Van Gogh, "Starry Night over Rhone" (1888)

21st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON LITERATURE & PSYCHOLOGY

ARLES, FRANCE
June 30 - July 4, 2004

A B S T R A C T S
ProgramParticipants


Haifa Al Sanousi, Kuwait University, KUWAIT
"When the Heart Rains Poetry: A Voice of a Kuwaiti Female Poet"

The paper sheds the light on a poetic journey of the emotional experiences of a well-known Kuwaiti female poet whose name is Ghaneemah Zaid Al Harb. Her poetry is a window on her heart, soul and mind. Ghandeemah is one of the Arabic romantic poets. She is a great sign of the effects of the poetry on the soul and mind. Her poetry is a way of touching herself and a mirror of her thoughts and belief.


Elaine Baruch, City University of New York, New York, USA
"Richard Wagner's Kundry: The Ultimate Other"

Richard Wagner's most mysterious and perhaps most striking heroine, Kundry, in Parsifal, is the ultimate Other. She is the consummate stranger, the alien, the émigré from foreign lands. In Act 1 she is woman as outsider: witch, heathen, gypsy, wandering Jew, hysteric, servant -- and animal. Perhaps most fascinating, this woman without lover, husband, or child, is also a mother imago. In Act 2, she is transformed into another type of Other: the femme fatale, who tries to seduce Parsifal but is rejected by him. In Act 3, she is a religious penitent, a Mary Magdalene rescued, who finally achieves her wish to die. Some of these types are historically and culturally incompatible but Kundry is all of them and more. This paper sees Wagner as a proto-analyst, who anticipates Freud, Lacan, and such contemporary analysts as Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray in his attempt to overcome dualism.


Anni Bergmann, New York University, New York, USA
"Co-Creativity and the Making of Art in Work with an Autistic Child"

This presenter will draw upon Alexandra Harrison's and E. Z. Tronick's work on co-creation to answer the question of whether autism can be cured through other than behavioral means. The patient is an artist, and much of her work will be displayed.


Nancy Blake, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA
"Image and Perversion: All About My Mother of Pedro Almodovar"

All About My Mother pursues Almodovar's explorations of the range of human perversions. The unreliable nature of self image is an element that Almodovar demonstrates as ontological. This being the case, any study of identity politics will question, by means of Lacan and others, the problematics of existence itself.


Stephen Bonnycastle, Royal Military College of Canada, Ontario, CANADA
"The Psychology of Gnosticism in Iain Pear's The Dream of Scipio"

The main theme of this novel, is how an individual can preserve the values of "civilization" when his or her culture is threatened by "barbarians." One solution is compromise with the invaders, but the novel also suggests an other-worldly solution, based on the Gnostic belief that the material world was created by an inferior and malignant god. Sophia, the main source of spiritual authority in the book, expounds this doctrine to the protagonist, who then incorporates it in a philosophical treatise, entitled The Dream of Scipio. This paper will explore the psychological basis for Sophia's doctrine of Gnosticism, and for its continuing appeal today, as illustrated by the movie The Matrix, and the cover story of the Christmas 2003 issue of Time Magazine. Since the action of the novel takes place in and around Avignon, this year's IPSA conferees might find reading it particularly evocative.


Susan Hathaway Boydston, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
"Grendel, the Biting Baby Monster"

In this paper I look at the Grendel segment of Beowulf through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. Using the work of Melanie Klein and Eric Erikson, I study the juxtaposition of events, the imagery, and the word use in the poem to show how Grendel is a powerful unconscious projection of the psychological and physiological growth and trauma of the biting stage of child development.


Patrick Brady, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
"New Psychology since 1920 is Pseudo-psychology for Pseudo-intellectuals"

Sigmund Freud repudiated the pansexualism of his early work around 1920, when he wrote such pieces as Beyond the Principle of Pleasure. In this work he gave the primacy to thanatos over eros. He went on to develop, with his daughter Anna, the ego psychology further elaborated by Erik Erikson. However, most literary critics declined to follow in these footsteps. Given this preference, one is not surprised that they were even less inclined to accept the ego psychology developed by Eric Berne in the form of transactional analysis and the group behaviour theory developed by Murray Bowen. Such work is simply dismissed out of hand as "pseudo-psychology", a characterization never supported by any argument. Only ignorance of the theories in question can explain such irresponsible judgments. This paper will explore how these various new psychological theories can contribute valuable new insights to literary criticism.


Ivo Cermak, Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC
"Sara Kane's Suicide -- Playing with Regression?"

The author examines the potential connections between the suicide of the British playwright Sarah Kane and the factors in her creative process that might have played a role in the development of her suicidal behavior. Since almost no autobiographical data about Sarah Kane are available, the author bases his analysis on her play 4.48 Psychosis solely. On the basis of it and with the help of Kris's concept of "regression in the service the ego" he tries to detect factors that might have facilitated Kane's suicide. He hypothesizes that a creative act with regressive elements helped Kane to cope with depression, but paradoxically drew her closer to self-destruction. Thus the process of regression lost its function of integrating unconscious contents into artistic form.


Georgiana Colvile, University of Tours, FRANCE
"Portraiture, Transvestism and the Uncanny in the Novels of Siri Hustvedt"

Siri Hustevdt's novels all three exude a mysterious feeling of uneasiness, due to the narrator / protagonist's problematic identity and magnified by the sight of an intimately specular and cruel work of art, usually a portrait. In The Blindfold (1992), a photograph disconcertingly chops up the heroine Iris's body. In The Enchantment of lily Dahl (1996), Lily's artist lover reveals people's innermost secrets through his portraits. Lily undergoes a sea-change when she wears a stolen pair of shoes, along with more "mises-en-abyme". What I Loved (2003) stages two generations of painters, the older one's widow regularly dons his clothes after his death and the murderous younger artist enslaves his son. Familiarity, fear, dream and supernatural fantasy situate these fictions in the realm Freud called "das Unheimlich". My paper will explore the uncanny structures of Hustvedt's writing and the workings of the subjective psychic apparatus it reflects in each book.


