Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean


Preface

 
What percentage of the inhabited Caribbean islands are now independent?  What percentage of the regional population lives in these independent nations?

Know the sequence and the approximate dates for the independence or greater autonomy of the following islands:
 
Barbados
Cuba
Dominican Republic                                                                 
Guadeloupe
Haiti
Jamaica
Martinique
Puerto Rico
The Dutch Islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, St. Maartin’s)
Trinidad and Tobago
U.S. Virgin Islands
 
Date the major U.S. military interventions in the Caribbean

What three islands have tried socialist economic models?
 
In 50 words or less be able to date the history and assess the impact of sugar on the islands.
 
On which group of islands was it most common to find people with some African ancestry themselves owning slaves?
 
 


Chapter 1:  The enduring environment and the first islanders

 
Identify the following terms:

Aedes Aegypti
Anopheles
Cacique
Cannibal
Cassava
Conuco
Endemic diseases
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Yuca
Zemi


Know the following facts and figures
The four major geographical groups of islands in the Caribbean. Be able to place any particular island in its proper group.
The approximate size in sq. miles of the five largest nations/territories in the Caribbean.   The age of the mountains of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico.
The name and height of the highest mountain in the Greater Antilles.
The total number of islands in the Bahamas and the number inhabited.
The name and height of the highest point in the Bahamas?
The average temperatures in the region.
The typical temperature difference between hottest and coldest months. 
The average temperature differences between day and night 
The months in which most hurricanes hit.
The name and date of what was probably the most destructive hurricane in the recorded history of the Caribbean?
The number of natural environments there are in the Caribbean (you need not know them by heart). and what is the principal determinant of the type that will appear in a region? 
The highest and lowest annual rainfall regimes in the region.
 
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
How does orographically generated rainfall differ from convection generated rainfall?  Which type of rainfall accounts for the desert like conditions in the southwest of many islands?  At what time of day is convection likely to produce rainfall, and why?   Why does big Cuba get less rainfall than smaller Jamaica?   Why do small, flat islands receive virtually no rainfall?  Which months are the dry season,  which the wet season? 
 
Why is the soil in the Caribbean vulnerable to easy depletion?
 
What was the direction of the migration of plant, animal, and human life before the arrival of steamships?   Why were there few wild terrestrial mammals available for protein on the islands?  What mammals were domesticated on small scale by Amerindian groups?
 
Who were the three distinct Amerindian cultural groups  recognized by the  Spaniards?  Which correspond to our “Mesolithic” category? 
 
What is a conuco?  What was the major root crop grown on the island?  What other root crops were grown?  What are the ecological and economic advantages of root crops?  What seed crops were grown?  What was the relative importance of root crops vs. seed crops?
 
What were the sources of protein?  What was the relative importance of terrestrial vs. maritime protein?  What was the most important sea mammal?  What was the most important amphibian in terms of protein?
 
What was the role of gold in the island economy?  Where was it acquired?  What problems did it eventually cause? 
 
What was the role of alcohol and tobacco among the Arawaks?
 
What was the political organization of the Arawak islands?  What role did religious belief supposedly play? 
 
How did Carib family structure differ from that of the Arawak?   Was human flesh an important source of protein in the Carib diet?  Were they as warlike as often depicted?
 
Why are childhood diseases like measles and mumps so adaptive?  What were the diseases to which Europeans and/or Africans had immunity, but which killed the Amerindians on contact?  To which diseases were Africans but not Europeans immune?
 
What were the two types of malaria brought by outsiders to the islands?  Why was there more likelihood of malaria on the larger than the smaller islands?   What illness most devastated European armies?
 
When and why did the islands finally become safe for foreign tourists?


Chapter 2:  Discovery of the Islands

 
Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.

Adelantado
Audiencia
Bobadilla
Capitulación
Casa de Contratación
Encomienda
Fonseca
Las Casas
Montesinos
Navidad
Orders of Calatrava and        Alcantara
Roldán
San Salvador
Vecino
Watling’s Island

 
Know the following facts and figures
The distance Columbus traversed on his first voyage and the time it took him.
The number of ships and Europeans on Columbus’ first and second voyages.
The animals and crops brought over on Columbus’ second voyage.
The number of Europeans on Hispaniola by the year 1509.
The high and low estimates of the aboriginal population of the Caribbean.
The number of Tainos remaining on Hispaniola in 1509, and 1518.
 
Know the following dates:
Columbus` four voyages.
The arrival of the first European women and children on Hispaniola
The first colonization of Cuba.
The first expedition to Florida (under whose leadership)?
The first crossing of the Isthmus of Panama (under whose leadership)?
 
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
The Spaniards followed one set of international rules for territories governed by other Christian kings, and another set of rules for pagan lands. What was the difference.
How did Spaniards disrupt the native economy?
Why did Spaniards revolt against Columbus, and how did he placate them?
What measures did Spain take to bring royal control over the colonies.
What were the terms of the Spanish license to mine gold?
Which European livestock replaced the native human population?
What was the principal livelihood of the few Europeans who stayed on the island?
Where would the British, French, and Dutch tend to settle?
What caused protein deficiency among the Tainos? Did this affect mortality?


