Notes to Chapter 1

1. Relevant studies include Brownlee 1978:201-206; Dragonetti 1965:85-146; Frappier 1959:134-58; Freud 1957:14.73-102; Kohler 1963:86-103; Lacan 1977:16-25; Miller 1977:263-79; Poirion 1970:153-66. I regret that I must omit from this book any discussion of the Narcissus and the exchange imagery in Inferno 32; this imagery is so extensive and so complex that I do not have the space to undertake an analysis of it here.

2. Ovid, of course--Met. 3.339-510--is responsible for this popularity. Basic studies of Narcissus in the Middle Ages include Goldin 1967:20-68 especially, and Vinge 1967:55-115. I follow Goldin and Alan Gunn (n. 13 below) in printing Narcissus when I refer to the character in Latin and Italian literature but Narcisus when I refer to him in Old French literature.

3. "Speculatio" is normally reserved for the early or novitiate stages of contemplation; see, e.g., Richard of St. Victor Benjamin major 5.14 (PL. 196:187; trans. Zinn 1979:335-36); see, further, the fundamental study by Javelet 1967:1.360, 384-90. Dante, we should note, does not strictly adhere to this distinction (see chap. 4 below).

4. The most authoritative argument for this turning inward, contemporary with Dante, is probably that of Saint Bonaventura, Itinerarium mentis ad Deum 3.1 (Quaracchi 5:303; trans. Boas 1953:22).

5. On the issue of a "just self love" in medieval thought, see the excellent remarks by O'Donovan 1980:37-92 especially.

6. Besides Javelet's study, I have used Cacucci 1971:15-133; Lonergan 1967; Mussetter 1975; Sullivan 1963. Also important, though not directly concerned with Image theology, is Hofmann 1974:65-80.

7. Examples include Par. 1.89-90, 3.124-30, 14.82-84, 22.125-26, {245/246} 31.97-99. See, further, Mazzeo 1958:1-24, 17 especially.

8. See Musa 1974:37-64; Herzman and Stephany 1978:39-65.

9. See Mayer 1974:261-67; "Die Dialektik von revelatio und velatio--Die Funktion des Enthülens und des Verbergens des sacramentum incarnationis."

10. At Met. 3.464, Narcissus laments: "`Vror amore mei, flammas moueoque feroque'" ("`I am on fire with love for my own self. It is I who kindle the flames with which I burn'"; Innes 1955:92). This is obviously figurative fire, and the "hardening" of such figurativity is, we shall see, a crucial part of Dante's strategy.

11. On reflection here, see Colish 1968:9-12, 315-41; Shoaf 1975:48-51 and n. 30.

12. Others include Li Lais de Narcisse and the Ovide moralisé; see Vinge 1967:58-66,91-98.

13. See, further, the commentary by Gunn 1952:287-91.

14. On the considerable importance of the adjective pesant, see also Dragonetti 1965:108.

15. See, further, Dragonetti 1978:89-111; Eberle 1977:241-62.

16. See Conf. 7.7-14 (PL 32:739-44); also De civitate Dei. 11.9 (CCSL 48:328-30), 11.22 (CCSL 48:340-41); Enchiridion ad Laurentium de fide et spe et caritate 4.14 (CCSL 46:55-56).

17. I rely on Battisti and Alessio 1954:s.v; and on GDI 10:782. I perhaps should make a special point of Dante's frequent recourse to etymology--another good example is Inf. 13.59, 62, "Federigo" and "fede"--since in this regard he is very much a man of his time and not "modern"; it is not that he "trusts" the etymon to "connect" with reality but that he takes seriously the question or, if you will, the problem of the "connection." The literature on etymology is extensive. A good starting place now is Brinkmann 1980:39-43 and n. 101 especially; see, further, Chamberlin 1977:18-43.