Anca Cristofovici, University of Caen, FRANCE
"'Clear liquid thought': Jim Dine's Photographs"

In his article "Photographie avant analyse", Francois Soulages shows the reciprocal influence between photography (as an emerging technology in the nineteenth century) and the study of the unconscious (prior to the invention of psychoanalysis). To what extent, asks Soulages, did a new technology such as photography enlighten, modify, or enrich the understanding of the unconscious? And, conversely, how did what he calls "the hypothesis of the unconscious" allow for a better understanding of a new technology? These questions, essentially linked to photography's role in the understanding of the visible and the invisible body, have gained considerable importance today, in the context of the extensive use of image-making technologies. My paper will deal with the association between photographic technologies and the unconscious in Jim Dine's photographic work.


Samir Dayal, Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
"Losing Identity? Interculturalism and the 'Trace' of Race"

I explore the promise and perils of intercultural contact and ethnic border crossings in cultural productions -- including the political and erotic dimensions of such cultural and personal intercourse. I look at musical and cinematic examples featuring contact between black and Asian ethnicities, primarily in the U.S., although I locate the examples within a transnational context. I consider the "trace" of Asian music incorporated into the work of African American rap artists and the economic and political implications of this incorporation of the trace of the other. I also look at films, including Ghost World, and especially Moulin Rouge for similar incorporation of traces of the Asian other into the cultural representation. There are also Asian examples of cultural works in which contact between blacks and Asians becomes a site of fantasmatic loss and recuperation of cultural identity. I sketch out some of the political, economic, cultural and psychological implications.


Maria Aline Ferreira, University of Aveiro, PORTUGAL
"'Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all': Eva Hoffman's The Secret"

In this paper I wish to analyse the consequences that new reproductive technologies, namely cloning, could have on the process of identity formation and on the personality of the cloned individual, taking Eva Hoffman's novel The Secret: A Fable for Our Time (2001) as a case study. One of the main issues that Hoffman's book addresses is the question of how one can be oneself if one is already someone else, a pressing issue in our posthuman world where eugenic interventions. I will concentrate on the mother-daughter relationship in Hoffman's novel which constitutes the thematic centre of the narrative, as well as the revision hinted at of long-standing psychological structures as the Oedipus complex. As a theoretical framework I will privilege the work of Melanie Klein, Nancy Chodorow and Luce Irigary, but will also draw on Jurgen Habermas and Francis Fukuyama's recent writings on biotechnology and the future of humanity.


Cynthia Fortner, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, USA
"Conversing with the Kristevan Text: Implications for the Abject, the Imaginary, and the Autonormative"

I will define my concept of the autonormative in this paper, and provide examples from fiction and easily accessible pop culture. With this foundation, I will demonstrate its relationship in conversation, and potentially in conflict with Julia Kristeva's concepts of the Abject and the Imaginary. I will predominantly consider images of women found in Kristeva's writings, but also question representations of men and women in flux between the margins and centers of normative social cultural constructs.


Elizabeth Fox, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
"The Psychology of Women: the Cases of V. Woolf and J. Riviere"

In an article in The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, Boston analyst Anthony Kris reveals that relatively brief analysis of Joan Riviere helped Freud refine his views on narcissism. Riviere had earlier translated "Mourning and Melancholia" into English and knew "On Narcissism." Kris argues that Riviere was the patient about whom Freud later wrote. Comparison of Riviere's essay, "The Negative Therapeutic Reaction," biographical facts, Freud's book, The Ego and the Id, subsequent psychoanalytic theory suggests that Riviere played a greater role in the theorizing of narcissism than is generally recognized.


Emily Fox-Kales, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
"Cinematic Cross-Dressing: Sexual Disguise vs. Gender Transformation"

Films which visualize gender as costume may reinforce or challenge cultural assumptions both about sexuality as well as gendered constructs of masculinity and femininity. This paper will explore how films ranging from Some Like it Hot and Tootsie to The Crying Game will attempt to manage or confront psychosocial anxieties around sexual difference.


Bagher Ghobari. Tehran University, IRAN
"Reliance on God, Anxiety, and Patience and Hopefulness"

This study investigated the relationship between reliance on God and three factors (anxiety, hopefulness, and patience) in university students. Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (1977), Reliance on God Scale (Ghobari, 2001), Patience Scale (Ghobari, 2001), and Hopefulness Scale (Ghobari, 2001) were used on 513 university students through cluster sampling method from different schools of Tehran University. Results indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between reliance on God and trait anxiety (P<0.05). Also significant positive relationships were found between reliance on God and hopefulness (P<0.05) as well as reliance on God and patience (P<0.05).


Anna Gibbs, University of Western Sydney, AUSTRALIA
"Writing as Affect: Pleasure and Perversion in Contemporary Fiction"

Fiction has historically been a site of cultural ambivalence. On the one hand it is frequently figured as innocuous, 'only make-believe'. On the other, from Madame Bovary to The Well of Loneliness, Lady Chatterley's Lover, and American Psycho, it has been thought to be possessed of dangerous powers: to be 'poison', to be capable of corrupting, of seducing and degrading and of inciting violence. Fiction demands visceral involvement, it challenges the fixity of our own bodily limits. To read fiction is to lend our body to affects that at once alien and familiar, and to allow ourselves to be possessed by them at least temporarily. Fiction also requires suspension of disbelief, a disavowal, disavowal being the very badge of perversion. Does fiction corrupt?