 

Chapter 3:  Pirates Fight for Spanish Gold

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.


Araya peninsula

Cartagena and Portobelo

Cimarrones

Cuzco

El Dorado

El Moro

Flota and galeones

Francisco Pizarro

Hernando Cortés

Jacques de Sores

Jean d’Ango

John Hawkins

Juan Bautista Antoneli

Montezuma

Nombre de Dios

Menéndez de Áviles

Privateers

Sir Francis Drake

Sir Walter Raleigh

Tenochititlán

The Wild Coast

Vera Cruz


 
Know the following facts and figures

The nationality of the first pirates, their staging area in Europe,  and their original arena of operation.

The schedules and routes of the Spanish convoys.

The two major Spanish forts in the Caribbean

The location, timing, and nature of the first Dutch activity in the Caribbean.

 

Know the following dates:

First expedition of conquest from Cuba to Mexico.

The conquest of the Aztecs.

The conquest of the Incas.

The burning of Havana by pirates.

Founding of St. Augustine

First of Drake’s piracy voyages

Sack of Santo Domingo by Drake

Invasion of England by the Spanish Armada

First Spanish settlement on Trinidad

Defeat of Drake and Hawkins in Puerto Rico.

The beginning of Dutch activity in the Caribbean

The forced depopulation of western Hispaniola by the Spanish authority.

The beginning of French, British, and Dutch colonization

The beginning and end of piracy.

 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
After 1530 what was the major importance of the Caribbean islands in the Spanish colonial system?  How careful was Spain to protect the island residents against pirates and other invaders?
What economic role did the islands play in the conquest of the mainland?
What commodity replaced gold as the major source of Spanish revenue?
What two motives drove the pirates?
What two measures did the Spaniards implement to prevent their Caribbean settlers from engaging in illegal trade with other nations?
What was the major Caribbean crop for which a market had arisen in Europe by the late 1500’s? 
What was the purpose of the earliest British and French settlements in the Caribbean?
 
 

Chapter 4: Spain’s Caribbean Colonies

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less

Council of the Indies.
Audiencia.
Cabildo
Consulados
Asiento
Cimarrones and maroons.
Hernando de Soto
Gulf Stream
Spanish Town.
William Jackson
Antonio de Berrio
San José de Oruña
Know the following facts and figures
The overall balance of free to slave on the Spanish islands in 1570.
The amount of time needed to return from Mexico to Europe with the Gulf Stream.

 

Know the following dates:

Creation of the Casa de Contratación.                          

Creation of the Council of the Indies                                         

First licensing by Spain of the slave trade for the Indies.

First sugar exports by Spaniards to Europe                              

Invasion of Florida by de Soto                                     

Free blacks and coloreds begin to outnumber whites on Spanish islands.           

Spain gives monopoly on slave trade to Portuguese                  

Spanish governor burns Spanish towns on Hispaniola and concentrates population. .

Invasion of Jamaica by British pirates                           

Conquest of Jamaica by the British                                           

French get legal control of Western Hispaniola             

Spain finally opens up her islands to free trade.             

British take Trinidad                                                                 

 

Be able to answer briefly the following questions

Give three measures taken by the Crown to enforce royal power.
How did a culture of centralization arise in the Spanish colonies?
How was Spanish colonial culture more corporate than British or French.
How were the islands gradually marginalized from the colonial economy.
Why could European animals flourish on the islands?  What was the one European animal that did not do well on the islands?
Tobacco was desired in Europe, but Spanish islands couldn’t prosper.. Why?
What New World crops spread rapidly to the Old World and began to be grown in other world regions?
Did the Spaniards try sugar production on the island?  By when had it fizzled? Why did it not prosper?
Why did Havana replace Santo Domingo as the center of Spain’s Caribbean activities?
Why did tobacco flourish in Cuba and not on Hispaniola or elsewhere?  Who did the field labor for tobacco?
Why did sugar not flourish in Cuba till later?
How did the governing of Spanish Jamaica differ from that of the rest of the Caribbean?  Who were the absentee rulers of Jamaica?
When and why did the Spaniards finally settle Trinidad? To which social groups did most of the small number of  residents belong?

Chapter 5:  The Dutch Empire

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less

DutchWest India Company

Bahia
Recife

Piet Hayn
Sint Maarten
Peter Stuyvesant

 

 

Know the following facts and figures

The names of the six Dutch islands, three in the Lesser Antilles, three near Venezuela.

           

Know the following dates:

Arrival of Dutch raiders into the Caribbean                                                       

Beginning of British and French colonies in Lesser Antilles                                

Dutch charter West Indies Company for privatized war against Spain.   