18. Cf. Dragonetti 1965:89, 139. Medieval theory would probably have understood this matter in terms of multivocity and equivocity; see Brinkmann 1980:179-81. Florence and the florin are named by the same word ("Fiorenza"-"fiorino": "fiore"), which is thus equivocal; and because of this equivocity, in part, it would be possible--to take an example which Dante doubtless confronted often in his life -- for an avaricious man to reduce Florence to florins.

19. See Saint Thomas Quaestiones disputatae de Veritate 2.11(23); Spiazzi 1949:22; Cacucci 1971:75; see, further, pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite The Divine Names 2.8 (PG 3:646; trans. Rolt 1940:75); also Saint John Chrysostom Homilies on the Epistle to the Hebrews 12.3 (PG 63:98; trans. {246/247} Keble 1975:424).

20. Saint Augustine is eloquent on this matter; see De doctrina Christiana 2.4.5 (CCSL 32:34; trans. Robertson 1958:36); consult also the commentary by Duchrow 1961:369-72.

21. In libros politicorum 1.7. par. 120; Spiazzi 1951:37; Bridrey 1906:373.

22. The phrase is ubiquitous: it will be found in Dante himself in De vulgari eloquentia 1.3.3 (ED 6:756); see, further, Borst 1959:2.2, 869-77; Engels 1963:87-114; Mengaldo 1978:165 n. 8; Rotta 1909:187.

23. For example, John Aurifaber (transcribed by Pinborg 1967:228); Roger Bacon (ed. Fredborg et al. 1978:128); John Dacus (Grubmüller 1975:1.217).

24. Cf. Quintilian Institutio oratoria 1.6.3: "Custom, however, is the most certain ruler of speech and of using language clearly--just as with money, whose form is public"; consider, further, the similar position of John Dacus Summa grammatica (Grubmüller 1975:1.217), who also speaks of "significatio publicata."

25. Cf. Saint Thomas, below, "in quibus proprie haec nomina dicuntur" ("wherein those expressions are properly employed"). See, further, Quintilian Institutio oratoria 8.6.5; Saint Augustine, Contra mendacium 10.24; and for a study of the "proper" in patristic denunciations of heretics, with copious documentation, see de Lubac 1961:3.99-113; consult also Mazzotta 1979:190; and cf. Serres 1982:139-46.

26. The phrase is Saint Augustine's: Contra mendacium 10.24 (CSEL 41:499); Isidore repeats it: Etymologiae 1.37.2; so does John Balbus: Catholicon, pt. 4, "de figuris," s.v. Consult, further, Pépin 1970:77, Pépin 1958:89-90; Chydenius 1960:8.

27. Chenu (trans. Taylor and Little) 1968:99; Curtius (trans. Trask) 1953:206; Demats 1973:5-60.

28. Li Livres dou tresor 2.29.2 (ed. Carmody 1975:199); Bridrey 1906:112.

29. On the whole issue of justice in commerce, in scholastic thought, see the excellent study by Langholm 1979:11-37.

30. Cf. the provocative remarks of Burckhardt 1968:22-46.

31. Cf. Aristotle Metaphysics 1006a21; Lacan 1975:127.

32. Dante confronted the problem most directly perhaps in the opposition between the "allegory of the poets" and the "allegory of the theologians"; the bibliography on this subject is vast, but convenient access to it is provided in Hollander 1969:57-103; Hollander 1976:91-136, 120-36 especially; the classic debate on the two allegories is, of course, that between Green 1957:118-28 and Singleton 1957:129-35.

33. Cf. Derrida 1974:14; Struever 1970:157 and n. 39.

34. Policraticus 8.5 (ed. Webb 1909:2.247); Vinge 1967:72-73. {247/248}

35. On Dante's Platonism and, more specifically, his Neo- platonism, see Mazzeo 1960 (1977):92, 112; for a reasonable and well spoken plea for more attention to Dante's Platonism and to Platonic influences on him, see Chiarenza 1978:207-12, 209 especially.

36. On the terms via negativa and via affirmativa and their relevance to Dante, see Williams 1943:8-12. {248}