Andrew Gordon, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
"Hook: The Peter Pan Syndrome"

Instead of focusing on the children, as in James Barrie's play Peter Pan, Steven Spielberg's film Hook (1991) focuses on the midlife crisis of a workaholic father, a grown-up Pan. This neurotic Pan must overcome his failures as husband and father by rediscovering his lost childhood identity. The film greatly relies upon three trends in American pop psychology of the 1980s and early 1990s: the concepts of "workaholism," the "Peter Pan syndrome," and the "inner child." Spielberg structures this therapeutic comedy around these notions to help him to understand and attempt to heal the dilemma of many contemporary middle-class American males and his own personal dilemma as he struggled to grow up and to balance the conflicting demands of his roles as artist, adult (husband and recent father), and perpetual child. Spielberg's postmodern update is too knowing for its own good; in place of Barrie's gentle charm and whimsy it substitutes excessive production values, heavy handed slapstick, and pop psychological moralizing. To show Peter Pan grown up, as Hook does, seems to me as mistaken as making a sequel to E.T.: it takes away the magic.


Rae Beth Gordon, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA
"What is Ugly? Evolutionist Aesthetics"

"Aesthetics is nothing but a kind of applied physiology." (Nietzsche, "Nietzsche contra Wagner")

The new evolutionist aesthetics of the 19th century focused on a primitive sense of ugliness it acquired scientific legitimacy by association with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Evolutionary biology was brought into the arena of the new physiology, itself already largely synonymous with experimental psychology, and this enlarged, very imposing model for a true science of psychology could not fail to encompass aesthetics. Such an aesthetics would need a scientific system of measurement, and it found what it needed in French physiological experiments, in Helmholtz, and in Fechner's psychophysics. "Experimental aesthetics is simply the specific application of psychophysics to pleasure and pain" (Lalo, L'Esthetique experimentale 41). The basic tenets of this aesthetics could not have been more "modern." Here, I will explore three uses to which this scientific aesthetics was put, not only in France but also in England and America: the amplification of theories of degeneration, the corroboration of Darwin's theory of evolution, and the inspiration for new directions in art.


Laszlo Halasz, Research Institute for Psychology, Budapest, HUNGARY
"The Psychology of the Terrorist Based on Joseph Conrad's Vision"

Joseph Conrad in The Secret Agent written almost a hundred years ago portrayed three kinds of the terrorist. The verbal instigator of the terror was the simplest. The second kind was more complex, he was not an insensitive killer, nevertheless calmly made preparations for a violent action, causing terrible death. But the most curious kind was the third: the terrorist who was ready for blowing up even himself. He was a specialist, who saw himself as a great inventor or artist or moralist. He was inhumanity personified and a precursor of the suicide bomber. In my interpretation Conrad's warning is -- following Dostoevsky -- that the primary agent of terrorism is the distorted man who is never the direct result of the unjust social circumstances. The paper analyzes the dynamics of dispositional and situational motives (mostly these are the secret agents) of the characters.


Alexandra Harrison, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
"Rhythm and Repetition in the Co-Creative Process of Psychoanalytic Therapy"

I will consider Len Shengold's idea of the multiple iterations of "never" in Lear as a theme of repetition and rhythm. This will open a discussion on how an analyst uses her voice and body in child therapy in order to make change happen in nonverbal and verbal modes.


Suzette Henke, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
"La vie sexuelle de Catherine M.: Mid-Life Memoir or Fabulative Fantasy?"

I have only three words for Catherine Millet's stunningly successful memoir, The Secret Life of Catherine M. -- boring, boring, boring! Or perhaps I could add several more: disingenuous, exhibitionist, fabulative, and sociopathic. After the first thirty pages, I was beginning to find this lascivious confession tedious. After forty pages, I began to suspect that this tell-all autobiography might have been written by a man, in the tradition of John Cleland's Fanny Hill or The Story of O. But a few minutes of cybersleuthing confirmed Millet's reputation as a middle-aged art critic and the respected editor of the French periodical Art Press, as well as the author of a number of art monographs. With some training in post-structuralist and psychoanalytic theory, Millet begs her readers to eschew the temptation to psychoanalyze her, even as she casts tantalizing crumbs of information hinting at bourgeois adolescent trauma in a cramped, impoverished, father-absent household.


Claire Hershman, City University, London, UNITED KINGDOM
"Ancient Drama: Medea and Marital Betrayal"

Of all the seductive sinister and terrifying women who have been represented in Western literature and the western imagination, no one has a reputation as lurid as Medea the witch and child murderer. No other rejected lover has sacrificed her own children to break their father's heart, out of revenge. Great fantasies and myths are like dreams. They arise from the depths of the unconscious in the language of symbol and archetype. They give an image to thoughts that are too terrible for us to speak.


Henk Hillenaar, University of Groningen, THE NETHERLANDS
"Memory According to Proust and to Freud"

Proust's views on human memory have become known, above all, because of the famous episode of the Madeleine-cookie, an evocation of a happy memory. In the light of some text fragments of Remembrances of Things Past, I want to show that memory in this novel has many more functions, mainly as the vehicle of desire, and as the effect of, often unconscious, repetitions. Proust's insights regarding our inner world turn out to be rather near to those of his Viennese contemporary, Sigmund Freud, whose name the French writer knew but whose work remained unknown to him.


