is published posthumously arguing that human anatomy and physiology can be understood by means of mechanical principles.

The Royal Society of London is established by royal charter, and several key appointments are made, Robert Hooke (1635-1702) as Curator of Experiments, and later, Henry Oldenburg, as First Secretary.

The Englishman John Graunt (1620-1674) in conjunction with the work of William Petty publishes his Observations upon the Bills of Mortality with data drawn from London's population; life expectancy from birth is approximately 27 years with nearly 2/3 of the population dying before the age of 16.

1664 -- René Descartes' The World, published 14 years after his death, present a theory whereby light is transmitted as pressure (a 'wave front') in a medium (consisting of a "subtle matter") that operates by contact, impact, and pressure. Descartes distinguishes between light 'as body' and light that we 'see' by suggesting that two different explanations be provided for the same phenomenon.

1665 -- In Paris the Journal des Sçavans is published for the first time, the first journal to feature scientific news, reviews and summaries of book, eulogies, and occasional editorials. The first publication of the Philosophical Transactions of London, were initiated as a private venture by Henry Oldenburg.

In optics, Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618-1663) describes diffraction of light and proposes a theory to account for how light fails to move in a straight line, most notably as it passes the edge of certain bodies.

Robert Hooke (1635-1702) publishes his famous Micrographia, which includes useful and stunning etchings of his microscopic observations, the most famous, perhaps, Hooke's flea.

1666 -- In his Theories of the Medicean Planets G-A Borelli's (1608-1679) argues that planetary orbits result from an innate attraction to their centers and from a quasi-inertial tendency to remain in motion; it is a curious mix, as Borelli also argues that the two tendencies that give rise to planetary motion are somehow 'balanced'.

In Paris the Académie des Sciences is established under the direction of Colbert and the direct patronage of King Louis XIV. Unlike the Royal Society of London, the French academy is based on funded appointments rather than by paying members who propose and elect new members.

Robert Boyle in his Origines of Formes and Qualities seeks to explain chemical change by means of "corpuscularianism" (small bodies), thereby extending the influence of the mechanical philosophy.

1667 -- The Paris Observatory, called for by Auzout and others, is finally established by means of royal patronage; the design is controversial, devised by Perrault, with plans that the building be used not only for astronomical observation but for experiments, meetings, and storing apparatus and various collections.

1668 -- In his Experiments on the Generation of Insects the noted Italian Francesco Redi (1626-1679) showed that insects and other forms of life are not generated spontaneously.

1669 -- Isaac Newton (1642-1727) builds his first reflecting telescope; the design, which includes an eyepiece and a concave mirror, is known today as 'Newtonian'.

Isaac Barrow (1630-1677), first to occupy the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University, resigns, by tradition, in favor of young Isaac Newton.

Jan Swammerdam's (1637-1680) microscopical work on insects leads him to reject spontaneous generation and to speculate whether organisms are fully formed before fetal development.

1670 -- Newton concentrated and sustained interest in alchemy.

1671 -- Jacques Rohault's (1618-1672) Traité de Physique (Treatise on Physics) published as an important text on Cartesian natural philosophy.

Jean Picard (1620-1682) publishes his seminal work, Mesure de la terre (Measure of the Earth), which provides a lucid account and precise measurements for the length of a meridian; Picard's work with the pendulum clock later proved of great importance to Newton in speculating about the shape of the earth.

1672 -- In his first major publication, Isaac Newton (in the Philosophical Transactions) established by means of experiment that white light was not one and pure, but rather that white light was mixed and heterogeneous: white light, against tradition, was in fact composed of a spectrum of colors (the rainbow) and each color is the result of a measurable angle of bending (refraction). Color as a quality was, according to tradition, a quantifiable degree of refrangibility.

Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) made rigorous microscopic observation of the embryonic development of the chick and the early formation of organs.

1672-1673 -- Jean Richer's (1630-1696) expedition to Cayenne (in French Guyana) results in an adjustment in the obliquity of the ecliptic and the value assigned to horizontal solar parallax, a critical constant in planetary theory.

1673 -- Christiaan Huygens published yet another study of the pendulum clock, the brilliant and mature essay, Horologium oscillatorium (The oscillation of pendula).

1674 -- John Mayow (1641-1679) proposes that certain particles in the air are necessary for combustion and are transmitted by the lungs to the blood.

1675 -- Ole Roemer uses astronomical observations to derived the speed of light, which he demonstrates is finite.

Gian Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) discovers a gap in the ring system of Saturn, demonstrating that the ring is not a uniform and flat disk.

The Royal Observatory at Greenwich is established by Charles II and the first Royal Astronomer, John Flamsteed (1646-1719), is appointed director.

Robert Boyle proposes in his Experiments and Notes about the Mechanical Origin and Production of Electricity that electrical effects can be explained by the emission and refraction of electrical effluvia.

In London Thomas Shadwell's The Virtuoso satirizes the work of the Royal Society as silly and impractical, thereby rivaling scorn for that institution delivered by Jonathan Swift.

1677 -- Antoni van Leeuwenhoek observes of spermatozoa by means of the microscope, arguing they are not forms of disease but a source of reproductive material.