DWIC attacks Brazil en masse.                                                                        

Dutch captain captures entire Spanish treasure fleet in Cuba                              

Dutch occupy St. Maarten where some French settlers were.              
Spanish occupy St. Maarten                                                                

DWIC takes Curacao, as alternative to St. Maarten                                         

Dutch unsuccessfully attempt to retake St. Maarten`                                         

Brazilian Catholics expel Dutch from everywhere except Recife            

Spaniards withdraw from St. Maarten                                                  

British and French begin to move to Greater Antilles                             

British and French begin to turn against Dutch merchants and shippers  

 

 

Be able to answer briefly the following questions

Were Spain’s enemies also enemies to each other in their earliest settlement of the Caribbean?  Was there a religious element in the expansion of non-Spanish Europeans into the Caribbean?  What were the relative involvements of public and private sectors?

What colonies were started as mere trading posts?  Tobacco plantations?

What special role did the Dutch play vis a vis settlers from other nations?  What crop eventually became their center of interest?  Why did non-Dutch settlers prefer to deal with the Dutch than with merchants of their own nations? What country did the Dutch finally conquer to set up their own sugar plantations?

What arrangement did the Dutch and French make on St. Maarten’s?

What are two ways in which Saba differs from other Caribbean islands?

What was Curacao’s original role in Dutch strategy?  What did it become after 1648? What were the roles of Aruba and Bonaire.

`

Chapter 6: Settlement of the Lesser Antilles

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.

Mercantilism

Windward Islands

Leeward Islands

Saint Kitts

Thomas Warner

Navigation Acts

Cavaliers vs. Roundheads

Compagnie des Iles d’Amerique

Morne des Sauteurs

Richlieu and Colbert

Compagnie des Indes Occidentales

 

Know the following facts and figures

The shift in the size and racial composition of the population of Barbados between the 1630’s and the 1680’s, and the main cause of the transformation.

The two major mechanical inventions, introduced by the Dutch,  that transformed sugar production.

The main sugar producing island during the first 50 years of the sugar boom, and the main source of labor in the beginning.

The different mortality rates of white indentured servants and African slaves on the British islands.

The five major British settlements in the Lesser Antilles..
The two major volcanoes in the Caribbean, and the islands on which they are found.

The total number of islands and cays in the Virgin Islands

 

Know the following dates:
Founding of French pirate camps in Tortuga and Hispaniola                               
Founding of Virginia as a tobacco growing colony                                     

Beginning of the Thirty Years War                                                                

Establishment of first British tobacco settlement in Caribbean: St. Kitts    

French settlers arrive in St. Kitts.                                                               

British and Dutch occupy different parts of St. Croix                           

Settlment of Barbados as tobacco colony.                                                

Emigrants from St. Kitts settle Nevis                                                              

French government plants their flag on Tortuga                                               

Emigrants from St. Kitts settle Montserrat and Antigua                        

French settlers from St. Kitts go to Martinique and Guadeloupe                

War between Caribs and French settlers                                                 

British on St. Croix drive out the Dutch that were there                            

End of the Thirty Years War                                                                            

Establishment of Commonwealth gov. under Oliver Cromwell                    

Spanish drive out British from St. Croix.                                                          
French governor of St. Kitts expel Spanish. Give S.C. to Knights of Malta          

Passage of paralyzing Navigation Act in England                                               

Restoration of British monarchy                                                                    

Peace between French and Caribs, who get Dominica and St. Vincent            

Rule of Louix XIV and Colbert begins, with French mercantilism                 

French establish a monopolistic trading company for Antilles            

French and Dutch go to war against British                                                  

France eliminates company rule and islands become provinces of France 

French abandon island and Knights of Malta reclaim it                                     
Knights of Malta sell St. Croix to Danish, who were on St. Thomas.          

           

 

Be able to answer briefly the following questions

When and why did the French and British turn from piracy to settlement?  What caused a crash in the tobacco market, and what alternative entered the Caribbean?

Why was it easier for the British and French to settle the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles than the southern?

What was the first British settlement?  Who was on the island?  What relation emerged between the British and the French?

How is Barbados geographically and militarily different from the other islands? 

What are the similarities and differences between indentured servants and slaves.

What was the role of the Irish in this indentured servant economy?

Why did indentured servants prefer North America to the West Indies?

What island was the political capital of the French during the first four decades of their settlements in the Caribbean? 

What were the relations between French and Caribs in the Lesser Antilles?

Where did the Virgin Islands get their names from?

What arace the three largest of the Virgin islands?

 

Chapter 7:  Buccaneers

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.