Gordon Hirsch, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
"The Perpetual Curate's 'Never-Dying Grievances' in Anthony Trollope's Last Chronicle of Barset"

At the center of Trollope's Last Chronicle of Barset lies a study of the cognitions of an unhappy clergyman, Josiah Crawley, who is accused of theft of a check. Crawley is a learned but poor cleric, consumed by a sense of grievance at his treatment by the world. Stubborn, angry, quarrelsome, and depressed, he engages in constant rumination. Accused of having stolen the check, Crawley "forgets" how he came by it, or invents explanations which turn out not to be true. At certain points, in a trick of memory, he is ready to believe that he actually did steal the check. At other times, he manifests such a deep sense of injury that he schemes to triumph over those he sees as his oppressors. Beyond Josiah Crawley, a number of other characters in the novel adopt rigid and inflexible strategies in an effort to cope with an isolating and threatening reality.


Norman Holland, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
"Tickled Rats and Human Humor"

The recent discovery that rats can be tickled leads to some understanding of human laughter. The bodily mechanism for laughter probably lies in the basal ganglia of the brain, and we laugh when this system is triggered. We have one physical response, laughing, but four different reasons or triggers for it. One, we laugh in response to actions directly on the basal ganglia by chemicals or trauma. Two, we laugh for purely convivial, social reasons. Three, we laugh at jokes and wit. Four, we laugh when tickled (as rats do). Leaving the first, the direct brain triggers, aside, we can see that the latter three all involve the same psychological situation, our ongoing process of identity re-creation.


Brooke Hopkins, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA
"Winnicott on Dreams and Poetry"

D. W. Winnicott's overlooked chapter in Playing and Reality, "Dreaming, Fantasying, and Living," offers a fascinating account of the relations between dreams and what he calls "poetry." This relates to some of the volume's better known chapters, "The Location of Cultural Experience" and "The Place Where We Live." My paper offers a careful reading of "Dreaming, Fantasying, and Living" (which as far as I am aware has not been discussed in any of the voluminous writing on Winnicott's work) and then illustrates some of Winnicott's ideas with a reading of some of the dreams and dream poetry of the English poet, John Keats.


Dianne Hunter, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA
"Maternal Legacy in Frankenstein"

In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Caroline's Beaufort Frankenstein's disgraceful family past haunts her son Victor in the form of a compulsion to bring the dead back to life in order to go down gloriously in history as a great man. Kenneth Branagh's film of the novel invents a going-away party for Victor on the eve of his departure for university. Midway through the festivities, Alphonse presents his son with a somber gift from the dead Caroline Beaufort Frankenstein: a journal are to be filled with the deeds of a noble life. This embassy of death from the absent mother exemplifies the way Branagh's film makes explicit themes that remain submerged in Shelley's novel but surface in criticism of the novel and in examination of the ancestral history of Mary Wollstonecraft and her daughter.


Daniela Hurezanu, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
"Marcel Proust and Suffering"

Since the story of Tristan and Iseut, Westerners have experienced passionate love as something fatal, something they did not feel responsible for and which took hold of their souls like a fatal illness, without their being able to resist it. In Remembrance of Things Past by Marcel Proust, illness and jealousy are two specific forms of suffering which are experienced not as an "accident" but rather as existential happenings whose only alternative is boredom. Not to suffer is not to feel, not to feel alive. There is something narcissistic in suffering, something that puts us in relation with our deeper selves. Proustian narcissism has the same structure for both illness and desire, and in Proust, the one who loves, i.e., the one who suffers, succumbs to illness and to love in the same way.


Claire Kahane, University of California, Berkeley, USA
"Between the Acts: The Blank Space of Trauma in Virginia Woolf's Presentation of 'History'"

History can be thought of as the record of traumatic events we recognize historical change and movement only through the disruption of the ordinary flow of time, through the inherent violence of the extraordinary act. Otherwise, nothing happens. Woolf's Between the Acts plays variations on that theme both thematically and linguistically, with psychological trauma that is both personal and historical.


Ida Kodrlova, Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC
"Sylvia Plath's Suicidal Development"

A paper on American poet and writer Sylvia Plath (1932-1963) will be presented. Qualitative methods of thematic and comparative analyses of "subjective statements" (Plath's own literary works and diaries) and "objective statements" (biographical material and other studies, memoirs of significant others) were used and thus generated these four main categories: relationships to significant others, a self-concept, an affectivity, a motivation to suicide. On the basis of these categories describing the life story, the psychopathology and the personality of Sylvia Plath, I concluded that she might have suffered from borderline personality disorder (F60.31 - ICD10) with isolated depressive decompensations being more probable than other mental diseases. It seems that the core of many of Plath's psychological problems was her low self-esteem one of the most important symptoms of borderline disorder and one of the casual factors of her suicide.


Nelly Kupper, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, USA
"Albert Cohen's Contemporary Fairy Tale"

This study will examine the fictional texts of Albert Cohen, a twentieth century French author, using the system of morphology of the folktale developed by Vladimir Propp. Through this new approach to Cohen's work, I hope to provide further insight into the multi-layered complexity of this author's artistic endeavor and to attempt to better understand the quest of his psychologically distressed, donjuanesque protagonist.


Aino-Maija Lahtinen, University of Helsinki, FINLAND
"The Joy of Creative Learning in Nathalie Sarraute's Childhood"

The primary roots of our learning are in infancy. According to Winnicott, interpersonal relationships, the ability to play and transitional phenomena have a crucial role in learning and in the development of symbol formation. In her autobiographical novel Childhood, Nathalie Sarraute explores a little girl's fears, misfortunes, joys and significant interpersonal relationships in a rich literary-aesthetic environment. In my paper I will explore the ways Natacha's childhood memories reflect Winnicott's ideas of imaginative play and its relation to learning as well as the emotional and intellectual enjoyment that accompany the learning process.