1678 -- One of the 'Cambridge Platonists', Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688), in his True intellectual System of the Universe, strongly challenges on theological grounds the notion that the world ultimately consists inert matter -- Cudworth suggests the idea of 'plastic nature'..

Edmond Halley (1646-1743) presents a catalogue of the stars in the Southern Hemisphere.

The Curator of Experiments presents "Hooke's Law" which states that the "power" of a spring is proportional to its tension.

1679 -- The Danzig astronomer Johannes Hevelius describes his instruments and provides one of the most extensive catalogues of the period.

Edme Mariotte (c.1620-1684) of the French Académie des Sciences describes the motion of sap in plants as circulating, apparently on the analogy of the circulation of blood.

Robert Hooke wrote a legendary letter asking Newton's opinion on the possibility of explaining the motions of the planets on the assumption of inertia and an attractive power from the sun. This heroic exchange of letters led to a legendary series of events (see Halley, 1684 below) resulting, according to tradition, in Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687).

1681 -- Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1689) employs mechanical principles in his analysis of animal movement in his posthumously published De motu animalum (On the Motions of Animals).

Thomas Burnet's (1635-1715) Sacred Theory of the Earth treats the changing character of the earth's surface while following the basic lines of biblical chronology.

1683 -- The Ashmolean Museum (Oxford) is established as the first public museum in England, its founder, Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) supplies his collections and library.

1684 -- Gian Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) observes the third and fourth satellites of Saturn (Dione and Thetys), which compliment those first observed in 1671 and 1672.

In mathematics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's (1646-1716) publishes his first paper which supplies forms of notation for the calculus of infinitesimals.

1686 -- Publication of the first edition of Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds by Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657-1757), later the perpetual secretary of Académie des Sciences, a classic popularization of the Cartesian vortices and Copernican cosmology. Notably, the conversation that unfolds in a garden is between a man and a woman.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) asserts against René Descartes that the measure of force is not mv but to mv2, which heightens the so-called vis viva (= 'living force") controversy.

1687 -- Arguably the most seminal work of the century, Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy proposes foundational principles for what has come to known as classical mechanics; by tradition, Newton established a new set of 'mental categories' now associated with the concepts of force, mass, acceleration as evidenced in three 'laws of motion' and principle of universal gravitation.

1690 -- In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke (1632-1704), a fried of Newton, argues that knowledge of the nature is probable, not certain, and is rooted in sense experience, not innate ideas.

William Petty's (1623-1687) pioneering Political Arithmetic develops mathematical methods as a foundation for political economy.

In his Treatise on Light Christiaan Huygens proposes a wave theory (against Newton's particulate theory) for the propagation of light.

1693 -- Edmond Halley provides a mathematical equation for finding the focal lengths of lenses of all shapes.

1696 -- Publication of the first textbook on the calculus by the Marquis de L'Hôpital (1661-1704).

1697 -- Samuel Clarke (1618-1672) translates Jacques Rohault's Cartesian Traité de physique (Treatise on Physics, 1671) as System of Natural Philosophy, which is widely used as a university textbook.

1700 -- Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz organizes and establishes the Berlin Academy of Science.

1702 -- Publication of David Gregory's (1659-1708) 'Newtonian' Astronomiae physicae et geometriae elemenata (Elements of Physical and Geometrical Astronomy), with contains an anonymous preface by Newton.

1703 -- March 3 - Robert Hooke dies; Newton decides to go forward in publishing his work on optics; November 30 - Newton is elected President of Royal Society

1704 -- Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes the first edition of his Opticks, based on work done during his days a Cambridge, including a series of speculations about nature and natural philosophy under enumerated as "Queries".

1705 -- The comet that now bears Edmond Halley's name (which he observed in 1682) is determined by him to have an elongated elliptical orbit, and therefore argued it should submit to Newtonian principles.

April 16, Newton is Knighted by Queen Anne in Cambridge, thereafter, he is known as Sir Isaac Newton.

1706 -- Publication of the first Latin edition of Newton's Opticks with its Queries

1712 -- Publication of John Flamsteed's Historia coelestis Britannica, which contains positions for some 3000 stars, more than three times that of Tycho's catalogue.

1713 -- William Derham's (1657-1735) Physico-theology, and the second revised edition of Newton's Principia (containing an introduction by Roger Cotes) suggest a movement to use the findings of science as evidence for 'Design' and hence as evidence for the 'Designer'.

1715 -- Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz sends objections to Newton's philosophy to the Princess of Wales which sparks controversy between Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, Newton's representative, on the issue of God's relation to a mechanical universe ('Clockmaker'- Clockwork).

1717 -- Newton publishes second English edition of Opticks with eight queries

1725 -- May 27 - Newton refuses to grant publication of Short Chronology but publishes it later that year. Newton suffers inflammation of his lungs and moves to Kensington (south London).

1727 -- March 18 - Newton's health fails, he collapses and borders on death; shortly thereafter, Newton dies at Kensington between 1.00 and 2.00am. On 28 March his body lays in state in Westminster Abbey where he is buried on 4 April.

1733 -- Newton's Observations Upon the Prophecies is published (London); some eleven printings follow.


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