Teaching Resources:  How to Read, Write, Study, Take Exams, Take Notes on Readings & Lectures

H I S T O R I O G R A P H Y   -   C A R L   B E C K E R
Dr Robert A. Hatch - University of Florida


Becker, Carl Lotus (1873 - 1945) - Carl Becker was a Midwesterner, born in Iowa near Waterloo in Blackhawk County. He later attended nearby Cornell College, a small liberal arts college, and later moved to the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Known for its strength in history, Madison was the home of the well-known US historian, Frederick Jackson Turner, famous for the 'Turner Thesis' or the 'Frontier Hypothesis'. In the course of his life Becker taught Dartmouth (1901–2), Kansas (1902–1916), and Cornell (1917–41). He appears to have accepted little of Turner's view of history and historical writing, as Turner consistently maintained that historians in effect raise questions, facts count for little, and that the ongoing dialogue and past and present gave rise to ever new interpretations that simply reflected contemporary concerns and needs. Becker's views were different, best outlined in his classic statement (see below) that "every man was his own historian". Becker is often categorized as a progressive historian. He delivered his key views in an address to the AHA on 29 December 1931. By tradition, it marks the death blow to the progressive school and the emergence of historical relativism. For this reason, if no other, Carl Becker defines a critical junction in historical writing. His writing is remembered for its lucidity, force, and grace, his interpretations were well argued and stunning in their originality.

Importantly, Becker wrote a variety of works in history, on topics in American and European history. He left his mark on both. His two major books were in US and in European history, The Declaration of Independence (1922; 1942) and The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (1932).

Becker's doctoral dissertation, "The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York" (1909) established a view about US Colonial history that emerged as all-but canonical. In brief, Becker argued that given the sharp social division in colonial society the elite and lower classes, the American Revolution was less a war for independence as it marked a domestic war for equality. The so-called Becker Thesis was local in it argument, aimed at New York state, but its effect was taken to represent other colonies as well. If Becker's work in US history had a broad appeal, his most noted work in European history was destined to become a controversial classic, notably his The Heavenly City (1932). Here again Becker argued against tradition, now asserting that Enlightenment philosophe were not so modern as other historians assumed, that in effect, while they may have challenged traditional religious dogma they in fact simply replace one kind of religion for another, namely, zealous belief in Reason. Becker's students eventually wrote a number of articles, a number of which appeared as a book, discussing Becker's views on reason, relativism, and the historical craft.

Becker's importance as an historian reflects his broad interest in both US and European history as well as his creative if not iconoclastic interpretations. His publications cover both geographical areas, though near the end of his career, when the "Becker School" emerged, he taught European history at Cornell. He was a friend and associate of the noted historian, Charles Beard, and served as President of American Historical Association (1930). As a 'man of letters' Becker repeated claimed he was interested in thinking about history rather than being an historian -- his interest in historiography was genuine and consistent.


Cornell has Becker's letters and papers; for published information, see his letters (ed. by Michael Kammen, 1974), and the biography of C.W. Smith (1956; 1973) and also by B.T. Wilkins (1961; 1967). For background, see Cushing Strout, The Pragmatic Revolt in American History (1958; 1966), and articles listed below.