Astrid Lange-Kirchheim, University of Freiburg, GERMANY
"Gender Trouble in Two of Thomas Mann's Early Novellas: Little Herr Friedemann and Luischen"

Both novellas, published in 1898 and 1900 respectively, deal with the unrequited or brutally betrayed love of two men who, being crippled or fat unto formlessness, clearly suffer from a stigma. Both novellas have as their focus a sphinx-like 'femme fatale' who destroys a lover or a husband attached to her like a slave. Both novellas make ample use of the metaphor of the theatre (Richard Wagner's opera Lohengrin being the most prominent intertext of Little Herr Friedemann) and, long before Joan Riviere and Judith Butler, depict womanliness and manliness as a masquerade. My paper aims at demonstrating that, already with the early Thomas Mann, heterosexual gender performance is made an instrument to camouflage homosexual needs.


Solange Leibovici, University of Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS
"Reading Bernard Schlink's The Reader"

The Reader (1995) is the story of a young boy who has a love affair with an older woman in post-war Germany. She likes to listen while he reads her the novels the students discuss in school. One day, she disappears without revealing her secret. When he meets her again many years latter, she is on trial for having worked as a camp guard during the war. Through her life experience unfold other stories, about the desire to read and the desire to avoid reading, about the need to discover the past and the need to turn away in guilt and repulsion, about adolescent fantasy and adult inability to love.


Claudia Liebrand, University of Cologne, GERMANY
"Dark Mirrors, Blind Projections and Sister Trouble: Psychoanalysis and Gender in Richard Siodmak's The Dark Mirror"

Richard Siodmak's film noir The Dark Mirror, casting Olivia de Havilland in the double role of good and evil twin sister, is one of those doctor-patient films in which the doctors attend to their female patients without caring too much for the principle of abstinence. My paper examines the ways in which the film establishes a dichotomous matrix by neatly dividing the two formerly heterogeneous character of Terry and Ruth Collins into a "good" and a "bad" sister. At the same time and despite its almost manic "separating-frenzy" the film deconstructs this dichotomy: the two sister-protagonists are utterly inseparable and impossible to tell apart. Contrasting one twin sister with the other as the film's diegesis would have us do thus falls short of the film's complexity, which continually and ironically crisscrosses its lines of demarcation. While paying tribute to psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis the film thus reveals their blind-spots.


Constantin Makris, University of Versailles, FRANCE
"The Ambiguous Role Played by the Surrealists in the Much Contested Early 20th Century (Re)Definitions of Hysteria in Women"

Although André Breton and the surrealist group were strongly opposed to the treatment ministered to hysterics in traditional psychiatric wards, they were nonetheless fascinated by some of Charcot's more progressive ideas, which had influenced Freud, and in particular by the photographs he and others took at the beginning of the 20th Century of women patients, whose "passionate" and "erotic" attitudes Breton and Aragon celebrated in La Révolution Surréaliste in 1928. Their acclaim of Freud's newly founded discipline of psychoanalysis was as violent as their rejection of psychiatry. In my paper, I will examine the somewhat romanticized surrealist stance toward hysteria, between Charcot and Freud, as it surfaces in work samples by a wide range of surrealist poets, prose-writers and plastic artists, including Breton, Embiricos, Aragon, Crevel, Desnos, Dali, Braunner, Carrington. I will finally show how their unusual contribution to theory on hysteria came into its own later, thanks to Lacan.


Lorraine Markotic, University of Calgary, Alberta, CANADA
"The Weird Death of Catherine Earnshaw in Wuthering Heights"

This paper addresses the death of Catherine Earnshaw in Wuthering Heights. Her death demands analysis. In a novel that strongly links the constitution of the characters with their propensity for illness (especially in the case of Linton, but also Isabella, and her and Edgar's parents), it seems inconsistent that Catherine, who is strong and willful, simply becomes ill and dies -- apparently torn apart by Edgar and Heathcliff. My paper draws on Jacques Lacan's explication of desire and identification in relation to the formation of the subject, more specifically, how his assertion that "desire is the desire of the Other" might bear on Wuthering Heights. I suggest that Catherine and Heathcliff desire to be the object of the other's desire. I argue that Catherine marries Edgar not despite the fact that she and Heathcliff so strongly identify with one another, but because of this moreover, this identification determines her death.


Saeed Momtazi, Zanjan Medical University, Zanjan, IRAN
"Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment: Psychological Answer to Personal Destructiveness and Terrorism"

It seems to re-read Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment for so called Idealist, egotistic selfish persons. There are terrorists and destructive people around the world that according to their specific point of view let themselves to kill others and, like Raskolnikov, the protagonist of the novel who formulated a theory that there are extraordinary people, who in the interest of a great idea can find a right within themselves to kill others who they think are not good for anything and so fulfilling their humanitarian duty toward mankind. Dostoyevsky said, "If God didn't exist, everything would be possible," but there are religious people and leaders that they think with a belief in God everything is possible for them.