Anthony Hilton
Blue Mountains
Buccaneer
Charles I
D’Ogeron
De Poincy
Glorious Revolution
Henry Morgan
Jean Le Vasseur
Juan de Bolas
Navigation Acts
New Providence
Oliver Cromwell
Port Royal
Providence Company
Robert Venables
Sir Thomas Modyford
Thomas Modyford
Western Design
William Jackson
William Penn
William Sayle
 
Know the following dates:
Shipwrecked British sailors land on Bermuda                                             
Bermuda is given by Crown to Somers Island Company                                
Spanish destroy Providence Company’s settlement at Tortuga                       
First settling of Bahamas by Puritans from Bermuda                                             
Beginning of civil war in England                                                                       
Jean le Vasseur establishes rule on Tortuga, at request of French bucc.   
British privateers raid Spanish Jamaica                                                           
Founding of Puritan colony in Eleuthera, Bahamas.                                           
End of civil war in England. Execution of Charles I.                                             
Cromwell conquers Ireland                                                                         
Cromwell conquers Scotland                                                                                 
Cromwell sends fleet to bring Barbados and Leewards under control 
Passage of Navigation Acts to prevent trading with the Dutch              
Le Vasseur killed on Tortuga. Poincy appoints a new governor.                   
Spanish again attack buccaneers on Tortuga                                                           
Spanish deport French from Tortuga and leave for Sto. Dgo.                
Cromwell’s death                                                                                       
Restoration of Charles II                                                                                 
French send a governor to control Tortuga and Hispaniola                               
Decade in which Jamaican gov. tries to curb Port Royal Pirates             
End of buccaneer economy on Western Hispaniola                                           
Bahamas become a new pirate haven                                                              
Spanish sack New Providence                                                                  
Glorious Revolution  and end of restoration period.                                    
War between France and Britain. British Tortuga pirates go to Bahamas.`      
Earthquake destroys Port Royal                                                              
French try to capture Jamaica                                                                                   
Treaty of Ryswick tacitly recognizes French presence on Hispaniola       
Jamaica and Saint Domingue cease to be pirate havens                         
Beginnings of switch from tobacco to sugar on Saint Domingue                    
Peace in Europe permits agricultural development of Jamaica                       
Sugar takes off in Saint Domingue because of slaves from Jamaica                       
Beginning of efforts to surpress pirates in Bahamas                                            
Beginning of heavier sugar planting in Jamaica                                               
Decade in which all nations finally turn against pirates                         
Turks and Caicos separate from the Bahamas                                            
 
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions

What were the earlier buccaneer bases?  When were they chased from them? Where did they go afterwards?  

What two advantages did Jamaica and Hispaniola have for pirates?

What was the only island on which Europeans established an independent society, with no allegiance to any European power?

What was Cromwell’s “Western Design”? What was the first island that the British expedition tried to capture for Cromwell. In what year?  With what results?

How was British colonial government organized?  What is the difference between the “propietary system” of colonization and the Crown Colony model?  When and why did Britain switch to the latter?  How were Crown Colonies organized? Who were the major officials?

When did the British capture Jamaica?  From whom?  What demographic impact did the capture of Jamaica have on earlier British islands in the Lesser Antilles? 

What were the major points of disagreement between Jamaican planters and the British government? 

What tensions developed between proprietors and the settlers they sent? 

When, why,  and how did British pirates get a foothold in New Providence, Bahamas?

How were relations between British and French buccaneers on Tortuga?

Describe the timing and process by which sugar became dominant on St. Domingue

When did the French start to crack down on their Hispaniola pirates?  What happened to the pirates on Tortuga under Ogeron?

When and why did British pirates set up at Port Royal?  What was attitude of British crown to the pirates? How did Jamaican planters and merchants relate to piracy?

Apart from profits, why did local authorities long tolerate pirates?


Chapter 8:  War and Piracy, 1665-1720

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.
Michiel de Ruyter
Codrington
De Casse
Iberville
Blackbeard
 
Know the following dates:
British capture Dutch slave posts in West Africa.                                                 
Second Dutch War Begins. Northern Europeans begin to fight c. each other.  
Jamaican governor commissions pirates against Curacao. They back off and 
attack weaker Providence and Spanish colonies on coast of C.America           
French take St. Kitts. British expedition from Barbados sunk by hurricane.                    
Treaty of Breda ends Dutch War.  Most colonies restored.                                            
Treaty of Madrid ends war between British and Spaniards. Piracy continues.       
Beginning of Third Dutch War, between Holland and France. Sent armadas.
  Less effective than pirates and merchant privateers.                                           
Dutch defeated at Martinique.
French take smaller Dutch islands, but can’t take Curacao.            Ogeron, called from
  Hispaniola to help, sinks in storm.                                                                          
Dutch West India Company bankrupt and disbanded.                                           
Dutch armada retakes St. Maartens but fail at capture of Saint Domingue                    
French fail again in Curacao. Armada and pirate ships sink on reef of Bonaire.          
Treaty of Nimjegen                                                                                                         
Jamaican governor finally ends support of piracy. Pirates move elsewhere.       
First to Danish and British islands.  Finally to Bahamas, last pirate haven.           
Tortuga pirates sack Vera Cruz.                                                                           
Treaty of Ratisbon.  French gov. agrees to stop piracy.                                     
Tortuga pirates loot Campeche in Nicaragua                                                                
Beginning of Nine Years War                                                                                        
Port Royal destroyed by earthquake.                                                                             
Treaty of Ryswyck that ended 9 Years War                                                                
Beginning of War of Spanish Succession.                                                                
End of War of Spanish Succession                                                                             
 