RAH



1. Carl Becker: Skeptic or Humanist? (in Review Article)
Review author[s]: Louis Gottschalk
The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 18, No. 2. (Jun., 1946), pp. 160-162.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2801%28194606%2918%3A2%3C160%3ACBSOH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2
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2. Carl Becker on Progress and Power*
Leo Gershoy
The American Historical Review, Vol. 55, No. 1. (Oct., 1949), pp. 22-35.
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3. Carl Becker: The Historian as a Literary Craftsman
Charlotte Watkins Smith
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 9, No. 3. (Jul., 1952), pp. 291-316.
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4. Carl Becker: An American Liberal
John C. Cairns
The Journal of Politics, Vol. 16, No. 4. (Nov., 1954), pp. 623-644.
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5. Carl Becker on History Professor Becker's Two Histories: A Skeptical Fallacy
Perez Zagorin
The American Historical Review, Vol. 62, No. 1. (Oct., 1956), pp. 1-11.
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6. (in Reviews of Books; General History) - Carl Becker: On History and the Climate of Opinion
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Review author[s]: John C. Cairns
The American Historical Review, Vol. 62, No. 1. (Oct., 1956), pp. 92-93.
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7. Becker, Andrews, and the Image of Colonial Origins (in Essay Review)
Carl Becker: On History and the Climate of Opinion
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Charles McLean Andrews
A. S. Eisenstadt
Review author[s]: Bernard Bailyn
The New England Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 4. (Dec., 1956), pp. 522-534.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0028-4866%28195612%2929%3A4%3C522%3ABAATIO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B
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8. (in Reviews of Books) - Carl Becker: On History and the Climate of Opinion
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Charles McLean Andrews: A Study in American Historical Writing
A. S. Eisenstadt
Review author[s]: Robert H. Woody
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 14, No. 1. (Jan., 1957), pp. 107-109.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-5597%28195701%293%3A14%3A1%3C107%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y
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9. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker: On History & the Climate of Opinion.
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Charles McLean Andrews: A Study in American Historical Writing.
A. S. Eisenstadt
Review author[s]: Wendell Holmes Stephenson
The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 23, No. 1. (Feb., 1957), pp. 107-111.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-4642%28195702%2923%3A1%26lt%3B107%3ACBOH%26T%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1
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10. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker: On History and the Climate of Opinion
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Review author[s]: W. Stull Holt
The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 4. (Mar., 1957), pp. 709-710.
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11. (in Short Notices) - Carl Becker: On History and the Climate of Opinion
Charlotte W. Smith; Carl Becker
Review author[s]: H. Hale Bellot
The English Historical Review, Vol. 72, No. 283. (Apr., 1957), p. 392.
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12. Carl Becker's Heavenly City
Peter Gay
Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 2. (Jun., 1957), pp. 182-199.
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13. (in Reviews) - Carl Becker: On History & the Climate of Opinion.
Charlotte Watkins Smith
Review author[s]: A. S. Eisenstadt
Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 2. (Jun., 1957), pp. 295-297.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-3195%28195706%2972%3A2%26lt%3B295%3ACBOH%26T%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B
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14. Carl Becker: Science, Relativism, and the Dilemma of Diderot
David W. Noble
Ethics, Vol. 67, No. 4. (Jul., 1957), pp. 233-248.
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15. (in Book Reviews) - Detachment and the Writing of History: Essays and Letters of Carl L. Becker
Phil L. Snyder
The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard
Cushing Strout
Review author[s]: John D. Hicks
The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. (Jun., 1959), pp. 111-112.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0161-391X%28195906%2946%3A1%3C111%3ADATWOH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P
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16. (in Reviews) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard.
Cushing Strout
Review author[s]: Stow Persons
American Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2, Part 1. (Summer, 1959), pp. 191-192.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0678%28195922%2911%3A2%3C191%3ATPRIAH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
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17. (in Book Reviews) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard
Cushing Strout
Review author[s]: Morton Borden
The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4. (Dec., 1959), pp. 1144-1145.
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18. (in Reviews) - Detachment and the Writing of History: Essays and Letters of Carl L. Becker.
Phil L. Snyder
Carl Becker's Heavenly City Revisited.
Raymond O. Rockwood
Review author[s]: Franklin L. Ford
Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 74, No. 4. (Dec., 1959), pp. 590-593.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-3195%28195912%2974%3A4%3C590%3ADATWOH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E
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19. (in Reviews of Books; American History) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard
Cushing Strout
Carl Becker's Heavenly City Revisited
Raymond O. Rockwood
Review author[s]: W. Stull Holt
The American Historical Review, Vol. 65, No. 2. (Jan., 1960), pp. 398-399.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762%28196001%2965%3A2%3C398%3ATPRIAH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
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20. (in Review Essays) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard.
Cushing Strout; Carl Becker; Charles Beard
Review author[s]: John C. Rule
History and Theory, Vol. 1, No. 2. (1961), pp. 215-219.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2656%281961%291%3A2%3C215%3ATPRIAH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K
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21. (in Short Notices) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard
Cushing Strout
Review author[s]: Marcus Cunliffe
The English Historical Review, Vol. 76, No. 298. (Jan., 1961), pp. 181-182.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266%28196101%2976%3A298%3C181%3ATPRIAH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
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21. (in Short Notices) - The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard
Cushing Strout
Review author[s]: Marcus Cunliffe
The English Historical Review, Vol. 76, No. 298. (Jan., 1961), pp. 181-182.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266%28196101%2976%3A298%3C181%3ATPRIAH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
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22. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History
Burleigh Taylor Wilkins
Review author[s]: Boyd C. Shafer
The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 3. (Dec., 1961), pp. 494-495.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0161-391X%28196112%2948%3A3%3C494%3ACBABSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
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23. Carl Becker: Twentieth-Century Philosophe (in Reviews)
John Braeman; John C. Rule
American Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4. (Winter, 1961), pp. 534-539.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0678%28196124%2913%3A4%3C534%3ACBTP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G