Masoud Norouzian, Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
"Psychological and Mathematical Views in Short Fiction"

Consciousness and unconsciousness are influenced from the past and next but the past itself has the capability of recreation and reconstruction. J. Piaget divides the subject of consciousness and unconsciousness to two parts: affectivity and cognitively. The author of a story makes simplified model according to his conscious and unconscious experiences which parts of this fact itself has been reconstructed somehow and has only reorganized in mind based on the affectivity weight of the events. The author does not only say things that he/she is conscious about but also sometimes acts based on his wisdom and experiences and in some circumstances based on his affectivity, and creates an artistic work like a short fiction. In this paper we present these subjects by the aid of mathematical models and physiological-psychological founds.


Suzanne Pucci, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA
"Domestic Intimacy: Snapshots of the Family"

"Snapshots" of early modern and contemporary European and American culture introduce a new spatial organizing principle that redefines literary, pictoral, filmic representations of domestic intimacy. Though the camera as personal technological device comes into existence only in the late nineteenth century, the practice of "entering the home" in order to represent the family, to tell its story, is actually a time-honored process -- one that I trace to the eighteenth century where it becomes established in novel, theatre, on canvas and that I subsequently analyze in contemporary snapshots, in moving pictures of film, television or internet.


Gavriel Reisner, Independent Scholar, New York, New York, USA
"Untranslated Images: Uncanny Cross/overs in "The Sandman," David Copperfield and Vertigo"

Freud shows The Uncanny residing in the hidden body of woman, maternal-feminine, always unseen. The occluded image reveals/conceals untranslated or untranslatable material. Responding to the enigmatic feminine, Freud avoids, in his critique of Hoffmann's Sandman, the uncanny insights of Clara, the story's heroine. The story's protagonist, Nathanael, loves the striking doll, Olympia, not the wise Clara. The model's force is visual while Clara power is verbal. Clara and Olympia are prototypes for the speaking or "deep woman" and the observed or "modeled woman," two forms of the feminine uncanny. Agnes Wickfield in David Copperfield and Midge in Vertigo instance "the deep woman," while "the modeled woman" appears in Little Em'ly and Madeline Elster. Dickens and Hitchcock translate unconscious fantasy into conscious narrative; the verbal and visual are discussed in cross/over readings of fiction and film.


Frances Restuccia, Boston College, Newton, Massachusetts, USA
"The Use of Perversion: Secretary and The Piano Teacher"

I analyze two films -- Secretary (USA, 2002) and The Piano Teacher (Austria/France, 2001) -- to test the idea that perverse acts can have therapeutic effects and to foreground two dominant ideas within contemporary psychoanalysis about the optimal way of handling psychic trouble. In Secretary, an attempt is made to transform symptoms into enjoyment (Lacan's sinthome), while in The Piano Teacher, there is a move to revert to the void whose formation sets up the heroine's pathology initially through what Slavoj Zizek has named the authentic act. Making an analogy between the sinthome and resignification, I discuss the psychoanalytic emphases in Secretary in relation to Butler's notion of performativity and I consider The Piano Teacher as a demonstration of the positive effects of Deleuzean masochism for women. So the paper concentrates on film through Lacan, Butler, Zizek, and Deleuze.


Elizabeth Roll, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA
"Sexual Perversions as Theatrical Constructions: Life as Art"

Sexual perversions can be understood as private, erotic, theatrical reenactments of essential elements of the psychic life of the pervert. While perversions vary in the degree to which essential elements are salient, most perversions contain at least abbreviated components of all the essential elements. The elements are 1) fixation at or regression to pre-oedipal psychosexual developmental stages, 2) failure of ego functions, especially of the defenses and secondary thought processes, 3) disruptions in the boundary distinction between self and non-self, 4) attempts to elevate the evaluative component of the self, and 5) rigid attempts to correct disrupted object relationships. This approach to the study of the perversions will include case studies that vary according to the salient essential features.


Marie-France Rouart, University of Paris II, Paris, FRANCE
"Ritual Murder as Literary Fiction: The Inversion of Logic or the Logic of Inversion?"

In the views of C.G. Jung, the archetype of "Puer aeternus" is indispensable to the understanding of the myth perception of children in modern society. A paradoxical testimony to this assertion might be the persistence of ritual murder which builds up a criminal indictment from archaic rituals of incision of carving of a child's flesh by the agency of a group of beings identified as dissidents. My paper will highlight the use of the involved narrative to create fictional identity via the determination as a counterfeit an ancient sacrifice of a typological structure for tortured children. Narrative articulation will be shown to compel its user to go from factual irrationality to the necessity of either finding symbolic proof to ascertain fascination for one's double, or "rewriting the myth of father killing his own son in order to survive.


Esther Sanchez-Pardo, University Complutense of Madrid, SPAIN
"Elsa von Freytag and Ready-Made Poetics, or How One's Life Becomes Art Object"

One of the aims of this paper is to look at Elsa von Freytag's neglected poetry and art and to her contribution to Dada with a view to discovering why she has been relegated. What does this have to do with value judgements that associate her work and herself with eccentricity and finally with madness? In her poems we can see a self that despite its strength is fragile, that despite its pride is rent with guilt and disgust toward herself. Scholars of Dada have referred to this tendency as "pathologically self-deprecating." Through a psychoanalytic exploration of her poetry and her autobiography, we will suggest new readings in an attempt to uncover the ways in which the boundaries between licit and illicit in the practice of the avant-garde are kept and the exclusions the avant-garde performed.