 
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
The year 1665 marked a transition in the behavior of Northern Europeans toward each other. What were the “before” and “after” situations?  How long did this situation last?
What military strategies did Britain and France use?   How did the colonists participate?
What were the “two parallel societies” in the Caribbean
What were the major events of Second Dutch War.
Name five pirate bases in the Caribbean of the 1660’s.
Who fought against whom in the Nine Years War?   How did disease help the French?
What was the last massive joint pirate expedition in the Caribbean?  For whom and against whom were the pirates fighting?
Why did Britain fight the War of the Spanish Succession in 1702?
When and why did Caribbean pirates shift to the Bahamas for their base of operations?  Who finally put an end to their operations in the Caribbean, when and how?  Where did they go? 
 

 

Chapter 9: Sugar rules the islands

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.


cabildo
clay sugar
mercantilism
molasses
muscovado
Real Compañía de Comercio
redlegs
Sugar Act
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions

In the early 1700s, there were still Caribs on two islands.  Which islands?   Only one island in the Lesser Antilles still had Spaniards.  Which?  The Bahamas still remained unsettled through much of the 18th century.  Why?  Some islands were used mostly as free ports for the sale of slaves.  Which?
 
Which new foods and drinks underlie the evolution of the “sugar habit” in Europe?  Which country consumed most per-capita sugar?  Which island was the first major sugar producer?  Compare the amount of sugar that the average Briton consumed per year in 1700, before the sugar boom, to the per-capita amount consumed by the middle of the 20th century. 
 
How did the British and the French governments differ in their core strategies for generating revenue from sugar?
 
The American Revolution was largely triggered by competition between two European countries in their Caribbean colonies.  Explain.
 
Which were the three most important French ports for slaving expeditions and for receiving the produce of the colonies?   Unlike the French, the British insisted on the refining of sugar in Britain itself.  What British city was the major sugar refiner?  What British city was the major base of the slave trade?
 
There were two major social groups in Britain that constituted the “West India interest”.  Who were they and how did they protect their interests in the mid 1700’s?
 
Why could Barbadians sell their sugar more cheaply in Liverpool than Jamaicans? 
 
Examine Table 9.  The six islands in the British Leewards reached their height of sugar production in the mid 1700s.  Name the islands.  What was the largest of these islands?  What was the population of  that island in 1724?  And how many slaves to each white were there on that island?   Look at the same island in 1834.  What was its total population and how many slaves to each white were there?
 
The British captured Jamaica in 1655.  Yet it did not take off into heavy sugar planting until nearly a century later.  Why?  What were the preferred alternative occupations?  What was the slave-to-white ratio by 1775?   In Jamaica, as in other islands, the sector of free blacks and mulattos grew.  Look at Table 12.  What percentage of the non-white population was free in 1758, in 1800, and in 1834?
 
By the ealy 1800’s several technological improvements had been made in the Jamaican sugar industry.  What were they?  How do we know that these improvements improved the production per slave?
 
What was the capital of Saint-Domingue in the early 1700s, and where was it located? When did sugar cultivation begin attaining some in Saint-Domingue (today Haiti) ?  In what part did the takeoff occur, and why?   Some parts of Saint-Domingue were drier and required irrigation canals.  Where was this the case and what was the result of the irrigation?   Where was coffee grown?  How did coffee plantations compare in size to sugar plantations.  To what social group did many of the owners of coffee plantations belong?
 
The French also owned Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Leeward Islands.   But they were used less for sugar growing than for another economic purpose.  Which?  How was the economic role of the free coloreds in these two islands different from those in Saint-Domingue?
 
There were two British islands in the Leewards that had become sugar plantations.  One of them was captured by Carib Indians, the other by revolting slaves who captured the island for a year.  Which islands?  To which two islands did many British planters free?
 
Sugar growing was delayed on the Spanish islands.  Why?  What was their economic mainstay?
 
What was Cuba’s role in the Spanish colonial system?  On what part of the island was the population concentrated?  Where have revolutions begun?  Major restrictions of freedom arose in Cuba when one Spanish ruling dynasty was replaced by another.  What were the two dynasties and when did the change occur?  What economic and political changes occurred at local level?  A particular group of Cubans revolted several times in the 1720’s.  What group and why?  When did Cuba finally open up for sugar planting and commerce with the U.S.?  What was the policy of Spanish crown after that?  Cuba sugar also benefited from two revolutions?  Which revolutions and when?  Compare the number of sugar mills in Cuba in 1763 and 1827.   What was the ecological impact of the growth of sugar in Cuba?
 
In 1733 a census was done in Trinidad.  How many Europeans were there, and from what nation?   How was the fate of the Arawak different on Trinidad than it had been on Hispaniola?   When did plantation development begin and what impact did it have on the Arawak.
 