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24. (in Reviews of Books; Americas) - Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History
Burleigh Taylor Wilkins
Review author[s]: Leo Gershoy
The American Historical Review, Vol. 67, No. 2. (Jan., 1962), pp. 452-454.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762%28196201%2967%3A2%3C452%3ACBABSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
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25. (in Reviews) - Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History.
Burleigh Taylor Wilkins
Review author[s]: Geoffrey Bruun
Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 33, No. 6. (Jun., 1962), pp. 346-347.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1546%28196206%2933%3A6%3C346%3ACBABSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O
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26. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History
Burleigh Taylor Wilkins
Review author[s]: R. R. Palmer
The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 34, No. 3. (Sep., 1962), pp. 351-352.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2801%28196209%2934%3A3%3C351%3ACBABSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U
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27. (in Reviews of Books) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Cushing Strout
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 28, No. 2. (Apr., 1971), pp. 338-340.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-5597%28197104%293%3A28%3A2%3C338%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L
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28. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and The American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Paul Goodman
The Journal of American History, Vol. 58, No. 1. (Jun., 1971), pp. 140-142.
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29. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Saul K. Padover
The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 2. (Jun., 1971), pp. 518-520.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28197106%2965%3A2%3C518%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F
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30. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: William H. Nelson
The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 37, No. 3. (Aug., 1971), pp. 464-465.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-4642%28197108%2937%3A3%3C464%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z
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31. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Trevor Colbourn
The New England Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Sep., 1971), pp. 498-500.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0028-4866%28197109%2944%3A3%3C498%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q
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32. (in Book Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution.
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Paul J. Baker
American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 77, No. 3. (Nov., 1971), pp. 634-635.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9602%28197111%2977%3A3%3C634%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
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33. (in Review Essays) - Writing American History: Essays on Modern Scholarship.
John Higham
Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution.
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Michael Kammen
History and Theory, Vol. 11, No. 3. (1972), pp. 359-368.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2656%281972%2911%3A3%3C359%3AWAHEOM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I
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34. (in Short Notices) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert Brown
Review author[s]: H. G. Nicholas
The English Historical Review, Vol. 87, No. 342. (Jan., 1972), pp. 223-224.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266%28197201%2987%3A342%3C223%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J
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35. (in Reviews of Books; General) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution
Robert E. Brown
Writing American History: Essays on Modern Scholarship
John Higham
Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought
David Hackett Fischer
Review author[s]: Marcus Cunliffe
The American Historical Review, Vol. 77, No. 1. (Feb., 1972), pp. 113-115.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762%28197202%2977%3A1%3C113%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5
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36. (in Reviews) - Carl Becker on History and the American Revolution.
Robert E. Brown
Review author[s]: Gordon D. Ross
Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Autumn, 1972), pp. 122-126.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-2586%28197223%296%3A1%3C122%3ACBOHAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1
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37. Progressive History's Curmudgeon: The Enigmatic Carl Becker
"What is the Good of History?" Selected Letters of Carl L. Becker, 1900-1945.
Michael Kammen
Review author[s]: Milton M. Klein
Reviews in American History, Vol. 2, No. 2. (Jun., 1974), pp. 293-299.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0048-7511%28197406%292%3A2%3C293%3APHCTEC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E
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38. Charles H. Lincoln, Carl Becker, and the Origins of the Dual-Revolution Thesis (in Notes and Documents)
Robert Gough
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 38, No. 1. (Jan., 1981), pp. 97-109.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-5597%28198101%293%3A38%3A1%3C97%3ACHLCBA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W
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39. Carl Becker's Modern History: New Roads Barely Trodden (in Historiography)
Mildred Alpern
The History Teacher, Vol. 19, No. 1. (Nov., 1985), pp. 111-121.
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40. Carl Becker, Historian (in Historiography)
William H. McNeill
The History Teacher, Vol. 19, No. 1. (Nov., 1985), pp. 89-100.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2745%28198511%2919%3A1%3C89%3ACBH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U
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41. Everyman His Own Historian: Carl Becker as Historiographer (in Historiography)
Milton M. Klein
The History Teacher, Vol. 19, No. 1. (Nov., 1985), pp. 101-109.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2745%28198511%2919%3A1%3C101%3AEHOHCB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F
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42. Carl Becker Revisited: Irony and Progress in History
Richard Nelson
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 48, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1987), pp. 307-323.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-5037%28198704%2F06%2948%3A2%3C307%3ACBRIAP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K
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43. Carl Becker and the Haunting of American History (in In Retrospect)
Cushing Strout
Reviews in American History, Vol. 15, No. 2. (Jun., 1987), pp. 338-343.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0048-7511%28198706%2915%3A2%3C338%3ACBATHO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5
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44. Carl Becker, Professor Novick, and Me; or, Cheer Up, Professor N.! (in AHR Forum: Peter Novick's That Noble Dream: The Objectivity Question and the Future of the Historical Profession)
J. H. Hexter
The American Historical Review, Vol. 96, No. 3. (Jun., 1991), pp. 675-682.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762%28199106%2996%3A3%3C675%3ACBPNAM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1
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45. Carl Becker: A Personal Memoir
John Hall Stewart
The History Teacher, Vol. 28, No. 4. (Aug., 1995), pp. 487-494.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2745%28199508%2928%3A4%3C487%3ACBAPM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
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Questions & Suggestions: ufhatch@ufl.edu

 
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