Margret Schaefer, Berkeley, California, USA
"Arthur Schnitzler and Psychoanalysis"

Long a favorite of psychoanalytic criticism, Arthur Schnitzler had a relationship with psychoanalysis that began with his intermittent friendship with Freud and included one of the first books of psychoanalytic literary criticism ever written. Reik's 1913 "Schnitzler as Psychologist." It's time to reconsider "Schnitzler as psychologist," to show that Schnitztler not only anticipated some of the Freud's later insights, but also those of contemporary, particularly Kohutian, psychoanalysis. He had an understanding of narcissistic vulnerability and its relationship to symptoms such as hypochondriasis and paranoia rarely equalled in literature, as shown, for example, in the novella Flight Into Darkness. And despite (or perhaps because of?) his well-known womanizing, Schnitzler also had a surprising understanding of women, one that avoided the often patronizing and equivocal stance Freud displayed in, for example, the Dora case. In his extraordinary novella Fr. Else, Schnitzler tells us Dora's story from Dora's point of view -- something which Freud was in the end unable to do.


Murray Schwartz, Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
"Hamlet's 'It': The Trauma of Hamlet and Hamlet"

This paper is a meditation on the change in Hamlet's personality when he returns from his voyage at sea. Beginning with Hamlet's ambiguous "it" in Act V, Scene ii ("But thou wouldst not think how ill all's here about my heart - but it is no matter."), I explore the myriad characterizations of Hamlet's mood and demeanor in the critical literature, and go on to suggest a reading that focuses on the paradoxical idea that the achievement of identity for Hamlet is a tragic response to trauma, a trauma that ruptured Hamlet's and Shakespeare's sense of infinite human possibility, the "O" of all and nothing.


Shadman Shokravi, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, IRAN
"Patterns in Analysis of Psychological Development of A. Chekhov in His Famous Last Stories"

The stories "Bishop" and "The Lady with the Dog" are counted as modern literature, furbishing choosing art master pieces in writing top stories. In these two stories Chekhov's life thoughts and psychology for reaching new emotions and understandings has been completely shown. If we look at the stories like "The Kiss", "The Lady with the Dog", "The Steps", and "The Bishop", it can claimed that in "The Bishop" Chekhov has reached to the certain acceptation. He has passed the rational and emotional stages in this tale. In fact this story says about his own apprehensions too. But in "The Lady with the Dog" there is a space between rational and emotional acceptation from the subject of the story and its end. Rational acceptation is bonded with reasoning and if there are cultural, moral and social prohibitions maybe reaching to the rational acceptation stage happens too late or as the will of the author does not happen.


Robert Silhol, University of Paris VII, FRANCE
"A Study of Erik Kandel's Thesis on Psychoanalysis and Biology"

This is a reading and a constructive analyzing of Erik Kandel's two papers on the promise and hopeful relationships between psychoanalysis and neuropsychiatry.


Dawn Skorczewski, Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
"Co-creation and the Dynamics of a Classroom Discussion"

This presenter will apply the principles of infant research, dynamic systems theory, and relational psychoanalysis to a classroom situation in which disconnection looms at every turn.


Carole Stone, Montclair State University, Verona, New Jersey, USA
"The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook: Mixing Memory with Desire"

The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook with its textual disruptions, silences, digressions, irony, culinary erudition, sexual subterfuge is a modernist lesbian memoir that bears a relation to the identity issues of Gertrude Stein's The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. While in the Autobiography, Toklas is a stand-in for Stein, Toklas in her cookbook creates and recreates herself. Toklas's cookbook is witty, subversive and erotic and as stylistically innovative as Stein's work. I will examine Toklas's rebellion against being Stein's "Nameless cookie" (a chapter title) and how through a literary text she overcomes the masochism inherent in her sexual liaison with Stein. Through a culinary memoir she establishes her own literary as well as personal identity.


Jim Swan, State University of New York, Buffalo, USA
"Lacan's Gaze and Islam's Textile Aesthetic"

No matter how far Lacan's surrealism disrupts the Renaissance model of perspectival realism, his concept of the gaze is still tightly circumscribed by it, even as it negates it. In contrast, several twentieth-century artists embraced a very different non-perspectival, non-realist aesthetic in the art of Islam. Especially Henri Matisse, who appropriates the nomad geometries of Islamic decorative arts to be profound effect. Perspective captures its objects in its grids and metrics, but the perceiving subject too is captured and pinned to a single point of view in a circumscribed space. As Lacan says, "I see from one point, but in my existence I am looked at from all sides," a sentence that concisely captures the paranoid aesthetic of the gaze. For Matisse, the example of Islam offers an alternative paradigm, opening the way to a multidimensional, multi-spatial concept of the perceiving subject.


Jessika Thomas, West Virginia University, Morgantown, USA
"Freeing Language and Sexuality in Herland"

This essay utilizes the theories of Luce Irigaray, Helene Cixous, and Nancy Chodorow to explore the relationship between war, language, sexuality, and equality in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's novel, Herland. While violence permits the creation of an utopian female society in Herland, generating the possibility of radical cultural changes in a fictional context, the literary representation of this feminotopia subversively suggests the real possibility of changed social and sexual experiences for women. The novel's plot describes the decimation of masculine culture and verbal traditions necessary for women to create a non-patriarchal utopian society, while the text itself demonstrates the appearance and power of feminine writing. Ultimately, this feminists utopia declares the necessity of removing the cultural, economic, sexual, and linguistic structures of the symbolic order in order to fashion a truly bisexual utopia.


Yves Thoret, University of Paris X, Poissy, FRANCE
"Princess Constance in Shakespeare's King John: From Distress to Despair"

In King John, W. Shakespeare describes a character quite typical of French capacity of resistance, Princess Constance. When her son, Count Arthur, heir of the English Crown, is first betrayed by his uncle John and then by his former protector, the French King Philippe, Princess Constance experiments two different levels of depression and psychic suffering. The first one is distress, when she copes with adversity. The second one, despair, is deeper than hopelessness this character, one of the most impressive Shakespeare's "wailing women" (M. Van Doren, 1939) may be analysed as the most severe step of melancholy, described in the 19th century by Jules Cotard.