Chapter 10:  The World of the Slaves

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.
 
central
Code Noir
colono
garapa, grappe
manumission
Middle Passage
Royal Africa Company
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
Rogozinsky says:  “Never before in human history had so high a proportion of a population been slaves.”  To what time period is he referring?  And what percentage does he cite?
 
Some slaves were better off than others.  Which were the best off?  At which phase of plantation development were conditions harshest?  When did European governments begin passing legislation to protect slaves?  Was it better being a slave in the Caribbean or in North America?  What statistics support your answer?
 
Which European country was the first to make great wealth in the slave trade?  Which country imported the most over Caribbean history?  How many?  Which major Caribbean power never became involved in the slave trade?  Which European country only did slavery.
 
What was the major expense for Europeans in Africa?  How was it initially financed?  How did the permission to deal in slaves evolve over time?
 
Compare the quantity of slaves shipped to North America with the Caribbean.
 
Which nation was unable to supply its islands with enough slaves and had to allow traders from other nations to come in?   On which island did British slavers first stop after the journey from Africa?   French slavers would first stop in Martinique, even though they would sell most of the slaves in Saint-Domingue.  Why?  Which two islands did Dutch slavers use as slave depots?  The Danish?
 
Examine table 16.   From 1600 to 1870 how many slaves were imported to the British islands, the French islands, and the Spanish islands?  How many slaves were imported to the entire Caribbean region, to South America, and to British North America?
 
Slavery existed in Africa itself before the arrival of the Europeans.  What percentage of local African populations were perhaps slaves?  How did their slavery differ from that of Caribbean slavery?  Who were the major purchasers of African slaves?  What were the two slaving routes in pre-colonial Africa?  When did these slave circuits begin? 
 
Who were the first Europeans to arrive in West Africa?  In what year?  Did they establish their own slave-capture circuits?   Why did not Europeans try to live in Africa at this period.
 
With what other buyers did European slavers have to compete?  Why were European slave ships filled mostly with males?
 
What were the two islands for which most ships aimed as the first stop-off?  What was the minimum time a crossing would take?  How many slaves were on the average ship?  What was the average size crew?  What was the major cause of death?   What percentage of slaves died in the Middle Passage  before 1700?  After 1800?
 
What change in milling practice occurred in Cuba in the mid 1800’s?
 
How did British regulation concerning slaves differ from French and Dutch in terms of local autonomy?  In terms of marriage and religion?  In terms of manumission?
 
What were the essential types of places that every sugar plantation had to have?   What are the rainy and dry seasons in the Caribbean?  What was the hardest task in the sugar cycle?  Why were animals essential when the cane was growing?  List the four tasks in the pre-harvest cycle.
 
How did the three roller mill work?  What were the four possible energy sources?  What happened to the juice after it was squeezed out of the cane?  What was molasses?  What were windmills used for and where?  What is garapa and who used it? How did British and French differ in terms of rum consumption?
 
What were the three field gangs?How did tasking differ from ganging?  Which did the slaves prefer?  When did the period of “amelioration” begin on British isles.
What were slave houses like?  How did they get clothes?
 
What were the two ways of feeding slaves?  How was corn prepared?  Could they raise animals?  What did they do with the animals?  What was major protein source?  What about the diet may have contributed to low fertility and high mortality?  Was whipping and beating a larger source of mortality than food neglect?
 
In developed colonies what percentage of slaves lived on plantations?  What percentage of plantation slaves did field labor?
 
“The distinction between slavery and freedom eventually blurred in many towns”?  What is meant by that.   Why was slave social life better in town?  What kind of slaves could earn money?  Did they have to turn it over to masters?  How were slaves often able to buy land after emancipation?
   
In 1825 how many slaves were in the Caribbean and how many in North America?  Was there difference in the mortality of slaves from Catholic and Protestant colonies?   What nutritional factors affect fertility and morality?
 
What was the common infant mortality rate? 
 
What year did the slave trade end in the British isles?  What connection was there between the ending of the slave trade and reduced slave mortality.
 
The decline in Caribbean slave populations is caused by two independent factors each of which must be explained separately.  Which factors?  Which is easier to explain?
 
 

Chapter 11: England and France Struggle to Control the Islands

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.
Choiseul
Cornwallis
de Grasse
guarda costas
Rodney
ship of the line and frigate
William Pitt
 
Be able to answer briefly the following questions
 
For four decades beginning in the mid 1740’s Britain and France were at war with each other.  How did their behavior in the Caribbean differ from the wars which they had had in the 1600’s?  Did slaves benefit or suffer from the wars? Why?
 
Which island most frequently changed hands?  What was its strategic importance to both France and Britain?  Mortality among the French was particularly high.  What caused it?  What provoked the War of Jenkins’ Ear in 1739?  There were four islands which, in the 1700’s, housed Amerindians.  Which tribal group and which islands?   French settlers were particularly attracted to Dominica.  Why?  What was their main obstacle in settling it?
 