Fabio Troncarelli, University of Viterbo, Rome, ITALY
"'The end of it all': The End of Lampedusa's Guépard and the End of Innocence"

The last chapter of The Guépard by Tomasi di Lampedusa is called: "1910. The end of it all". The date is important in the novel, but was more important in Lampedusa's life. What really happened this year? My paper will try to give an answer to this question. Psychoanalysis and historical documents both show that this date was actually "the end of it all" for Lampedusa himself.


Annelies van Hees, Amsterdam University, THE NETHERLANDS
"Trauma and its Discovery in W.G. Sebald's Novel Austerlitz"

Austerlitz is not a novel written by a traumatized author, but rather about a protagonist who has suffered severe trauma in childhood, but is unaware of it. The first part of the novel is a very accurate description of his sense of not belonging to a normal world, and of his very outspoken interests. The breaking point is exactly in the middle of the text, while the slow unravelling of the traumatic events takes up the second half of the book. The symmetry in the constructing of the traumatised protagonists and his discovery of the trauma is remarkable. A fine example of the Lacanian idea about the symptoms being not only the sign of the repression, but also the expression of the trauma itself.


Donald Vanouse, State University of New York, Oswego, USA
"In His Own Name: Kerouac's Satori in Paris"

Jack Kerouac's Satori in Paris is the narrative of his journey of ten days in search for the source of the name of his father in Brittany. In addition to gaining glimpses of both of his parents, he clarifies his relationship to Zen Buddhist and Roman Catholic mysticisms. As a result of this search for identity, he learns that his writing is a mirror where he can --without fear -- look at himself "sick or injured or drunk or insane" (10). The "kick in the eye" of his Satori is, in part, the disruption of vainglorious delusions and the acceptance of the ordinary. Such an acceptance also seems to be expressed in one of his haiku poems:

Old man of Aix
White hair, beret
Gone up the Cezanne street

In this narrative using his own name, Kerouac catches glimpses of his lost fathers.


David Willbern, State University of New York, Buffalo, USA
"Constructing Caesar"

"But men may construe things, after their fashion,
Clean from the purpose of the things themselves." (Julius Caesar, 1.3.33-35)

After sketching various styles of identification and projective construction in Julius Caesar, I will focus on Brutus's soliloquy about killing Caesar. This speech presents an allegory of mental process that is one of Shakespeare's first dramatizations of the problematic private process of moving from wish through rationality (or rationalization) to decision. The soliloquy recalibrates internal motive and external object, whereby the constant, idealized object (Caesar) is destabilized, while inconstant, subjective thoughts and emotions are confirmed. It sketches a rudimentary process of creating a new internal relationship with an object-as-reconstructed. In a model he developed further in Hamlet and Macbeth, Shakespeare dramatized psychic ambivalence, or a mind divided intellectually and emotionally against itself. Freud, who actually played Brutus in school, cited the character as a model instance of ambivalence in The Interpretation of Dreams.


Edmond Wright, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UNITED KINGDOM
"Borges' 'Funes the Memorious': Philosophical and Psychoanalytical Reflections"

The core feature of Borges' story is his central character Funes's ability to select endlessly and infinitely from his sensory fields. This brings to the fore in a startling way both our dependence on the sensory and the requirement that we endeavour to share our selections from it in order to establish our social agreements (the 'Symbolic', to use Lacan's term), which include the defining of our own identity. Funes suffers a unique neurosis from his inability so to share, his case thereby revealing the essentially intersubjective nature of the subjective.


Anne Wyatt-Brown, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
"Religion, Age, and Identity after the Holocaust"

The horrors of the Holocaust shook the faith of many devout Jews, especially adolescents. Like other young sufferers, Elie Wiesel felt estranged from his religious roots (Night, 1986). He modified his reaction in a memoir written in his sixties (1995). For a time in the immediate postwar years Isaac Goodfriend (2001) lived in a secular existence. Yet later on in America he became a cantor in conservative synagogues. Immediately after the war, Ben Wajikra (Lou Leviticus) clung to his Christian foster parents who had saved his life, for a time rejecting the Zionism offered in an orphanage.


Bertram Wyatt-Brown, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
"Anatomy of Paternal Hatred: John Wilkes Booth, Shakespeare's Brutus, and Lincoln's Murder"

In 1865 the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the work of an actor with an almost religious sense of mission and hatred of the Yankee enemy, involved deep psychological factors. Inspired by Shakespeare's honor play, Julius Caesar, John Wilkes Booth and members of his theatrical family had all taken principal roles in it over the preceding years. Although oedipal theories have fallen into psychological disfavor, a case can be made that among other motives, Booth translated resentment of his histrionic, inebriate, and domineering father into the elimination of "Father Abraham" as the American equivalent of the Roman despot. Booth's tyrannicide, as he defined the deed, arose, too, from the conviction that such a cataclysmic event built the pathway to his own eternal fame, vindicated Southerners' sense of honor, and avenged the impending death of the Confederacy.


Sherry Lutz Zivley, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
"Reading the Reader Reading In La Lectrice"

In La Lectrice, we (the reader of the novel or viewer of the film) experience the experiences of a young woman who becomes a professional who reads aloud to others. She reads to them, inspires and comforts them, but then also participates in either their fantasies or the way they change the way they act as a result of what she has read to them. As we read along with her we experience her experience of reading. Both novel and film demonstrate the profound extent to which we are changed by what we read and become what we read.