By the mid 1700’s the Dutch had ceased being the major naval power in the Caribbean.  Which countries had the best navies?  Why were they fighting with each other?  During the Seven Years’ War, there were two other theaters besides the Caribbean where England and France were fighting each other.  Which?  Did they use colonists and pirates against each other in their Caribbean theater?  Why did they try to capture each others’ island territories?
 
What was the major source of mortality among British troops in their attacks on French islands?  British conquests of Martinique and Gudaeloupe actually led to increased slavery.  How?  There was one French island that the British could not take at this point. Which?
 
Spain eventually declared its intent to side with France. Why?  In Britain’s attack on Spanish Havana, how many British troops died in battle?  How many died from disease?  When did the Treaty of Paris occur and how did it change the destiny of Cuba, Florida, and Canada? 
 
After the Treaty of Paris, France began planning revenge.  What was the major form of preparation?  Know the dates for the American Revolutionary War.   When did France finally declare war on Britain again?  What determined the timing of the declaration?  When did Spain enter the war?  On whose side?  And why?   During this war the slaves of two British islands died in unusually great numbers.  Which islands?  Why? 
 
There were two natural enemies that European troops had to fight. What were they?  And what measures were taken to protect troops against each?
 
One island served as a major supplier of weapons to the Americans in their revolution?  Which?  It could serve that purpose because of certain concessions that the island’s owners had made in the 1750’s.  Who were the owners and what was the concession?  Britain was almost ejected from the Caribbean by the French and the Spanish.  It was the Battle of the Saints that saved Britain.  Where did that name come from?  Where did it take place?  Who were the two commanders?  And what did it prevent the French from doing?
 
 

Chapter 12:  Runaways and Rebels

 

Be able to identify the following persons, places, and terms in 25 words or less.


Akan

Cockpit Country

Cudjoe

gens de couleur

Gold Coast

grands blancs and petits blancs

Le Maniel

Mackandal

Maroon

Nanny Town

Trelawney Town              

 

Know the following dates:

British bring troops from Gibraltar against Jamaican maroons.

British sign treaty with Jamaican maroons.

First Maroon War on Jamaica

Treaty with Le Maniel maroons on St. Domingue

The beginning of the French Revolution

French King overthrown, Jacobins come to power

Second Maroon War in Jamaica

Napoleon comes to power

 

Be able to answer briefly the following questions

In only one colony were the slaves able to destroy a plantation system and establish their own society.  Which colony?  When did the revolution begin?  When did it end?  What was the name of the new country.

 

Slaves occasionally killed their owners.  What was the most common means?   Two forms of resistance were particularly feared by planters.  Which?  On smaller islands maroon communities eventually disappeared.  Why?

 

Around 1700 there were two islands in the Lesser Antilles that were still not settled by the Europeans.  Which islands and why?

 

What was the major protein source of Jamaican maroons?

 

What African group assisted the British in fight against Jamaican maroons?  What indigenous group did the British recruit to help in fight against maroons?   The British exiled hundreds of surrendering maroons.  Where were they sent to?  What was the Spanish policy toward slaves who escaped from the islands of other European powers?   What was the favorite place of refuge for slaves fleeing from the Leeward Islands?   From Jamica?  From Saint-Domingue?


Compare North America to the Caribbean in terms of the severity of slave revolts.

 

Before the Haitian Revolution, one particular territory was well known for the frequency and severity of slave revolts.  Which?   There were fewer slave revolts on the Spanish islands.  Why?  When, where, and why did slave revolts begin occurring on a Spanish colony?

 

The Coromante slaves had a special status in the Caribbean; They were both valued and feared by planters.   Why?  What special relation to the slave trade did they have back in Africa?   What was their form of social organization?  The Jamaican maroon Tacky wanted to recreate African society.  How would he do this?

 

What did whites do to captured rebels? 

 

Where and when was the first Caribbean slave revolt which almost succeeded in destroying plantation society?   Some thirty years before the Haitian revolution, a slave revolt on Jamaica almost destroyed plantation society.  When did it occur? Who was the leader?  Where was he from?  How many slaves did he lead? What were his objectives?  How was he defeated?

Before the revolt, Saint-Domingue supplied much of the world’s sugar and coffee.  Give the percentages.   How many plantations were on the island?  The free coloreds of Saint Domingue differed in two ways from their counterparts on British, Spanish, and other French islands.  How?   There were two classes of Saint-Domingue slaves that had an easier time.  Which?

What military battles on Saint-Domingue immediately preceded the slave revolt of 1791?k  In what year did they begin?  What triggered them?  Saint-Domingue was divided into 3 provinces.  What political entity was created for each Province?  What were whites fighting with other whites about?  What was the dominant sentiment among the whites about their relation to France?

Chapter 13:  The British Colonies

 

    Rogozinski provides a synopsis of his history of the British colonies.  What practice does he say dominated every aspect of life in the Caribbean islands?

      What economic policies did Britain institute at the same time that it abolished slavery in its Caribbean colonies?

      How did this situation, coupled with the need to create entirely new societies, affect the governments of Britain’s colonies?

THE LONG ROAD TO FREEDOM

     Many Europeans came to consider slavery to be evil, first in Great Britain and later on the continent.  What religious movement led to a profound change in British attitudes during the last quarter of the 18th century?

      The religious revival provided not only ideas but also ____________________.

      Beginning in the 1780s, what three Christian denominations provided missionaries who were active in the West Indies?

      Due to the leadership of several black deacons in the Jamaican revolt of 1831-1832, the revolt was also known as the __________ War.

      Britain passed the Abolition Act in 1833.  In what year was “apprenticeship” also abolished, finally providing complete freedom to the slaves of the British colonies?

      After abolition, most freedmen expected to remain in their cottages, which they had built with their own hands.  When owners began to demand that they pay rent, what was their response?

      After the abolition of slavery, what one factor largely determined whether sugar estates survived on a particular island?

      After emancipation, what was the primary way that Trinidad obtained the labor needed to maintain its sugar industry?  (People from this place made up almost one-third of Trinidad’s population in 1917.)

 

CROWN COLONY GOVERNMENT REPLACES THE OLD REPRESENTATIVE SYSTEM

      “The extinction of representative government in the West Indies ran counter to the general trend in Britain and its colonies with a white majority.”  For what two reasons did Britain replace democracy with direct rule?

      What incident gave Britain the occasion to institute direct rule in Jamaica, and when did it occur?

 

Chapter 14:  The Spanish islands fight for freedom.


CUBA, THE RICHEST ISLAND

The largest island in the Caribbean is __________.  It is __________ times the size of Jamaica and __________ times the size of Barbados.  It is the only Greater Antilles island not dominated by __________.

Like 18th-century Jamaica and Saint-Dominigue, Cuba was devoted to growing sugar by the 1860s.  It was different, however, in that it had a much larger white population.  Those born in Cuba were known as __________, and those from Spain as __________.

When sugar prices began falling in the late 1800s, Cuban sugar plantations sought to reduce their costs by building large modern mills.  Where did the money to build the mills come from?

What American president intervened in the Cuban civil war?

What was the name of the treaty that granted Cuban independence, and what year was it signed?

PUERTO RICO DEVELOPS A PLANTATION ECONOMY

What crop became Puerto Rico’s primary commercial crop during the 19th century?  What effect did this have on race relations in Puerto Rico?

What event in 1875 led to a growing desire for independence in Puerto Rico?   Spain granted autonomy to Puerto Rico in November 1898.  What treaty set aside that autonomy?  (The answer is on p. 206.)


Chapter 15:  Hispaniola and the Leeward Islands

 What worldwide trend does Rogozinski point out as being especially important in its effect on the Caribbean islands?

France viewed its colonies as integral parts of the homeland.  In what three ways did its treatment of its colonies differ from that of Britain and Spain?

 Which two Caribbean countries had no ties to a European power for most of the 19th century?

THE FRENCH ISLANDS ABOLISH SLAVERY

 When did abolitionists gain power in France?

     The French government subsidized the immigration of indentured Indian laborers and gave preferential trade status to sugar from its Caribbean colonies.  How else did France favor the sugar industry of its Caribbean possessions?

 Even though economic difficulties drove many whites out of the French colonies at the end of the 1800s, and colonial society became more segregated, social peace was normally maintained.  Why?

 

THE DUTCH COLONIES SURVIVE

 Which of the Dutch Antilles was the most prosperous during the 1800s, and what was its economy based on? 

 In what four ways did the inhabitants of the Dutch Leeward islands support themselves?

THE VIRGIN ISLANDS UNDER THE DANISH CROWN

 What caused the prosperity of the Danish Virgin Islands to decline in the 1830s?   Emancipation made sugar plantations unprofitable, and Denmark found that revenue from the islands did not cover its costs.  What year did Denmark finally sell the islands to the United States?

THE FORMATION OF MODERN HAITI

 What were the two castes that developed under Dessalines and Christophe and their successors?  King Henry I (Henry Christophe) retained Dessaline's system of ____________________ to produce crops from ____________________.    In contrast, the farmers in Pétion's republic stopped growing export crops and instead planted ____________________

 Who succeeded Pétion as president of the republic?  When did he unite the north and south under one government?  When was he removed from office?

 What subsequent ruler did Rogozinski compare to Duvalier?  Name three ways he moved to consolidate power.

 What did Geffard do in 1860 to reverse this man's policies, and what effect did it have on Haiti's educational system?

SANTO DOMINGO’S VANISHED GLORY

 What events led to an enduring hatred between the peoples of Santo Domingo and Haiti?

 Under the rule of Ulises Heureaux, what unusual arrangement did the government of Santo Domingo make with an American firm?

 What American president took over the collection of Santo Domingo's customs, and how long did the US continue to supervise Santo Domingo's finances?